Attention and distraction

  1. Distraction versus task-set change: investigating the functional role of P3a elicited in oddball paradigms
    Márta Volosin, Sabine Grimm, & János Horváth
  2. Dissociating the impact of unexpected salient sounds: increase in arousal versus attentional capture
    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet
  3. Voluntary action modulates the processing of unattended rule-violating events indexed by visual mismatch negativity
    Motohiro Kimura & Yuji Takeda
  4. P3a evidence of consciousness following acoustic change during REM sleep
    Paniz Tavakoli & Kenneth Campbell
  5. What did you say? I wasn’t paying attention: the impact of task-irrelevant sound processing on performance
    Renee Symonds & Elyse Sussman
  6. Spontaneous attentional lapses are related to a rejection positivity-like ERP shift
    Boris Chernyshev, Dmitri Bryzgalov, Ivan Lazarev, & Nikita Novikov
  7. Using adaptation to investigate the neural mechanisms of attention in the human auditory cortex
    Jessica de Boer, Sarah Gibbs, & Katrin Krumbholz
  8. Auditory selective attention in the auditory brainstem response, negative difference, processing negativity, and positive difference waves
    Kazunari Ikeda
  9. Auditory distractors modulate oscillatory power prior to visual targets – the neural basis for impaired target detection?
    Philipp Ruhnau, Thomas Hartmann, Erich Schröger, Nathan Weisz, & Annekathrin Weise
  10. Errors in auditory condensation task are preceded by lower pre-stimulus alpha-band oscillations
    Dmitri Bryzgalov, Ivan Lazarev, Nikita Novikov, & Boris Chernyshev
  11. Visual mismatch negativity, working memory load and processing mode
    Kertu Saar, Nele Põldver, Mai Toom, Annika Kask, Madli Uutma, Jüri Allik, Risto Näätänen, & Kairi Kreegipuu
  12. Effects of deviant predictability on MMN-like MEG responses in oddball paradigms
    Zeynep Oeztan, Artur Matysiak, Peter Heil, & Reinhard König

Clinical applications (incl. consciousness)

  1. Improving the detection of voluntary processes in behaviorally unresponsive patients at bedside using an oddball paradigm
    Dominique Morlet, Perrine Ruby, Nathalie André-Obadia, & Catherine Fischer
  2. The effect of cognitive training on the mismatch negativity in schizophrenia
    Bernhard W. Müller, Christian Kärgel, Daniela Kariofillis, Jens Wiltfang, & Gudrun Sartory
  3. Mismatch negativity indexes central auditory system dysfunction and early adaptive plasticity in schizophrenia
    Melissa Tarasenko, Alexandra Shiluk, Sean T. Pianka, Sonia Rackelman, Michael L. Thomas, Andrew W. Bismark, David L. Braff, Neal R. Swerdlow, & Gregory A. Light
  4. Complex pattern MMN to extra identical tones in schizophrenia
    Dean F. Salisbury, Timothy K. Murphy, Kayla L. Ward, Brian A. Coffman, & Sarah M. Haigh
  5. Complex pattern-deviant detection in schizophrenia
    Sarah M. Haigh, Brian A. Coffman, Timothy K. Murphy, Christiana Butera, & Dean F. Salisbury
  6. Regularity encoding in autism spectrum disorders: brainstem responses to repeated amplitude-modulated sounds
    Miriam Cornella, Sumie Leung, Amaia Hervàs, Jordi Costa-Faidella, Isabel Rueda, & Carles Escera
  7. Attentive vulnerability to levodopa therapy in ataxia-telangiectasia patients: a MMN study
    Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Daniela D'Agnano, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Nicoletta Locuratolo, Maria Caterina De Lucia, & Francesco Fattapposta
  8. Intact pre-attentive processing of sound intensity in depression as revealed by mismatch negativity
    Elisa Ruohonen, Jari Kurkela, & Piia Astikainen
  9. Relationship between MMN and monoamine metabolite levels in schizophrenia: preliminary results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies
    Tetsuya Shiga, Sho Horikoshi, Itaru Miura, Keiko Kanno-Nozaki, Kazuko Kanno, Yusuke Osakabe, Michinari Nozaki, Satoko Asano, Masayuki Hikita, Norikatsu Itou, Shuntaro Itagaki, Takashi Matsuoka, & Hirooki Yabe
  10. Mismatch-negativity response in individuals with central auditory implants
    Pascale Sandmann, Irina Schierholz, Christoph Kantzke, Alexandra Bendixen, Mareike Finke, Sabine Haumann, Thomas Lenarz, Reinhard Dengler, & Andreas Büchner
  11. Effect of methylphenidate in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as reflected by MMN
    Shuntaro Itagaki, Takashi Matsuoka, Tetsuya Shiga, Kazuko Kanno, Michinari Nozaki, Satoko Asano, Yusuke Osakabe, Norikatsu Itou, Masayuki Hikita, Shin-ichi Niwa, & Hirooki Yabe
  12. Frontal dysfunction in patients with major depression revealed by an auditory mismatch paradigm: an fMRI investigation
    Jana Zweerings, Klaus Mathiak, Arnim Johannes Gaebler, & Mikhail Zvyagintsev
  13. Residual cognitive functions in PVS patients by means of MMN paradigm using emotional content. Neural generators of remaining brain activity
    Ana Olivares, Jorge Iglesias Fuster, Doris Hernández Barrios, Elena Cuspineda Bravo, Cecilia Pérez Gesen, Javier Sánchez López, Daymara del Río Bazan, & Calixto Machado Curbelo
  14. Music perception in adult cochlear implant users
    Alexander Mainka, Annegret Leuner, Dirk Mürbe, & Anja Hahne
  15. Event-related potentials demonstrate deficits in auditory Gestalt formation and MMN in schizophrenia
    Brian A. Coffman, Sarah M. Haigh, Timothy K. Murphy, Kayla L. Ward, & Dean F. Salisbury

Computational models

  1. Hierarchical frontotemporal networks in MMN: dynamic causal modelling of MEG supported by human intracranial EEG
    Holly Phillips, Alejandro Blenkmann, Laura Hughes, Tristan Bekinschtein, & James Rowe
  2. A computational single-trial analysis of MMN under ketamine
    Lilian Aline Weber, Andreea Oliviana Diaconescu, Christoph Mathys, André Schmidt, Michael Kometer, Franz Vollenweider, & Klaas Enno Stephan
  3. Filtering event-related potentials in time, frequency and space domains sequentially and simultaneously
    Fengyu Cong, Tapani Ristaniemi, & Heikki Lyytinen
  4. Effects of NMDAR antagonism on mismatch negativity and repetition suppression
    Richard Rosch, Karl Friston, & Torsten Baldeweg

Development (infancy, childhood, adolescence, and aging)

  1. Pre-attentive neural processes of unattended facial emotions in adolescents
    Tongran Liu
  2. Mismatch response (MMR) in neonates: beyond refractoriness
    Gábor Háden, Renáta Németh, Miklós Török, & István Winkler
  3. Psychophysiological correlates of developmental changes in healthy and autistic boys
    Benjamin Weismüller, Renate Thienel, Anne-Marie Youlden, Ross Fulham, Michael Koch, & Ulrich Schall
  4. Prediction errors in word recognition and learning in young children
    Sari Ylinen, Alexis Bosseler, Katja Junttila, & Minna Huotilainen
  5. Rapid auditory processing in Italian infants at risk for language and learning impairment
    Chiara Cantiani, Valentina Riva, Caterina Piazza, Roberta Bettoni, Massimo Molteni, Naseem Choudhury, Cecilia Marino, & April Ann Benasich
  6. Detection of violation in two streams: a feasibility study in 6-9 months old infants
    Elena Kushnerenko, Przemyslaw Tomalski, & Derek G Moore
  7. ICA derived cortical responses to auditory pitch and duration deviance in six-month-old infants
    Caterina Piazza, Chiara Cantiani, Zeynep Akalin-Acar, Makoto Miyakoshi, April Ann Benasich, Gianluigi Reni, Anna Maria Bianchi, & Scott Makeig
  8. Little grammar experts: 5-month-old infants’ mismatch responses reveal the ability to process a triple center-embedding
    Marina Winkler, Claudia Männel, Angela D. Friederici, & Jutta L. Mueller
  9. Large auditory evoked potentials to rare emotional stimuli in pre-term infants at term age
    Satu Pakarinen, Iina Ala-Kurikka, Anna Jääskeläinen, Kaija Mikkola, Vineta Fellman, & Minna Huotilainen
  10. Emotional prosodic deviance-detection in school-age children
    Judith Charpentier, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Mathieu Lemaire, Joëlle Malvy, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Agathe Saby, & Marie Gomot
  11. Perception of musical features in hearing impaired children after cochlear implantation
    Niki Vavatzanidis, Alexander Mainka, Dirk Mürbe, & Anja Hahne
  12. Impaired auditory processing with aging
    Elizabeth Dinces & Elyse Sussman
  13. Auditory event-related potentials indexing memory and change-detection in newborn infants who were exposed to antiepileptic medication during the fetal period
    Minna Huotilainen, Mari Katri Videman, Satu Pakarinen, Iina Ala-Kurikka, Taina Nybo, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Reina Roivainen, & Eija Gaily
  14. Age differences in the processing of sound's novelty and information as reflected by ERPs, pupil size, and performance
    Nicole Wetzel, Erich Schröger, & Andreas Widmann
  15. Specific characteristics of mismatch negativity in pre-term and full term infants
    Marina Vasileva

Diagnostics and inter-individual differences

  1. Resting-state glutamatergic neurotransmission is related to the peak latency of auditory MMN for duration deviants
    Kristiina Kompus, Kairi Kreegipuu, Nele Põldver, René Westerhausen, Kenneth Hugdahl, & Risto Näätänen
  2. Impaired auditory discrimination of sound quality in noise sensitive individuals
    Elvira Brattico, Marina Kliuchko, Mari Tervaniemi, & Marja Heinonen-Guzejev
  3. Automatic processing of schematic faces depending on their gaze direction and eyebrow angle: relations with depression and anxiety
    Annika Kask, Nele Põldver, Kertu Saar, Liina Juuse, Jüri Allik, Risto Näätänen, & Kairi Kreegipuu
  4. Objective and rapid quantification of high-level visual impairment with fast periodic oddball stimulation in acquired prosopagnosia
    Joan Liu-Shuang, Katrien Torfs, & Bruno Rossion

Error signals

  1. Prediction errors – Mismatch negativity (MMN) reveals how higher-level models govern error detection at lower levels
    Daniel Mullens, István Winkler, Karlye Damaso, Andrew Heathcote, Lisa Whitson, Alexander Provost, & Juanita Todd
  2. Prediction errors of visual content across eye movements and their modulation by inferred information in the blind spot
    Benedikt Ehinger, Peter König, & José Ossandón
  3. Can order change modulation of response to standard and deviant tones?
    Daniel Mullens, István Winkler, Andrew Heathcote, Lisa Whitson, Alexander Provost, & Juanita Todd
  4. Neurofeedback as a training tool for pitch discrimination
    Annika Luckmann, Jacob Jolij, & Deniz Baskent
  5. Does primacy bias in mismatch negativity (MMN) diminish with repeated exposure to sound sequences?
    Jade Frost, Alexander Provost, István Winkler, & Juanita Todd
  6. Does sequence foreknowledge or concurrent task affect primacy bias in mismatch negativity (MMN)?
    Jade Frost, Kelly McDonnell, Alexander Provost, & Juanita Todd
  7. High gamma frontal cortex activity dissociates predicted vs. unpredicted deviation: an intracranial EEG study
    Stefan Dürschmid, Leon Deouell, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinz, & Robert T Knight
  8. Implicit learning of predictable sound sequence modulates mismatch responses at different levels of the auditory hierarchy
    Françoise Lecaignard, Olivier Bertrand, Jérémie Mattout, & Anne Caclin
  9. The role of stimulus complexity in various latency ranges of vMMN
    Domonkos File, Flóra Bodnár, Krisztina Kecskés-Kovács, István Sulykos, & István Czigler
  10. Pre-stimulus ERP-correlates of predictive auditory processing
    Martin Reiche, Andreas Widmann, & Alexandra Bendixen
  11. Predicting complex acoustic contingencies in the human auditory brainstem
    Johanna Schaefer, Katarzyna Zarnowiec, Iria SanMiguel, Manuel S. Malmierca, & Carles Escera
  12. Stronger autonomic stress responses are associated with better post-error adjustment in special police cadets
    Zhuxi Yao, Yi Yuan, Tony Buchanan, Kan Zhang, Jianhui Wu, & Liang Zhang

Memory and perception

  1. The vMMN is sensitive to within category and between category effect when using a morphing method
    Krisztina Kecskés-Kovács, Flóra Bodnár, Domonkos File, István Sulykos, & István Czigler
  2. Discrimination of auditory motion velocities: difference thresholds and mismatch negativity
    Ekaterina Petropavlovskaia, Lidia Shestopalova, Svetlana Vaitulevich, & Nikolay Nikitin
  3. MEG/EEG evidence for prediction in the primary auditory cortex
    Burkhard Maess, Erich Schröger, & Alessandro Tavano
  4. The interplay of the magno- and parvocellular visual pathways in visual MMN
    Szonya Durant, István Sulykos, & István Czigler
  5. Shifting pitch: time course of extracting regularities from unfamiliar complex sound patterns
    Maria Bader, Erich Schröger, & Sabine Grimm
  6. The effects of frequency difference and ear-of-entry on auditory stream segregation and integration
    Katja Junttila, Rika Takegata, Sari Ylinen, & Risto Näätänen
  7. Sensitivity to the statistics of rapid, stochastic tone sequences
    Sijia Zhao, Marcus Pearce, Frederic Dick, & Maria Chait
  8. The role of adaptation in the mechanisms underlying visual mismatch negativity
    Flóra Bodnár, Domonkos File, István Sulykos, Krisztina Kecskés-Kovács, & István Czigler
  9. Prediction error is reduced for angry vocalizations: insights from ERP and neural oscillations
    Ana Pinheiro, João Pedrosa, Margarida Vasconcelos, Carla Barros, & Sonja Kotz
  10. Emotional face discrimination as revealed by electrophysiological periodic visual responses: an alternative to the vMMN approach
    Milena Dzhelyova & Bruno Rossion
  11. Fast periodic oddball stimulation in electroencephalography: an objective and sensitive alternative approach to the (v)MMN
    Bruno Rossion & Joan Liu-Shuang

MMN across modalities

  1. Is the level of passive attention entrained by the rhythm of stimulation?
    Pekcan Ungan & Hakan Karsilar
  2. Laminar processing of sensory deviations in the somatosensory cortex
    Simon Musall, Melek Durmaz, Florent Haiss, Bruno Weber, & Wolfger von der Behrens
  3. Auditory and somatosensory mismatch responses in aging and their associations with neuropsychological and physical test scores
    Juho Strömmer, Piia Astikainen, Ina Tarkka, Tomi Waselius, Ville Kirjavainen, Saara Järveläinen, & Sanni Koivula
  4. Emotional mismatch negativity elicited by Japanese kanji with different connotations
    Tomomi Fujimura & Kazuo Okanoya
  5. The study of tone-frequency effect on EEG-MMN to duration change
    Yusuke Osakabe, Moeko Tanaka, Yuko Matsuki, Michinari Nozaki, Satoko Asano, Kazuko Kanno, Masayuki Hikita, Tetsuya Shiga, Norikatsu Itou, Shuntaro Itagaki, Takashi Matsuoka, & Hirooki Yabe
  6. Mismatch negativity for unattended changes in room acoustics is followed by additional negative deflections
    Johannes Frey, Mike Wendt, & Thomas Jacobsen
  7. „What is it?” and „Where is it going?” Two questions in the language of the brain: the additivity issue of the visual mismatch negativity
    István Sulykos, Krisztina Kecskés-Kovács, & István Czigler
  8. The ventriloquist effect evokes changes in the early spatial processing of auditory stimuli as measured by the mismatch negativity
    Daryl Kelvasa, Jens Ahrens, & Jan-Niklas Antons
  9. Prediction of vision from invisible stimuli
    Urte Roeber, Bradley N. Jack, Andreas Widmann, Erich Schröger, & Robert P. O'Shea
  10. Facial expression related vMMN: disentangling the detection of neutral and emotional changes
    K. Kovarski, M. Latinus, H. Cléry, S. Roux, M. Lemaire, E. Houy-Durand, A. Saby, F. Bonnet-Brilhault, M. Batty, & M. Gomot

MMN across species

  1. Electrophysiological mismatch response recorded in awake pigeons from the avian functional equivalent of the primary auditory cortex
    Ulrich Schall, Bernhard Müller, Christian Kärgel, & Onur Güntürkün
  2. Passive exposure to speech sound features enhances cortical plasticity revealed by mismatch response in rats
    Jari Kurkela, Arto Lipponen, Miriam Nokia, Markku Penttonen, & Piia Astikainen
  3. Learning-induced plasticity of mismatch negativity in rats
    Hirokazu Takahashi & Tomoyo Shiramatsu
  4. MMN-like and early deviance detection in two animal models of schizophrenia – maternal immune activation and NMDAR antagonism
    Patricia Michie, Lauren Harms, William Fulham, Markku Penttonen, Juanita Todd, Ulrich Schall, & Deborah Hodgson
  5. Genuine deviance detection occurs in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the anaesthetized rat
    Javier Nieto, Guillermo V. Carbajal, & Manuel S. Malmierca


  1. Pre-attentive discrimination of instrumental timbre in non-musicians as mirrored by the mismatch negativity
    Stefan Berti, Corinna Christmann, & Thomas Lachmann
  2. Mismatch negativity (MMN) objectively reflects timbre discrimination thresholds in normal-hearing listeners and cochlear implant users
    Luise Wagner & Torsten Rahne
  3. Effects of active vs. passive exposure to a musical style: a MMN study with the musical multifeature paradigm
    Marina Kliuchko, Peter Vuust, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi, Brigitte Bogert, & Elvira Brattico

Neuronal models

  1. Stimulus-specific adaptation in the late auditory-evoked cortical potentials exhibits long memory and sensitivity to sequential stimulus relationships
    Paul M. Briley, Diana Omigie, & Katrin Krumbholz
  2. Neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rat respond to the unexpected omission of repeated stimuli
    Manuel S. Malmierca, Blanca E. Niño-Aguillón, Javier Nieto, & Jonathan Fritz
  3. Topographic distribution of stimulus-specific adaptation in the rat auditory cortex
    Javier Nieto & Manuel S. Malmierca
  4. High-resolution reconstruction of auditory mismatch generators using fused EEG/MEG and group inversion
    Françoise Lecaignard, Olivier Bertrand, Sébastien Daligault, Anne Caclin, & Jérémie Mattout


  1. The relation between psychophysiological and behavioural measures of expectancy and prediction in a roving mismatch negativity paradigm
    Stephen Provost & Lachlan Foster
  2. Temporal regularity is encoded in the human auditory brainstem
    Katarzyna Zarnowiec, Jordi Costa-Faidella, & Carles Escera
  3. Higher-order auditory change detectors – support from behavioral and electrophysiological data
    Annekathrin Weise, Erich Schröger, & János Horváth
  4. Regularity encoding in the human auditory brainstem is enhanced by timing predictability of the upcoming sounds
    Natàlia Gorina Careta, Katarzyna Zarnowiec, Jordi Costa-Faidella, & Carles Escera
  5. Emotions attenuate the MMN elicited by changes in information rate
    Annett Schirmer, Nicolas Escoffier, Xiaoqin Cheng, & Trevor Penney
  6. MMN distributed sources – evidence from human intracranial recordings
    Alejandro Blenkmann, Holly Phillips, Srivas Chennu, James Rowe, Carlos Muravchik, Silvia Kochen, & Tristan Bekinschtein

Speech and language (incl. deficits)

  1. Repair or violation detection? Pre-attentive processing strategies of phonotactic illegality demonstrated on the constraint of g-deletion in German
    Johanna Steinberg, Thomas Konstantin Jacobsen, & Thomas Jacobsen
  2. Temporo-spatial decomposition of MMN reveals underspecified phoneme representations
    Arild Hestvik & Karthik Durvasula
  3. MMN distinguishes rule-based and arbitrary processes in language
    Jeff Hanna & Friedemann Pulvermüller
  4. Differences in sensory processing of German vowels and physically matched non-speech sounds as revealed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the human event-related brain potential (ERP)
    Corinna Christmann, Stefan Berti, Claudia Steinbrink, & Thomas Lachmann
  5. Lexical MMN effects are too late: automatic lexical ERP enhancement in the oddball paradigm is already present in P1
    Yury Shtyrov & Maria Lenzen
  6. Language-attention interactions in neural processing of spoken words
    Jana Krutwig & Yury Shtyrov
  7. Early and interactive stored-form (symbol) access and combinatorial (rule) processing in constructing constructions: a MMN study
    Guglielmo Lucchese, Jeff Hanna, Anne Autenrieb, Natalie Miller, & Friedemann Pulvermüller
  8. Automatic processing of morphosyntax by second language learners
    Alina Leminen, Laura Hedlund, Suzanne Hut, Lilli Kimppa, Miika Leminen, & Yury Shtyrov
  9. Rapid and automatic formation of novel memory traces for visually presented unattended words: MEG evidence
    Eino Partanen, Alina Leminen, & Yury Shtyrov
  10. Temporal integration of speech sound probed with mismatch negativity
    Satoko Asano, Tetsuya Shiga, Yusuke Osakabe, Norikatsu Itou, Michinari Nozaki, Kazuko Kanno, Masayuki Hikita, Shuntaro Itagaki, Takashi Matsuoka, & Hirooki Yabe
  11. Dynamics of memory-trace formation for morphologically complex words in adults and children
    Miika Leminen, Alina Leminen, Juuso Ojaniemi, Marja Laasonen, Teija Kujala, & Yury Shtyrov
  12. Brain responses to foreign-language words are diminished in dyslexic children
    Sari Ylinen, Katja Junttila, Marja Laasonen, Paul Iverson, Heikki Lyytinen, & Teija Kujala
  13. Somatotopic semantic priming and prediction in the motor system
    Luigi Grisoni, Felix Dreyer, & Friedemann Pulvermüller
  14. The generation of speech-specific MMN: solutions from dynamic causal modelling
    Faith Chiu & Jyrki Tuomainen
  15. Processing of non-native prosodic information: a MMN study
    Ferenc Honbolygó, Andrea Kóbor, & Valéria Csépe
  16. Changes in MMR amplitude reflect fast phonetic learning in adult listeners
    Kateřina Chládková & Paola Escudero
  17. Your Chinese is different from mine? Conventionalization of constructions as indicated by mismatch negativity
    Yuchun Chang, Chia-Lin Lee, & Hans-Jörg Schmid
  18. New behavioral paradigm that generates event related potentials associated with language and action
    Johan Sebastian Orozco Henao, Lina Marcela Henao Grisales, Jonathan Gallego, & Yamile Bocanegra
  19. Adult listeners’ processing of indexical versus linguistic differences as reflected by the mismatch negativity
    Kateřina Chládková, Rozmin Dadwani, Varghese Peter, & Paola Escudero
  20. Stability of the MMN, P3a and LDN responses to auditory frequency change between two repeated measurements in typically developing 5- to 6-year-old children
    Leena Ervast, Jarmo Hämäläinen, Kaisu Heinänen, Kaisa Lohvansuu, Swantje Zachau, Mari Veijola, Matti Lehtihalmes, & Paavo Leppänen
  21. On the role of different acoustic-phonetic cues in encoding voicing in Russian and German: a cross-linguistic MMN study with native and non-native stop consonants
    Mariya Kharaman, Natalia Bekemeier, & Carsten Eulitz
  22. Audiovisual speech perception of homophones using mismatch negativity
    Arunraj Karuppannan, Vijaya Kumar Narne, M. K. Ganapathy, & Shivaprasad Beelgi
  23. Finding the origin of directionality effects in MMNs to phonetic contrasts
    Mirjam J.I. de Jonge
  24. Perceptual asymmetry effects on the MMR to Danish speech sounds
    Andreas Højlund Nielsen, Line Gebauer, William B. McGregor, & Mikkel Wallentin
  25. The influence of acoustic phonetics on the processing of complex consonant onsets
    Eve Higby, Monica Wagner, Anne Gwinner, Tanja Rinker, & Valerie Shafer
  26. Omission responses in speech are differentially modulated by speaking rate and attention
    Mathias Scharinger & Alessandro Tavano