S I N C L A I R ' S P R A C T I C K S
collected 1540-1549 by John Sinclair - in later years Lord President of the College of Justice (= Court of Session)1

1About this text and its author see Athol L. MURRAY, Sinclair's Practicks, p. 90-104 in: HARDING, A. (ed.), Law-making and law-makers in British history, 1980; SMITH, David B., The dean of Restalrig's book, in: Journal of the Law Society of Scotland (1994) 409-410.

Notes for readers:

This is but a provisional test-version of Sinclair's text. It should thus not be expected to be free from errors! A definite edition of the text is forthcoming, to be published by Dr. Athol L. Murray, under the aegis of the Stair Society.

The original manuscript of this text is lost. All extant manuscripts of it are late copies, written by persons who did not understand the text sufficiently and who often misinterpreted the (obviously many) Latin and Scots abbreviations in the text. In particular, they often converted abbreviations of old Scots words into modern English: thus "haiff" wrongly became "have", "nocht" became "not", "mycht" became "might", "samyn" became "same", and so on. Punctuation was inconsistent and garbled. It appears furthermore that interlinear and marginal corrections were drawn to wrong places in the text. The same happened to headings of chapters. The original had obviously shown them in the margins. All this makes it difficult to recover the points of law which Sinclair intended to make.

The present text is primarily based on a transcription by Dr Athol L. Murray (Edinburgh) from the manuscript at Edinburgh University Library, Laing MS. III 488a. Dr Murray envisages a philologically and historically satisfactory edition of the text. He has thus started collating other manuscripts and bringing dates and names in the text in line with corresponding archival material.

More years may pass before the definite edition of Sinclair's Practicks will be published. Lawyers in Scotland and abroad, however, need access to this important text. This is why the undersigned (being for the time a member of Aberdeen's Law Faculty) undertook to rework Dr. Murray's transcription into a readable provisional text for the mean time. Although details of its wording, here and there, are still open for discussion, all its points of law now make sense and appear to be reliable. Punctuation (which also makes use of round brackets) was revised, additional words were supplied <in pointed brackets>, and sources from "Ius Commune" (Roman and canon law) were identified. In order to test retrieval techniques, the thus adapted text was then provisionally connected to the internet for a test run - under the address www.uni-leipzig.de/~jurarom/scotland.

For the convenience of readers, the undersigned has interspersed Sinclair's text with eighty-seven overlapping practicks from another contemporary collection, also transcribed by Dr. Murray. This collection (anonymous) is preserved as an appendix to Sinclair's text in the above-mentioned manuscript Laing MS. III 488a. It is also contained, with less mistakes, in the manuscript Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Advocates Library 24.4.11, and perhaps as well in manuscript 23.3.6. As Dr. Murray had numbered Sinclair's Practicks from 1 to 509, he thus continued numbering the anonymous collection from 510 to 596. The practicks in the additional collection are copied in reverse order, however: Number 596 is thus the oldest in date, and 510 is the youngest.

All extant copies of Sinclair's text disrupt the chronological order of reported cases in many instances, and they also differ in their selection of cases. This makes one think that the original text (and probably the rough notes which preceded it) may have been written on unbound quires, or even on loose single sheets which could easily get out of order.

In Sinclair's time, the year date switched on March 25, and not on the first day of January2. Sinclair's year dates in the first three months of each year are thus misleading: namely his 1541 must be read as 1542, and so on.
2See practick nr. 484.

The undersigned has added <in pointed brackets> dates for practicks without date or with incomplete date. In the first fifty practicks, datations were supplied by Dr. Athol Murray from his research in archival materials. For the remainder, datations were guessed on the basis of dated practicks which precede or follow.

Sinclair's text is similar in character to respective contemporary counterparts in continental Europe. It shows the Court of Session as a fully-fledged Ius-Commune-Court. Texts from Corpus Iuris Canonici and Corpus Iuris Civilis were applied as if they had been legislated for Scotland, and the respective medieval standard commentaries were read along with them.

In particular, the collector quotes the Corpus Iuris Canonici (Decretum Gratiani, X, 6., Clem.) and canonist writings by Abbas (Bernardus de Montemirato), Benedictus Capra de Benedictis, Bernardus Parmensis, Cardinalis (Gencelinus de Cassanhis), Dominicus <de Sancto Geminiano?>, Felinus Sandeus, Franciscus Zabarella, Innocentius IV papa (= Sinibaldus Fliscus), Iohannes Andreae, Iohannes ab Imola, Iohannes Monachus, Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis), Petrus ab Ancharano.

The collector also quotes - to a lesser extent - the Corpus Iuris Civilis (D., C., Nov., Inst., Libri Feudorum) and civilian writings by Accursius, Alexander Tartagnus, Angelus de Gambilionibus, Baldus de Ubaldis, Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Dinus de Mugello, Jason de Mayno, Paulus de Castro, Philippus Decius, Ulricus Zasius.

Two 14th century law reports are quoted: from the papal Rota Romana (collected by Guilielmus Horborch) and from the Capella Tolosana (court of the archbishop of Toulouse), collected by Johannes Corserius.

Furthermore, the collector quotes the Speculum iudiciale by Guilielmus Durantis, the Practica by Iohannes Petrus de Ferrariis and the Commentary to the customs of Burgundy by Bartholomaeus Chassanaeus ... - and of course the Scottish treatise "Regiam maiestatem", although not frequently.

Aberdeen and Leipzig, springtime 1996 Gero R Dolezalek

S I N C L A I R ' S P R A C T I C K S

<Heading:>3Maister Henry Sinclair, dene of Glasquow for the tyme, beand admictit upone the sait the 23 of Apryle 1540 at our soverane lordis commandement, wreit certane thingis observit in practicque be the lordis of Counsall, suppois the commoun law quhyllis be in the contrair, quhilkis be veray helpfull to intrantis and young scolaris that lykis to luik thairon.
3It is obvious that this heading is not authentic. The text is from John Sinclair - and not from Henry Sinclair, at times dean of Glasgow, his older brother. John Sinclair, not Henry, was admitted to the College of Justice on the said date. Henry Sinclair was admitted earlier.


1. Off probatioun of instrumentis be witnessis insert thairin
<27 apr. 1540?> Ane instrument publicque prowin be tua of the witnessis insert thairin makis fayth, suppois xx utheris als inwrettin and instrumentis say aganis it4. De qua re vide Panor. et alios in cap. Cum Joannes, Extra, de fide instru.5. Sed de practica est regni Scotie quod predicitur.
4Similar problem in nrs. 66 and 174.
5Commentaries by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) and other authors, on X 2.22.10 [to the point].

2. How instrumentis sould be improwin
<1540? [cf. Balfour 383 c.8, 27 April 1540] > Ane instrument publict may nocht be improwin bot by witnessis inwrittin in it, and nocht be utheris nocht contenit thairin, of the practik of Scotland.

3. Off exceptionis aganis witnessis
<27 apr. 1540 [cf. Balfour 373 c. 6] > Aganis witnessis anis admittit and sworne in presens of partie or absence contumaciter, na exceptionis ar admittit. De quo ius commune, vide Panor. in cap. 2o de testi.6. Et quidem si pars iustam absentie causam habuit in termino ad audiendum testes recipi, jurari et admitti assignato, maior pars dominorum in causa Lyndsay rei et <Fentoun> actoris 27 aprilis anno 1540 tenebant practicam precedentem. Sed causa dubii huius tunc indecisa remansit.
6Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.20.2 [to the point].

4. Reexamining of witnessis
<1540?> The lordis of thair office usis to reexamining witnessis, thay nocht being than new sworne.

5. Off calling of varrandice
<1540? [cf. CS 6/12 fol. 131; cf. Balfour 324 c.26, 27 April 1540 = Alexander Auchinlek (to the hands of Thomas Erskine of Brechin, the King's secretary) v. Dame Marion Hume] >: The lordis in civill actionis gevis day reo to call his warrand, and aganis him contumaciter absente decernis him to warrand reum de titulo quem pretendit ab illo, and sua proceidis nevirtheles contra reum.

6. Comprysit landis
<3 apr. 1540> < [cf. CS 6/12 fol. 144, 4 May 1540; cf. Balfour 452 c.29, 27 April 1540 = Helen Rutherford v. William Jackson] >: Landis being comprysit be ony man ar be act of parliament <1469 c. 12> redemeabill allanerlie within sevin yeiris thairefter, and the principall sowme, officiaris fie and expensis of passing the infeftment being payit or consignit realie. In falt or absence of pairtie that sould resave the samyn, the lordis delyveris letters to charge the pairtie to delyver all evidentis thairof to the man quhometo the landis first pertenit, to ourgif and renunce the samyn or to compeir ane certane day to alledge ane caus quhy etc. Suppois in redeaming of landis be reversioun the lordis usis that the partie be first callit to heir and sie the landis laufullie redemit, or than charge the pairtie to the samyn, as wes practicat the 3 of Apryll anno 1540, Marioribankis procurator rei et magister David Ireland actoris.

7. Libellando
<1540?> Ane man may persew his summondis or libell for quhat part alanerlie he plesis, and haiff the laiff of it for that tyme pro deleto.

8. Tynsall of superioritie
<19 apr. 1540 [cf. Balfour 165 c.15, 29 April 1540] > Ane man superiour to certane landis lyand out of thame at his laufull aige in defraude of thame that haldis of him, or refusand to enter tham, he beand enterit himself, tynnis for his lyfetyme the superioritie thairof, for the quhilk tyme the saidis landis sal be the tennentis and thair airis haldin of the king. Et nota quod nevertheles the said superiour levand may sell the said superioritie tint for his lyfetyme fra him and his airis, as counsallit the lordis of Counsall the xix day of Apryll in alienatione maid be ane Lyndsay to our soverane lordis comptrollar, David Wod. <Marginal note in NLS Advocates Library 24.1.11 refers to 1474 c. 13.>

9. Interrogatouris of witnessis
<1540?> The lordis of Counsall admittis interrogatouris of witnessis.

10. Uxor sine marito in judicio nequit stare
<1540?> Ane mareit woman may nocht stand in judgement active nor passive sine marito7, nec disponere de bonis immobilibus sine marito.
7Scots law contrasts with Ius Commune in this point.

11. Off alienatioun of the wyffis geir moveabill or unmoveabill be hir husband
<CONTINUED> Sed bene de eis locandis vel vendendis disponit vir etiam sine eius consensu. Contra autem viri contractum non auditur mulier eo vivente, sed mortuo sic, ad retractandum venditionem et alium quemcunque contractum sine suo consensu per eum factam, quia potestas, quam in bonis omnibus uxoris habet vir, est legittima tractatio dum vivit. Bona vero mulieris mobilia irrevocabiliter alienat vir, iuxta consuetudinem regni Scotiae. Notatur a <... quod> mulier coram dominis Consilii non admittitur in testem - quod causa est de iure, ut notat Decius in l. Femine, ff. de regulis juris8.
8Philippus Decius, Commentary on D. 50.17.2 [to the point].

12. Causa perdendi feodum
<13 maii 1540 [cf. CS 6/12 fol. 174v, 13 May 1540; cf. Balfour 171 c.7, 12 May 1540] > Feodum amittitur et forisfitur si non impleatur id propter quod datum fuit, ut habetur libro secundo Feodorum, titulo 24 "<res> que fuit", Jas. 55., <§> "Sed non est"9. Sic decreverunt domini Consilii, 13 Maii anno 1540 apud Edinburgh, in causa supremi domini nostri regis Jacobi quinti contra Thomam Wardropare et N. Vardropar et quendam Crychtoune <of Innerty> propter10 terras de Kinclevin, ut latius in libris Consilii licet videre, becaus the few wes gevin for policie and planting of treis and vod and thai had distroyit the vod of these landis.
9Libri Feudorum 2.24.6 (title "Quae fuit prima causa beneficii amittendi") [to the point]; perhaps with commentary by Jason de Mayno, at column 55 in the edition which the collector happened to use.
10MS: penes.

13. Modus respondendi brevibus ubi totum clameum non est sufficienter probatum. Et an de toto debeat petitor deserviri
<13 maii 1540 [CS 6/12 fol. 179v; cf. Balfour 423 c.19, 27 April 1540] > Brevia sunt generalia quandoque, sed tunc clameum dicitur esse speciale. Et tunc sufficit quod inquisitores seu assessores serviant petentem affirmative de iis de quibus sufficienter fuit probatum eis predecessorem eius, cuius heredem se clamat petens, vestitum et sasetum ut de feodo, ad pacem domini regis, discessisse ultimo. Nec est necesse quod negative responderent petenti de eis de quibus serviri debere se idonee non probavit petens. Ita judicaverunt domini Consilii die ac anno quibus supra, in causa domini <Thomas Duddington> de <Southous> conquerentis de certis assessoribus burgi Edinburgensis propter11 clameum suum de certis annuis redditibus infra burgum predictum, per ipsum clamatis hereditarie.
11MS: penes.

14. Confiscati locatio non arctat fiscum, nec causam ab eo habentem
<Maii 1540? [cf. CS 6/12 fol. 181, 12 May 1540, James Foulis of Colinton v. tenants formerly of John Broun; cf. also fol. 160v = Balfour 562 c.6, 31 May 1540] >: Confiscati locationi non tenetur fiscus stare, nec causam a fisco habens. Practicatum fuit in causa magistri Jacobi Fowles contra quosdam inquilinos Joannis N. ob heresim confiscati. Causa vero agitata fuit coram dominis Consilii apud Edinburgh circa finem Maii 1540. Et idem de iure communi, ut per Jason in l. Divortio, ff., § Ut verum12.
12Commentary by Iason de Mayno on D. ... (Quotation garbled. D. "si vir" comes close and covers the point of law).

15. Clausula generalis cum pertinentiis in brevi divisionis, quid significat etc.
<2 junii 1540 [cf. CS 6/12 fol. 190, 2 June 1540, Persons on inquest for division of lands v. Margaret Haliburton and George Keir, her spouse, for his interest; Balfour 440 c.94] >: Breve divisionis terrarum cum pertinentiis non admittat de consuetudine regni Scotiae clameum specificum, prout breve de hereditate. Et sub generali clausula "cum pertinentiis" continentur domus et edificia, muires, mosses, woddis, medowis, milnis, que omnia dividenda sunt, licet in brevi divisionis specificata non sunt. Practicatum 2o Junii anno 1540 apud Edinburgh, in causa magistri Georgii Kar et sue sponse, unius trium heredum de Dirltoun, petentis divisionem terrarum de Bowtoun, that obtenit the kingis letters to charge sub pena rebellionis the assyse to delyver affirmative or negative upone the clame in all poyntis. And the assys callit agane the letters to be suspendit becaus thai had answerit to the breif fullelie, and thay allegit the non-divisioun of the pertinentis foirsaidis nawayis specifeit in the retour. The lordis of the Counsall decernit the saidis charge and letters justlie gevin and that the assys had nocht answerit the breif in all poyntis be reasone foirsaid.

16. Possessio cum titulo prevalet donec titulus reducatur, cum de iniusta occupatione agitur, licet alter titulum antiquiorem habeat
<1 junii 1540 [cf. CS 6/12 fol. 188, 1 June 1540, Ewan Alenson (Cameron of Locheil) v. John Maclean of Coll, and Andrew Blakstok as a sheriff in that part] >: Titius contumax a vicecomite condempnatus fuit quod violenter et iniuste occupaverat terras de A hereditarie spectantes Caio. Literis levatis pro reductione curialis decreti vicecomitis, coram dominis Consilii libellatur quod non iniuste occupaverat dictas terras, quia hereditariam sasinam, statum et possessionem earundem tempore allegate iniuste occupationis habebat. Et produxit instrumentum desuper publicum quod coram vicecomite non erat ostensum, contra quod multa ex parte altera allegabantur, et sasina hereditaria antiquior. Decretum tamen fuit in causa cuiusdam N. Alesone prope Innerness commorantis per dominos Consilii, apud Edinburgh 1o junii anno 1540, Andrea Blakstok procuratore <alterius partis, et non> ipsius Alesone, et vicecomite qui decretum etiam illud tulerat <.?.>, dictum decretum ex causa predicta retractandum fore, prout realiter dicti domini retractaverunt illud, attenta etiam reali possessione et occupatione alterius partis. Dixerunt enim dictum Alisone opportere reducere cartam et sasinam illam, et interea eandem esse iustum titulum alteri parti13. Nota etiam quod si coram vicecomite obiectio fuisset contra titulum rei, si illum produxisset, vicecomes cognoscere de vigore tituli non potuisset. Is enim secundum consuetudinem Scotie de possessione tantum cognoscit. Et ad dominos Consilii pertinet cognitio dominii et proprietatis.
13In this regard the Court's practice differed from Roman law which allowed to argue nullity of any document under the aspect that it was "grossly" defective. Canon law and territorial law in all Ius-Commune-countries emended Roman law in this regard - yet they differed in the extent to wich they emended the Roman law.

16a. Bona condemnati de crimine lata sententia ilico in fiscum rediguntur
<1540?> Bona condemnati de crimine ad ultimum supplicium statim sunt confiscata, et ilico lata sententia condemnatus ea perdit, et civitatem et libertatem, licet adhuc interfectus non sit.

17. Possessor cum titulo etiam iniusto, nisi vocatus, citra spolium non removetur per verum dominum.
<22 nov. 1540? [cf. CS 16/14 fol. 6v, 22 November 1540, John Meldrum (alias Marchmount Herald) v. George Meldrum of Fyvie and Patrick Meldrum; cf. also fol. 11v = Balfour 460 c.21, 23 November 1540] >: Titius assedavit terras A.B.C. non suas. In quarum possessione pro terminis ad huc cursuris existentem Caium, ut moris est in regno Scotiae, ad removendum inde verus dominus earundem premonuit et eiecit. Queritur Caius se spoliatum ab eo possessione sua, et restitutionem petit. Excipit dominus de legitima et iuridica eiectione. Replicavit Caius quod titulum ab eo non pretendit et quod in possessione erat cum titulo, pro terminis cursuris, et ab eo eiectus. Dubitatur an esset admittenda exceptio domini. Et responsum fuit per dominos Consilii, die 22 (vel eocirca) novembris anno 1540, exceptionem domini non esse relevantem, ex eo quod <Caius> actor erat in possessione cum titulo, scilicet assedationis pro terminis cursuris, et sic inclusus intra terminos. Et dominus sic condemnatus fuit de spolio. Actor erat in causa Merchmount Herauld.

18. Off proponing of exceptionis peremptouris
<1540? [cf. CS 6/13 fol. 214v, 29 November 1540, Laird Alexander Forrester of Costorphine v. David Forrester of Gordon; cf. also CS 6/14 fol. 45 and 112v and CDS 6/14 f.; Balfour 345 c.13] >: Ane peremptour exceptioun being be ane interlocutour of the lordis repellit, that pairtie than may propone at anis all his peremptouris and is nocht admittit eftirvardis to ma14. And ilk man <sould> haiff redy in writt all his exceptionis quhen he cumis to the bar, or than propone thame verbo, for it is ordanit be the lordis in causa domini de Corstorphine contra Forstar, 29 die novembris anno 1540, that na dilatouris be gevin ad dandum exceptiones in scriptis, etiam si partes vel earundem procuratores vellent et consentirent, quamvis ante de eorum consensu hoc fieret.
14Because they must be raised before the "litis contestatio".

19. Exceptio contra spolium
<29 nov. 1540> Ane officiar be the kingis letters hes apprisit to me certane geir of Androis15. Titius persewis me for spuilyie of that geir, allegeand that it wes in his possessioun as his propir guidis, quhair it wes tane away. I exceptit that I did na spuilyie nor wrang becaus that gair wes laufulie apprysit to me, than haldin and repute Androis and in his possessioun de practica, becaus fayth is gevin to the officiar et presumptio est pro eo. Exceptio admittitur probationi, albeit it be direct contrair to the summondis quoad possessionem, et de consuetudine non admittunt domini Consilii ad probandum directe contra summonitionem actoris16. Sic fuit in causa cuiusdam Crawfurd rei practicatum, die 29 Novembris 1540.
15Abstract of a case, with fictitious persons, similar to the case Weddirburne v. Hay: see nrs. 373-375, 406-407a.
16Because normally, if a pursuer's account of facts is directly denied, the pursuer must prove what he alleges. It is thus not the task of the defender to prove that the pursuer's allegations are not true.

20. Appellatio quando impedit literas appretiationis super excommunicationem 40 dierum, iuxta actum parliamenti desuper confectum.
<Nov. 1540 [cf. CS 6/14 fol. 4, 20 November 1540, Katherine Lindsay v. John White and others] >: Appellatio a sententia seu precepto super propria confessione alicuius lata17, vel a literis excommunicationis desuper secutis, sub quibus quis 40 dies tacuit, non impedit literas regias desuper fulminari ad apprysandum eius bona iuxta actum parliamenti desuper confectum. Et idem dic de herede et executore illius, licet alias tales litere regie non dantur contra appellantes ab aliis sententiis, et date revocantur. Dic summarie coram dominis, quod quis legitime stat sub appellatione sua per instrumentum appellationis infra debitum tempus, viz. 10 dierum interiectum, intimationem et apostolorum debitam petitionem continens. De executione fuit practicatum in mense novembris anno 1540.
17Similar problem in nr. 437.

21. Off suspensioune of the kingis letters upone cursing18 becaus of absolutioun
<Nov. 1540 [cf. CS 6/12 fol. 153, November 1540, James Garioch of Kinstary ?] >: In causa quorundam pauperum Breichnensis diocesis, Willielmo Wichtman procuratore appelative, nota quod ostensaque dominis <Consilii> iudicis absolutione, apud quem sententia excommunicationis super acto etiam confessato lata erat, <domini> executionem literarum suarum suspendunt durante absolutione. Practicatum hoc fuit mense quo <supra> in causa Jacobi Garthaucht de Kinflanis appellati ad Sanctandream a commissario Brichinensi, magistro Georgio Strang pro eo procuratore.
18"Cursing" = excommunication, fulminated by a competent church superior.

22. Reductioun of retouris and decretis ob errorem in parte una earundem.
<21 jan. 1541 [cf. CS 6/14 fol. 92, 21 January 1541, King v. Lord Lyle; cf. Balfour 419 c. 5] >: Ane retour of the lord Lylis wes reducit totaliter at the kingis instance, the 21 day of Januar 1540 <= 1541> apud Edinburgh, becaus reus schew nocht instrumentum sasine predecessoris sui de annuali redditu 5 mercarum contenit in his retour, albeit of money uthir landis contenit thairin he schew seasing of his father. And that wes almoist be all the lordis allegit the practique, albeit decreitis may be of the practique reducit pro parte and stand in reliquo.

23. Off probatioun of retouris
<21 jan. 1541> Ane retour seillit with the inqueistis seillis or with the maist or famusest pairt thairof, albeit it be nocht found in chancellarie nor subscryvit with the clerkis hand thairof, hes faith and is authentik, maxime quhen the buik of respondie and rolles concordis with it. Practicatum fuit die mensis, anno, et causa predictis domini Lylis.

24. Probatioun of payment or transactioun or exoneratioun
<18 jan. 1541 [cf. CS 6/14 fol. 94, 18 January 1541; cf. Balfour 365 c.17, 21 January 1541] Hew Lord Somerville v. Margaret Lundie, relict, and James Hoppringle, son and executor of David Hoppringle of Smalham, etc.>: Transactioun and compositioun de practica may nocht be prewit bot be writ. Payment, exoneratioun, quytclame and discharge etiam per testes19. 18 Januarii (aut eocirca), anno et loco quibus supra, in causa spolii domini Somerwell, Marioribankis eius procurator, Rig procurator actoris.
19Similar problem in practicks nr. 194, 289 and 425.

25. The kingis letters raisit be divers pairteis et super eadem re
<26 jan. 1541 [cf. CS 6/14 fol. 103v and 109, 26 January 1541] > Quhen tua pairteis upone divers ordinar letters gettis the kingis letters and pley cum, quhilkis of the kingis letters sould the tennentis obey? The lordis suspendis simpliciter baith the letters becaus of the contrair ordinar letters. Practicatum fuit in causa magistri Joannis Campbell electi quondam Insularum contra Lawson archidiaconum earundem, 26 Januarii anno et loco ut predicitur.

26. Possessor domini tolerantia non possidet violenter neque potest absque legitima premonitione eiici
In causa abbatis Cambuskennethe contra Fostar20, 4 marcii anno 1540 < [= 1541; cf. Balfour 460 c.22] > apud Edinburgh, decreverunt domini Consilii existentem in possessione Fostar certarum terrarum acrarum dicti monasterii per multos annos ex tollerantia abbatis non posse decerni violentem nec iniustum possessorem, nec cogendum desistere a possessione inclusum intra terminos, nisi legitime premonitus et eiectus fuerit. Quod tunc non fecerat abbas.
20Parallel problem in case nr. 370.

27. Questio21
<20 Feb. 1541?> Titius assedavit Caio certas terras in quinquennium. Primo anno appellabatur Caius per Sempronium et quidem iuridice eiectus <est> terris. Postea easdem conducit Caius a Sempronio. Queritur an fructus totius quinquenni debeat Caius a Titio obtinere ratione sui interesse, ex illo quod non varantizavit illi suam assedationem, attento quod nihilominus reconduxit easdem terras pro tanto tempore idem Caius et easdem gavisus est. Ut predicitur decisum fuit.
21Abstract of some case, probably the one quoted in nr. 508 as of 20 February 1540 = 1541.

28. De vocando varanto et danda ad hoc dilatione
<10 feb. 1541 [cf. CS 6/14 fol. 122, 3 February 1541; Balfour 323 c.21, 11 February 1541] > Varrantus non potest de practica vocari, nec ad hoc datur dilatio, nisi petatur in principio cause aut saltem antequam peremptoria aliqua proponatur22. Et sic, cum executio petitur sententie, ad hoc nemo admittitur. Practicatum fuit apud Edinburgh 10 februarii anno 1540 <= 1541>, in causa cuiusdam Hird contra magistrum Willielmum Arthour civem Sanctandrie.
22Thus before the "litis contestatio" which follows thereafter (X 2.5.3; 6. 2.3.1-2) - because the person asked to warrant shall be given a fair chance to influence the outcome of the litigation.

29. Executio decreti arbitralis
<10 feb. 1541 [cf. CS 6/14 fol. 118, 28 January 1541; Balfour 415 c.25] > Contra executionem decreti arbitralis, dummodo latum sit intra terminum compromissi, nulla exceptio admittitur, nec iniustitie nec nullitatis, sed de eis oportet agere iure actionis ad retractandum decretum23. Practicatum mense, anno, loco quibus supra, in causa Hammyltoun contra Hammyltoun fratrem.
23Grounded on principle stated in nr. 16.

30. De probationibus et in eis faciendis variationibus
Eodem die <10 feb. 1541 [cf. Balfour 358 c.39, 11 February 1541] >: Practicatum fuit contra magistrum Hugonem Rig, procuratorem cuiusdam de spolio, quod electa una via probandi resilire de illa ad aliam non licet, viz. qui cepit probare per testes postea penitere non potuit et referre iuramentum parti <adversae>24, nec contra. Et proposita una peremptoria, succumbens in ea <in probatione25>, aliam proponere non admittitur (invita parte altera26), etiam si pro aliis protestatus fuerat, etiam si de novo alia ad notitiam devenerint27. Practicatum contra Irland procuratorem Spens, 5 februarii anno quo supra.
24D. 12.2.
25This restricted meaning of the rule results from nr. 18.
26Nr. 18 says at the end that the law had been toughened: even if the other party conceded it, no more "exceptiones peremptoriae" could be admitted after "litis contestatio".
27This, however, could justify a plea of reduction against the final judgment.

31. Peremptoria proposita, ad aliam non admittitur qui in ea succubuit
<CONTINUED> Sic in eadem causa practicatum fuit quod, falsitatis exceptione obiecta contra instrumentum28, in ea deficiens solutionem allegare non admittitur29.
28MS: instantiam
29Because "litis contestatio" was effected when the Court admitted the first-raised exception to proof. See nrs. 115 (note), and 149 (note).

32. Iuramenta delata a parte parti <adversae> revocanda non sunt
<CONTINUED> Item contra eundem Irland tunc interlocutum est quod clientulus eius post iuramentum delatum parti alteri30, etiam antequam iuravit vel deposuit, penitere non posset et ad alias redire probationes.
30"Iusiurandum litis decisorium": X 2.24.36; D. 12.2.

33. Expense litis etiam ubi iusta causa litigandi
<6 feb. 1541 [cf. CS 6/14 fol. 134, 3 February 1540, David Lundy v. Provost and canons of St. Salvator's, at St. Andrews] > Victus victori damnatur in expensis, licet iustam causam habuerit litigandi31. Et quando plures simul sunt, in expensis condamnantur quilibet pro rata pro parte sua. Practicatum 6 Februarii apud Edinburgh in causa Lundie et doctorum collegii Sanctiandreae contra Rig, procuratorem unius reorum, ad salvandum clientem suum ab expensis premissa allegantem.
31Although almost all Ius-Commune-countries have in the mean time adopted this principle, it contrasts with the old leading doctrine of Ius Commune (as applied in nr. 289): namely C. 7.51.3 and C. 10.69.1 were interpreted to allow the court to give judgment with partial costs or even without costs in cases where the losing party had had good reasons to litigate - and this is still the position in modern South African law, for instance.

34. De impediendo iudicum inferiorum processu
<5 feb. 1541 [cf. CS 6/14 fol. 135v] > Domini Consilii ex causa coram eis probata non dant inhibitionem inferioribus iudicibus procedendi vel continuandi curias, sed semper rescribunt quod iudex admittat iustas partium defensiones32. Practicatum fuit 5 februarii anno quo supra, in causa deservitionis brevium cuiusdam Gray contra uxorem domini de <Duncrub> et ipsum pro suo interesse, revocato mandato dominorum precedente die cuidam clavigero dato, ad instantiam dicti domini per nuntium se excusante ratione egritudinis, quatenus curiam vicecomes continuare in alium diem vellet.
32Practice also stated in nr. 170. Mentioned in nr. 106.

35. Exceptio litis pendentie
Quarto Marcii anno 1540 <= 1541 [cf. CS 6/15 fol. 11v] > apud Edinburgh: In causa cuiusdam Kennedy presbiteri, regis donatarii, ad instantiam utriusque intentata propter33non-introitum certarum terrarum, vocatis generaliter omnibus interesse habentibus pro interesse, admissus erat dominus de <Bargany> et assignatus terminus magistro Henrico Lawder procuratori regis et presbiteri ad probandum. In quo termino nullam probationem nec diligentiam fecerat. Et protestatus est dictus dominus quod cederet pro termino actoribus. Ideo decretum fuit quod stante exceptione litis pendentie dictus dominus non tenebatur respondere nove summonitioni super terrarum earundem non-introitu, specialiter ad instantiam regis et dicti donatarii contra eum intentate.
33MS: penes.

36. Clericus non tenetur respondere coram judice seculari
Quinto marcii anno 1540 <= 1541 [cf. CS 6/15 fol. 12; also CS 6/14 fol. 202, 25 February 1541] >: Domini retractaverunt rollamentum curie vicecomitis de Couper latum contra quendam Heriott presbiterum, ideo quia deputatus vicecomitis repulit exceptionem dicti Heriott qui declinando iudicem dicebat se clericum, et ideo non esse cogendum coram ipso iudice seculari34, quam exceptionem offerebatur Heriott se incontinenti probaturum legitime.
34See note to nr. 351 about "privilegium fori".

37. Ex repulsione exceptionis appellatum iustificatur exceptione realiter non probata
Et ibidem <5 mar. 1541> practicatum fuit quod, si iudex repellit exceptionem legitimam quam pars obtulit se sufficienter probaturam, retractantur processus ducti de hoc, licet coram dominis veritas exceptionis non probetur. Sed si in secunda instantia allegetur nova exceptio, illa est probanda.

38. Non quilibet heres habet bona "hereditaria". Et quid vale<a>t heres sine immobilibus
Octavo die mensis marcii anno 1540 <= 1541 [cf. CS 6/15 fol. 35, also 6/14 fol. 2, 27, 56, 105; Balfour 231 c.31, 15 March 1541; Balfour 233 c.40 and 236 c.5, both 8 March 1541] >: In causa Jonete Scot contra quendam Blair, decretum fuit per dominos Consilii quod ipsa, licet per brevia erat deservita heres cuiusdam Willielmi (ut arbitror) Scot, tamen "hereditaria" bona clamare non potuit, quia non erat deservita heres illi de ullis terris aut de rebus immobilibus. Et quod generalis deservitio proderit ei, quia illius virtute potest agere ex reversionibus, obligationibus et contractibus prefato Willielmo et heredibus suis factis. Et idem dic de barone et burgense, ut quod heredes eorum oportet esse deservitos ad certa bona immobilia prius quam habeant "hereditaria" bona, vulgariter "airschip guidis". Et de herede sacerdotis cuiusdam Sancte Johnestoun antea istud erat practicatum. Et hoc casu executores cum omnibus bonis immobilibus intromittunt.

39. De taxta beneficiorum per eorum pensionarios pro rata pensionis solvenda
Octavo die mensis marcii anno 1540 <= 1541 [cf. CS 6/15 fol. 20v, 7 March 1541; Balfour 143 c.3] >: In causa cuisdam economi de Driburgh contra quendam Home pensionarium de Dryburcht, decretum fuit ipsum pensionarium debere relevare abbatem et conventum de taxta dicto monasterio imposita pro sustentatione Collegii Iustitiae pro rata quantitatis pensionis sue, et bene, ut Chassaneus super consuetudine Burgundiae, titulo "de droicts et appertenances a gens maries", in verbo "supportive"<?>, lemate "des thinges"?>35.
35Bartholomaeus Chassanaeus, Commentarius in consuetudinem Burgundiae (printed many times from 1517 onward), rubrica 4, paragraph 9 "Mulier quae est particeps"(?), lemma "de tous debtes"(?) = p. 647 in the edition Francofurti 1590 = p. 794 in the edition Genevae 1616. The wording of this partly garbled quotation has been taken from Edinburgh, UL, Laing MS. III 429, and its end words from Edinburgh, NLS, Advocates 24.1.11. The principal manuscript (= Edinburgh, UL, Laing MS. III 488a) is more garbled. It lacks the word "Chassaneus" and it has in its place the word "Thesaurus". The latter word clearly refers to Antoninus Thesaurus, editor of a widely known collection of decisions of the Senate of Piemont, printed many times from 1590 onward. Thesaurus reported, under the number 164, a decision from 1582 which covers the topic perfectly and contains useful references (fol. 139v in the edition Augustae Taurinorum 1590). I have no doubt that this decision was meant. Yet the quotation proves that the manuscript Laing MS. III 488a cannot have been written before 1590.

40. De legitima possessione et eiectione, ut is dicatur violentus possessor
Eodem die <8 mar. 1541>: In causa Andreae Murray de Blakbarony decretum fuit quod non erat satis quod subtenentes et inhabitatores terre premonerentur et eiicerentur, sed quod necesse erat principalem tenentem premoneri. Et eum interea etiam post terminos assedationis sue elapsos iuste possidere et non cogendum solvere nisi solitum summe male, quia videtur dominus tacite relocasse tenenti pro anno proximo post suam assedationem, patiendo eum remanere in possessione36, et ideo tenentem non posse dici violentem possessorem.
36D. 19.2.14, also D. Similar problem in nrs. 370 and 525.

41. Quando unus plurium actorum coniunctim libellantium renuntiat actioni
In mense februarii circa finem vel in principio marcii anno quo supra <1541>: Magister Thomas Weymes, magister hospitii regis, pro suo interesse comparuit propter retractationem rollamenti curie cuiusdam vicecomitis. Actione intentata ad instantiam regis et partis, productae per magistrum Thomam Weymes litere regie fuerunt, renunciantes iure liti et causae <per> quantum regem concernebat. Dicebat procurator ille quod ad instantiam regis et partis coniunctim erat libellata summonitio, ideo procedi non posse. Tamen interlocutum fuit per dominos Consilii contrarium, eo quod separatum erat interesse regis a iure partis in hoc casu. Et quod antea occurrebat casus ubi ad instantiam plurium intentata actio erat et ius unius non erat separabile a iure alterius, ideo ante decretum fuisse quod uno renunciante procedi non poterit. Et sic hec exceptio per priorem non erat admissa.

42. Frie tenentis of the kingis subvassall quha is forfaltit tynis nocht thair fewis bot componis with the king or his donator thairfoir
Secundo die marcii anno eodem <1541>: In causa domini de Summerwell contra certos liberetenentes de Libertoun, dixerunt pene omnes domini Consilii, quia dominus Jacobus Hammyltoun forisfactus tenebat de domino Somerwell qui tenebat baroniam de Libertoun de rege, quod tenentes de dicto Jacobo et eius vassali et eorum vassali perdebant sua feuda et regalia ratione forisfacturae Jacobi prefati de practica regni, licet forte jus commune esset contra37. Et hec practica incepit noviter tantum in causa domini de Crawfurde et nunquam in altera. Sed ipse rex hoc casu, quia non potest tenere de quocumque, ideo debet presentare tenentem dicto domino de Somerwell superiori dicti Jacobi immediato. Quia consuetudo erat quod tenentes de forisfacto non ammitterent omnia feuda sua sed componerent cum rege vel donatario regis. Ideo domini modificaverunt quod quilibet tenens de dicto Jacobo, pro parte sue compositionis dicti domini Somerwell, qui forisfacturam Jacobi de dicta baronia emerat a rege, solvenda, solveret thre yeiris maill of the landis that thai haid of schir James. Et sic quod investirentur de novo per dictum dominum Somerwell.
37Libri Feudorum 2.31 et 2.24.11: in certain types of cases the sub-vassals' rights are forfeited along with the vassal's rights, in other types of cases they are not.

43. De donatione escheetae regi pertinentis
In <die...> januarii anno quo supra <1541>: In causa domini Glengarno <= Glencairn> contra Kilbirnie, decretum quod ipse Glengarno, donatarius regis in et ad escheitis assedationis novemdecem annorum ecclesie de Kilbirnie ipsi reo facto cum omnibus fructibus et emolumentis eiusdem, non poterat fructus ecclesie petere a quibusdam assignatis ipsius rei, factis pro octo annis, quorum tres elapsi erant antequam crimen falsi reus commisisset, licet dictorum annorum fructus debebant venire ad utilitatem ipsius rei, viz. disponi pro redemptione terrarum ipsius alienatarum sub reversione, prout inter ipsum et assignatum ipsius erat conventum per scripturam contractus. Ideo, quia locatio illa pro dictis octo annis respectu Kilbirnie erat extincta et transfusa in assignatos, et pretextu illius assedationis Kilbirnie petere nil poterat, sed contra assignatos habet actionem ex contractu assignationis. Nemo tamen negabat dominorum regi pertinere fructus dicte assignationis, et quod assignati debebant persolvere regi quod debebant persolvere ipsi confiscato, vel ad utilitatem illius disponere. Et convictus de falso perdit omnia sua mobilia, in quibus computantur assedationes et debita et lie steilbo de consuetudine regni.

44. De clausula cartarum "salvo iure nostro sive servitio nostro"
<1541?> Carta dicens "salvo servitio et iure nostro" intelligitur fructificata actour the waird. Dicens vero "salvis nobis nostris iuribus debitis et consuetis" intelligitur waird and releif.

45. Repulsio testium
Decimo quinto marcii anno 1540 <= 1541>: In causa domini de Somerwell interlocuti fuerunt domini Consilii quod existentes de balliatu dicti domini Somerwell pro eo testes esse poterunt, qua de causa altera pars eos repellendos fore allegabat.

46. Relevantiam libelli ex officio suo
Eodem die <15 mar. 1541>: In causa Lumisdaill contra comitem Rothes, <domini> absolverunt Rothes a literis ad instantiam Lumisdaill levatis prout erat libellatum. Alienationem, ob quam terrarum, quarum varrantizationem petebat actor, recognitio facta fuerat, factam fuisse per predecessorem ipsius rei, et licet procurator rei hoc non opposuerit.

47. Absolutio prout libellatur causa expressa non habeat
<CONTINUED> Tamen domini qui repererunt errorem huius libelli, absolverunt ut supra. Nec solent causam exprimere in eiusmodi absolutione, et bene, ut Pan. in cap. Examinata, extra de judi.38.
38Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.1.15 [to the point].

48. Quando et contra quem varrantus est vocandus
<15 mar. 1541?> Varrantum vocandi nemo ius habet, quando solus agit. Et ideo quia tunc <non> vocaverit, post sententiam potest vocari. In causa Lumisdaill de Rothes dicto die in hoc concordabant domini Consilii. Sed quando agit rex et donatarius eius, vel quando quivis rege inferior agit, reus debet varrantum vocare ante litem contestatam. Et datur ei adhuc terminus, postea non. Et si condemnatur reus, varranto debite non vocato, postea agere contra varrantum non potest, nec regressum contra eum habere. Illum omnino perdidit. In hoc eodem die concordabant domini, Wod procurator.

49. De libello prophano proposito coram iudice ecclesiastico, revocato ad dominos Consilii
Decimonono Marcii <1541>: In causa Willelmi Rolland, decreverunt domini Consilii libellum magistri Jacobi Menzeis, cessionarii Gilberti patris sui in et ad quasdam mercantias et res seculares, propositum coram commissario Aberdonensi, esse prophanum, et ideo dictum commissarium requirendum esse ad desistendum ab ulteriori processu super eodem libello. Et in decernendo libellum prophanum non citatur pars libellans, de practica.

50. Advocatio cause
Eodem die <19 mar. 1541>: Advocarunt domini Consilii causam cuiusdam domine, tertie terrarum sui quondam mariti, propter tertiam partem arborum et silve cedue, per cognitionem commissam vicecomiti ad ipsos propter rei novitatem(?).

51. Exceptio litis pendentiae
Die mensis eiusdem <19 mar. 1541>: In causa domini Cambo cognomine Myrtone contra Forbes de Raires, decreverunt domini Consilii exceptionem litispendentiae ad 18 annos pendentis propter39 redemptionem terrarum de <... ...> non obstare dicto Myrtoune petenti easdem terras declarari legitime redemptas virtute nove numerationis summe in reversione contente per illum Myrtoun facte de novo.
39MS: penes.

52. De generali absolutione et executione speciali, retracta litera regis super executione
Eodem die <19 mar. 1541>: In causa cuiusdam mulieris executricis decreverunt domini absolutionem generalem (officialis Glasguensis a censuris et penis excommunicationis, aggravationis et reaggravationis - contra eandem latis et factis ad instantiam creditoris testatoris defuncti - usque ad finem computi ipsius executricis) cessare debere, et non valere contra ipsam non apparentem: quia regie litere appreciationis (debite execute contra eandem ad instantiam cuiusdam creditoris ipsius testatoris) super excommunicationem specialem (contra illam in illius instantiam executam) debeant suum effectum habere. Et exequendas esse. Quia de practica ipsi generalem absolutionem non admittunt contra specialem excommunicationem.

53. Fundans se super scriptum, illud ante omnia producere debet40
<19 mar. 1541?> In causa Malkenniktoun actoris contra Malkei interloquendo decretum fuit quod fundans se super infeodamento, debet, antequam reus respondere cogatur, producere cartam et sasinam et sic vereficare et fundare intentionem suam. Alias absolvendus est reus.
40Doctrine based on C. 2.1.5-6 et 8, also stated in nrs. 106, 172, 365, 388-389.

54. Actori post litis contestationem non licet renunciare
<CONTINUED> In eadem causa decretum fuit interloquendo quod materia semel disputata (et maxime interloquutione lata) actor non potest reo invito recedere ab actione nec conmutare41 actionem42.
41MS: contumare
42Doctrine based on commentaries to C. 2.1.3.

55. De retractione infeofamenti propter falsam narrationem
<CONTINUED> In eadem causa definitive decretum fuit quod falsa narratio non vitiat infeofamentum. Nam petebant infeodamentum rei reduci, quia carta eius cantabat quod ipse et uxor eius erant, ante recognitionem latam contra dominum de Hereis, dominum superiorem infeodamenti, in coniuncta infeodatione terrarum de quarum infeodamenti retractatione agebatur. Actor vero allegabat per subreptionem infeodamentum esse obtentum, quia non eius erat narratio, ut supra dicatur, vera, quia uxor nunquam fuit in coniuncta infeodatione illarum terrarum. Nec poterat rea pars hoc probare. Tamen domini absolutoriam dederunt43, anno quo supra, mense et die <19 mar. 1540>.
43Because here the argument about nullity of "gratia subreptitia" (= obtained by tacit misrepresentation of facts, see C. 1.19.8 "vera", C. 1.22.2-5, C. 1.23.7 pr "si preces veritate nituntur", adopted in canon law for instance in X 2.30.5 and 6. 2.3.1 in fine) was out of place as the misrepresented facts were not relevant for the enfeoffment. Side remark: Ius Commune's doctrine was slightly changed in Scotland, anyway. According to Ius Commune a "gratia subreptitia" (or even worse: "obreptitia" = obtained by explicit lies) was automatically void, and this point could be raised any time. According to the Court of Session, in contrast, a document based on "gratia subreptitia" was valid until it had been voided by the special procedure of "reduction" - see notes to nr. 16 and 56.

56. Probatioun be chartour
Secundo aprilis anno eodem <1541 - the word "eodem" is an obvious scribal error> : In causa regis contra Lundie, decretum fuit that the kingis chartour, na seasing being schawin thairupone, makis fayth aganes the king that the landis contenit thairin pertenit heretablie to the said laird quhometo that chartour wes maid, and thairfoir that the landis mycht nocht be decernit in non-entres sent the dait of the chartour, albeit the kingis advocat callit for ane hundereth and fyfetie yeiris non-entres. And sua it wes that the <kingis> advocatis allegeance (viz. that the chartour of annexatioun tuik na effect becaus thairupone thair followit na seasing and sua mycht nocht saif the haill non-entres) mycht nocht haiff place nor he mycht nocht per viam exceptionis oppone the nulletie of it44, bot that he behowit per viam actionis for reductioun thairof impugne the samyn.
44Similar problem in nrs. 82 and 312, see note there; and see note at nr. 16 for the underlying general rule. Exceptions to this rule for documented declarations of a party which were extorted (nr. 399) and for documented acts of local judges who had disobeyed an explicit order given by the Court of Session (nr. 430).

57. Off privat letters for stopping of proces
Eodem die <2 april 1541>: In causa domini Ogilvie, interlocuti sunt domini that thai sould proceid in causa contra Gray quendam, propter45 retractationem decreti comprisationis terrarum dicti domini Ogilvy, nochtwithstanding ane privat letter of discharge of all proceding in that caus, impetrat be schir Johnne Campbell, pretendand entres in that caus, to quhome heretablie pertenit ane pairt of the apprysit landis, becaus of the generall act of parliament46 sayand that na judge delay proces and justice, albeit sic letters of delay or dischargeing of letters and proceding be privatlie impetrat be ony persone at the kingis grace47. And als letters ar understand to be privatlie gevin that ar simpliciter under the kingis hand writ or signet.
45MS: penes.
46Statute ...
47Confer C. 1.19.2 et 4.

58. Off reversioun of landis
Vigesimo die mensis aprilis <1541>: In causa etc. contra comitem de Eglintoun, decretum fuit quod ane man mycht be compellit be wertew of ane instrument, obligatioun or be ane contract to gif to ane uther ane sufficient reversioun for redeming of landis, albeit ane reversioun mycht nocht be prowin bot be ane sufficient letter of reversioun seillit and subscryvit at the leist with the gevearis hand writ or with ane pen led be ane notar publict, and nocht be ane privat instrument contenand and berand the reversioun or tenour thairof into it48as it is contenit in ane new act of parliament49.
48Authentica "Si quis in aliquo" post C. 2.1.7, ex Nov. 119 c. 3.
49Statute ...

59. De iure actori superveniente, pendente lite
Vigesimoseptimo maii anno 1541: Decreverunt domini quod dominus de Balcleuch non poterat summonitionem suam contra vicecomitem (ut recordor) Twedall <= Peebles>, intentatam per ipsum executorio nomine quondam avi aut patris sui, prosequi, executorii datione per ipsum impetrata post datam summonitionem, eo quod tempore citationis ius sibi non competebat super quod intentionem suam fundabat. Et sic superveniente iure pendente judicio non poterat se juvare, quia oportuit eum de novo libellare.

60. De peremptoriarum propositione
Eodem die <27 maii 1541>: In causa domini de Maxwell contra dominum de Sancquhair, decreverunt domini quod libello semell dato actori ad probandum ulterius non admittitur reus ad proponendas peremptorias50. Et sic repulsus fuit magister Hugo Rig (procurator Sancquhair rei) in causa aut propositione peremptorie, quia petitio actoris erat probationi ipsius admissa.
50Because exeptiones peremptoriae must be raised before the "litis contestatio".

61. De dilatione danda pro probatione peremptoriae
Tertio die mensis eiusdem <3 maii 1541>: In causa quorundam tenentium conquerentium quod duplici districtione <gravati essent> per dominos Consilii, <a> magistro Jacobo McGill, alterius dominorum procuratori, allegata fuit renunciatio literarum, citatione producta. Et petiit terminum ad hoc probandum, Marioribankis contradicente: non dandum terminum, atque quod cum facto parato venire debuerat. Interlocuti sunt domini Consilii terminum dandum, prestito tamen malitie iuramento51 in propositione exceptionis per allegantem.
51The "iuramentum calumniae" as in X 2.7; 6. 2.4; C. 2.58. For late admission of exceptions see X 2.25.4.

62. Retractatio literarum regiarum ordinariarum quia executae erant in specie cum debuissent esse in genere
Eodem die <3 maii 1541>: In causa Jacobi, ut recordor, Lawsoun de Hwmbie contra dominum Joannem Grimlaw vicarium de etc., dictus Jacobus Lawsone, firmarius dicte vicarie, petiit literas regias super ordinariis literis fulminatis ad instantiam dicti vicarii retractari, quia inordinate date erant: Primo quia execute erant litere predicte in specie contra dictum Jacobum, cum tamen litere ordinarie execute essent tantum in genere, et hoc sub forma monitionis tantum; secundo quia dictus Jacobus a dictis ordinariis literis monitorialibus infra decem dies a tempore notitiae appellavit ad papam52, prout appellatio producta coram dominis docebat. Et appellatione pendente nil oportere renovari <vi> literarum regiarum, quia tunc sequeretur maximum inconveniens quod canonice institutus in beneficio ecclesiastico per talem appellationem cuiusdam tertii a primaria potestate beneficii sui <deprivaretur> per multos annos quos solet appellatio emoliri et evolvere.
52MS: "ad antichristum vel papam" - this is certainly a post-reformation addition!

<CONTINUED> Sed suspenderunt domini literarum executionem prima de causa, et non obstante quod libellus dicti Jacobi non petebat nec concludebat executionem expresse debere cessare, quod etiam procurator dicti vicarii (magister Thomas Marioribankis) allegabat. Nam in tali casu dixerunt domini hoc ex practica fieri debere, ne quis inordinate ponatur ad cornum regis. Dicte tamen litere regis bene date, ut pote conformes ordinariis invente fuerant.

64. The succesouris in benefices ar bound to keip thair predicessouris contract
The 25 day of the said moneth <maii 1541>: The lordis decernit the bischope of Murray and convent thairof to varrand thair predicessouris contract maid to the lard of Duffus titulo oneroso, quia de iure successores tenentur observare contractum suorum predicessorum53.
53Rule also stated in nr. 98.

65. Off cursit men persewaris for reductioun of letters of suspentioun raisis aganis thame
The said day <25 maii 1541>: The lordis decernit in ane caus of Mr Johne Hepburnis, that his partie adversare, nocht withstanding cursing schawin upone him, may persew the retreiting of the kingis letters obtenit be the said Mr Johne aganis him, becaus he wes in this caus bot ane necessarius actor, viz. agebat tantum ad defensionem suam54a cornu regis. Et dictum fuit hanc esse practicam dominorum.
54Canon law: X 2.25.5 et 15, X 5.39.40. Confirmed in nr. 495, contrasting decision in nr. 379.

66. Probatioun by witnes
The said day <25 maii 1541> the lordis decernit that be witnes contenit in ane instrument, thair mycht be thingis by the instrument in the contract prowin55.
55Similar legal problem in nr. 1 and nr. 174.

67. Act of adiornal.
The xiii day of julii <1541> in the caus of Johnne lord Hay of Yesteir, it wes decretit that ane confessioun of partie maid in the criminall court, takand him to the compositour for all the cryme impute to him, prowes nocht in causa civili the wrang nor the proffeitis of the allegit spuilye or ony uther cryme, quhen the partie in the said criminall actioun protestis the same. And sua becaus the yeiris of the allegit oppressioun and proffeitis confessit in the actis of adiornall be his pairtie adversare wes nocht utherwyis prowin befoir the schiref, the saidis lordis reducit ane rolment of court gevin for the said lord Hay, and wes then said, haid nocht bene the said protestatioun, the said act contenand in speciall the profeitis of the yeiris had bene iust probatioun.

68. Off witnessis
The said 15 day of the said moneth <jul. 1541>: In the vicar of Dowes caus, it wes decretit that kynsmen and servandis of his firmoraris, quha wes repellit fra witnessing becaus he mycht tyn and win in the mater, albeit the actioun wes nocht intendit in his name, mycht be witnessis in the said wicaris caus.

69. Off non-entres of landis. Donataris of non-entres and wairdis may warne and put out tenentis as lairdis selffis mycht
Eiusdem mensis <jul. 1541>: In causa domini de Borthuik actoris, interlocuti sunt domini that the owirlord may etiam per donatarium persew the proffeitis and deweteis of landis being in his handis be non-entres. Or ane decrete of non-entres be gevin, albeit ony landis be apprysit for the byrun maillis, necessar it is that thai be decernit be decrete of the lordis in non-entres, and the lordis thocht that the donatouris of non-entres mycht warne and remove the possessouris of the landis alsweill as the principall laird and superiour of the landis: idem in wairdis terrarum.

70. Reductioun of unioun and annexatioun
Decimo octavo mensis eiusdem <jul. 1541>: In causa domini de Colluithy actoris censuerunt omnes domini that the unioun and annexatioun of the landis Rudie and Lauswaird <(=Ridi?, Laigwairdst?)> to the baronie of etc. wes cassit and dissolvit, becaus the samyn wes decernit in non-entres at the kingis instance aganis the laird of Baluerie, quha grantit that he had na seasing of the landis of Rudie foirsaid, and sua the samyn apprysit to the king and disponit agane heretablie to ane Henry Ramsay. And also that the kingis confirmatioun followand upone ane alienatioun of all principall landis with annexis, viz. Rudie, all remanit with the said unioun, that ane generall sesing of the principall baronie cum annexis mycht be extendit to the saidis landis of Rudie and sua thai wer decernit of non-entres.

71. Off possessioun of landis efteir the kingis revocatioun
Decimonono die mensis eiusdem <jul. 1541>: In causa of doubill poinding, ane of the poindaris callit Margaret Dunbar, the lordis ordanit the tenentis to answer of the maillis to the said Dunbar, becaus scho wes in possessioun cum titulo, nocht withstanding hir titill fell under the kingis generall revocatioun and the adversar had ane gift of the king eftir his revocatioun maid in France and new infeftment of the landis, and that hir auld titill behowit be decernit be decrete of the lordis revokit be the kingis revocatioun generall, or scho mycht be put fra hir possessioun.

72. Off reducing of infeftmentis and the kingis revocatioun
Vigesimo die mensis predicti <jul. 1541>: Hoppringill of Torsones be summondis askit Ker of Sesfurdis infeftmentis of the landis of Buirhous be reducit and retreatit, becaus he wes befoir the said Keris infeftment heretablie infeft of the said land be the king and nocht ordourlie put thairfra. It wes decernit that albeit the said Hoppringillis infeftment wes maid in the kingis les aige and at the kingis hand revokit, as the actis of parliament buir all alienatiounis of his heretage maid in his les aige, that the said land, quilk become in his handis be foirfaltour of the lord Boid, wes nocht heretage to his grace and sua come nocht under revocatioun, and that revocatio regis etiam in parliamento, bot gif it be of annexit landis alienatioun, depryves nocht ane man of his possessioun and titill, nisi sequita postea speciali declaratoria sententia iudiciali et superlata. And thairfoir the Hoppringillis infeftment heretabill standand, the king mycht nocht infeft the said Ker. And the saidis Keris infeftment wes reducit, albeit his predicessouris and he be vertew thairof had bene mair nor 60 yeiris in possessioun thairof. And it wes understand to the saidis lordis that the said Hoppringillis seasing come bot laitlie in his handis.

73. Tertius comparans pro suo interesse, quando admittitur
<20 jul. 1541?> Tertius comparens pro suo interesse non admittitur post conclusionem factam inter partes principales. Practicatum fuit 18 die, anno quo supra, in causa domini de Colluithy contra dominum de Balverie, non-introitus terrarum de Rudie <et> terrarum aliarum certarum de Balverie, post conclusionem de causa inter partes prefatas.

74. Off reversioun be forme of instrument and utherwyis
Decimooctavo julii <1541>: In causa domini de Cambo contra dominum de Rires, decretum fuit that ane instrument contenand ane reversione of certane landis annaleit to the said Rires predicessouris mair nor 60 yeiris syne wes sufficient aneuch. Et quod non improbantur veteres chartae predecessorum domini de Rires, <quae> pro dicto instrumento magnam faciebant presumptionem, albeit that the new act of parliament beris that na reversioun is awaill bot that is subscrivit with the hand of him that gave the samyn and also seillit be him. And sua the lordis decernit the landis of Faws (as I remember), be vertew thairof and premonitioun and consignatioun of the sowme contenit thairin eftir the terme of chartour(?) thairof(?) lauchfullie redemit.

75. Reductioun of ane retour
<Before Easter of 1541?> In ane caus of the kingis aganis the laird of Luss, ane retour wes reducit becaus the inqueist servit him or ellis sum of his predicessouris of the landis of Luss as propertie, nocht makand mentioun "with tenent and tenendreis", albeit the landis of Gleid wes than in tenandrie of Luss and sua aucht nocht to be the lairdis propertie. And this wes done befoir Pasche of thairby anno 1541, and siclyk practik aganis Mr Henry Spittillis wyff land of befoir, and that at the instance of ane maister Francis Bothuellis sone. <Continued in nr. 88.>

76. Returno cum omnibus inde secutis reducto, ipso iure cessat et expirat sasina super lata
The tuentienyne day of julii anno 1541: Or the laird of Lussis landis of Glen Eduard Stewart falconar gat ane gift of non-entres and raisit ane summondis thairupone aganis the said laird, at the quhilk tyme the retour foirsaid and seasing wes standand thairupone unreducit, quhilk wald haif stoppit the decrete of non-entres. And sua the caus sleipit quhill the said retour and all that followit thairupone wes reducit. And sua the seasine, albeit in speciall of it in the reductioun of the retour wes na mentioun. And eftir the retour wes reducit cum omnibus inde secutis, actor prosecutus est suam actionem be vertew of the samyn summondis. To quhome it wes obiectit that he mycht nocht, becaus tempore libelli et actionis intentate the non-entres clamit be him wes nocht of strenth, viz. sasina non tunc reducta quando actionem intentavit. Interlocuti sunt domini that he mycht persew the samyn summondis, allegatione premissa non obstante, becaus ius libellantis fuerat in veritate tempore libelli oblati, licet tunc erat pretensa sasina quoad tempus, et donec illa reduceretur possit secludere libellantem ab obtinendo non-introitu libellato. Et ius sic superveniens post libellum et actionem intentatam hic habet causam et dependentiam preteritam et ideo prodest actori: Bart. et Bal. in l. Si rem, ut ff. de pig. acti.56.

Secus autem si ius libellatum post executionem libelli et non antequam quidem comperissent, utpote Titius agit tanquam executor Julii, deinde fit executor: Certe de practica upone this libell he may nocht follow furth the caus, as wes decernit be the lordis in ane caus of the laird of Balcleucis aganis the schireff of Tevidaill.
56Bartolus de Saxoferrato and Baldus de Ubaldis in their respective commentaries upon D. 13.7.29 [to the point].

77. Of divers giftis of the king of non-entres
Item the said <29> day of julii <1541>: In the said Eduard Stewartis caus, the lordis decretit that the said Eduardis gift of non-entres, albeit be vertew thairof he had nocht gottin possesionem, sould be preferrit to the said laird of Lussis gift of the samyn non-entres, revocand all uther giftis of the said non-entres of the saidis landis of Glen gevin of befoir to ony uther personis, becaus the king mycht nocht revoik his said first gift sine caus, als the samyn <second> gift wes obtenit efter the summondis wes rasit upone the first gift.

78. Of spuilyie intentit aganis monie and provin aganis parte of thame
The xxix day of julii foirsaid <1541>: Quidam Valterus Young, actione spolii intentata contra dominum de Cesfurde et alios quosdam nominatos, tamen non probabat spolium nisi contra duos. Isti duo fuerunt condempnati in the haill spuilyie, viz. ilk ane of the tua sould pay the half of it.

Idem eodem die <29 jul. 1541> practicatum fuit in causa cuiusdam Alesone contra captanum de Dumbartane et alios certos spoliatores nominatim expressos et eventos, qua causa contra omnes intentata probavit tantum spolium contra unum, qui solus in solidum fuit condemnatus. Quhene the actioun is intentit contra plures, condemnantur singuli pro rata, non in solidum. Ab initio omnes tenentur in solidum. <In contrast to first part of this practick!>

79. Pro interfectione cuiusdam Stewarte the lordis decretit ane letter
The xxiiii of julii <1541>: In causa satisfactionis perite per A.B. of slauchter, maid be the maist parte of the kin and freindis of the deid to be sufficient, albeit it wes maid be certane of his four branches, as Mr Thomas Mariorbankis procuratour for the slane allegit it aucht to be. And als thair wes divers utheris neir freindis of the deid that haid nocht consentit thairto, als the practik is: quha callis first for the assyfment of ony slane man, he is preferrit in the getting of it to utheris neirar to the died cummand eftir. And that for his diligence and thair negligance in persewing the deidis slauchter.

80. Off sitting upone bloud and unlaw thairof
<1541?> Practica regni Scotiae howbeit that na man may sit upone bloud, bot gif he be at the leist barone. And sua ane fewar infeft in bluduettis, being alanerlie ane frie tenent of ane baronie ather spirituall or temporall, may nocht sit upone bloude bot may call the samyn befoir his superiour temporall or baillie of the regalitie, and he hald of the kirk and get his tenent convict thairin, he to haiff the proffeit of the bloude.

81. Off pounding for deweteis of the ground
<1541?> Ane lard or lord may be his awin officiaris creat in court poind his tenent for the deweteis of his landis and byrunnis being liquidat. Utherwyis he may call his tenentis befoir his awin baillie and caus thair liquidat the samyn and get his tenent convict thairin.

82. Off saiffing frome violent possessioun be vertew of ane titill
The said day <24 jul. 1541>: In causa Jacobi Lychtoune contra magistrum Joannem Grahame decreverunt domini that the said Mr Johne mycht nocht save him frome violent possessioun of the kirkland of A.B. (quhairfra to remove he wes laufulie warnit to remove and outlaid be the bischope' of Sanctandrois' precept at ane laufull terme) be vertew of ane pretendit assedatioun maid to him thair be the said lord archibischope quhen divers yeiris wer nocht yit outrun, for vereficatioun of the quhilk titill the said Mr Johne gat maister Johne Lauder (keipar of the said lordis rentall and register of all thingis) compellit to produce befoir the lordis the register buik. And becaus that the said buik buir that the said assedatioun wes cancellat be command of the said lord, and that verefeit be the said Mr Johne Lauder, and als becaus that the contract and assedatioun buir that it wes maid be the said bischope "with consent of the chaptour", quhilk consent wes nevir gevin thairto and sua the assedatioun in that part wes nocht perfyte and compleit, thairfoir, albeit the said Mr Johne allegit that titill to cullour his possessioun and to keip him fra violence(?) and allegit that be that titill he suld nocht be put fra his possessioun quhill that titill wer reducit and declarit null in the selff57, nevirtheles the lordis decernit him violent possessor, nochtwithstanding that titill, becaus he could nocht schaw that <it wes> compleitit and perfytit, viz. that the convent had consentit thairto as the samyn buir in the selff, sua that he mycht pretend na rycht thairto quhill the assedatioun had bene perfytlie endit and completit in all poyntis. And had he had for him only titill apperand iust, albeit the samyn had bene null in the selff or reduceabill for causs, he had bene saifit frome violence.
57Argument derived from rule in nr. 16 - as in nrs. 56 and 312 (see notes there).

83. Off doubill pounding quhair the possessouris titill is null in effect becaus his superiouris rycht is decernit to ceis
The 5 day of december anno quo supra <1541>: The lordis decernit the tenentis of the landis etc to obey to ane woman callit AB and nocht to the lord Somerwell, nochtwithstanding that the said voman had thai landis of ane Carmychaell, quha held the samyn of the erle of Anguis, and the said voman recoverit thame agane, payand hir parte of the compositioun to Carmichaell new infeft of the king eftir the said erles foirfaltour. And eftir the said N. Carmichaellis infeftment wes reducit, becaus it wes maid in the kingis minoritie and less aige, with all that followit thairupone, and new infeftment thaireftir gevin agane to the said N. Carmichaell sone and air to the foirsaid Carmichaell, be the king, and thaireftir be his deceis the land come in the kingis handis be reasone of waird, quhilk wes disponit be his graice to Sympanage and be him to the said woman, quha be vertew thairof wes in continuall possessioun theirof unto the said day of pley. And the said N. Carmichaell had sauld the saidis landis to the lord Somerwell and he wes heretablie infeft thairin, and sua allegit the said vomanis titill to be reducit be reductioun of hir superiouris infeftment maid in the kingis less aige. Nocht the less the lordis ordanit the tenentis to obey to hir becaus scho wes in possessioun with ane titill as said is and aucht to be laufulie callit or scho wer put thairfra. <Parallel case: nr. 97.>

84. Quod minor de proprietate immobilium non tenetur respondere
Nono die mensis eiusdem <dec. 1541>: In causa reductionis infeodamenti cuiusdam juvenis contra eum mota, decreverunt domini quod non tenebatur respondere in illa causa de reductione sui infeodamenti, ex eo quod erat super recto, iure et proprietate terrarum suarum et erat ipse reus minor annis, qui nisi in certis casibus in "Regia Maiestate" expressis respondere non tenetur: "Ut dubitis Paternis de nova dissasina" etc, ut in rubrica Mace. 13958.
58Regiam maiestatem ...

85. Off interpretatione of decretis arbitrallis contenand generall claussis
Eodem die <9 dec. 1541>: James Sinclair obtenit ane decrete arbitrall saying in the selff that the Gullane burne sould rin throucht his landis of Stewinsone, and that the remanent of all watteris, being in the tyme of the decrete and that sould happine to be or cum thairin eftirwarde, sall stand upone the prioris and conventis landis of Haldingtone, lyand contigue to the said James landis of Stewinsone, callit the Querrellpittis. The said priores allegit that scho had fullfillit the said decrete for hir part, and sua that the letters purchest be the said James upone hir and the Convent for nonfulfilling of the samyn sould be simpliciter suspendit, and that scho sent the decrete did na thing to caus the vattir rin upone his landis, and that scho wes nocht oblist be decreit to caus the watter stand uppone hir landis, as the said James allegit. The lordis decernit the letters purchest be James ordourlie procedit and that the priores had nocht fulfillit her parte of the decreit, becaus scho grantit the wattir ran upone his landis instantlie sen the decrete arbitrall that stud nocht. And the lordis fand that scho suld gar the wattir stand upoun hir landis, becaus uthirwyis the decrete had bene frustra et inutile: l. Quoties, ff. de rebus dubiis59.
59D. 34.4.12(13) [to the point].

86. Off witnessis to be summonit quhilkis the partie h.
negligentlie omittit at the terme he sould haiff summonit thame
The tent day of the said moneth <dec. 1541>: In ane caus of Archibald Hoggis messenger, the lordis decernit the said Archibald sould haiff ane new terme to produce certene witnessis, for summoning of the quhilkis he had ellis gottin letters and nocht summonit parte of thame, and schawis na diligence in the caus. And the lordis fand it wes thair practik.

87. Off assignais usand privilege of tabill be ressone of thair selff60
The said day <10 dec. 1541>: David Denningstoun aganis the Balquhannane, the lordis decernit that the said David, servand to my lord secretar, mycht nocht use privilege of the tabill of the lordis of Counsall and thair servandis in calling of thair summondis, becaus the actioun wes nocht his awin bot ane coft caus pertening to him as cessionar and assignay to ane uthir and wes nocht his the summondis wes cast in. Facit cap. Ex parte, extra de iudiciis61. And in the said caus the lordis decernit that the partie conventa et rea that comperit nocht in primo termino summonitionum and sua thair wes ane uthir terme set to the uthir partie to preve nunc, that in secundo termino <possit> comparere et opponere etiam declinatorias et compositiones quascunque, contra id quod vetatur patere, et omnino in cap. Preterea, Extra de delation.62.
60Parallel problem in case nr. 242.
61Garbled. There is neither a chapter "Ex parte" in the title X 2.1 "de iudiciis", nor in any title of similar wording. For the point of law 6. 5.(13).7 and 74 could be quoted. Furthermore the gloss there lists many parallel texts.
62X 2.8.2 [to the point].

88. Off reduceing of retouris
Decimonono die mensis eiusdem <dec. 1541>: In causa reductionis returnationis cuiusdam intentata ad instantiam regis, ex eo quod retornati inquisitores A de terris B non expresso "cum tenentibus et tenandriis", cum tamen aliqua pars terrarum earum esset tenandria. Et ad hoc probandum advocatus regis produxit returnationem cuiusdam C in quo continebatur quod dictus C tenebat illas terras de D predecessore ipsius rei, de cuius returni reductione simpliciter agebatur. Decretum fuit per dominos Consilii quod that retour, quhilk wes eldare nor that retour, of reductioun of the quhilk wes the questioun, provit sufficientlie the halding of the landis as the advocate allegit that thai wer tenandrie, and sua the assys had erret ignorantlie and thairfoir the haill retour wes reducit. And than the lordis said that the retour sould ay preiff all thingis contenit in it ay and quhill it wes reducit, albeit the retour provis nocht the thingis contenit in it quando agitur de jure super ea reducendo per viam actionis. <= Continuation from nr. 75.>

89. De revocandis alienatis in fraudem creditorum
Eodem die <19 dec. 1541>: In causa cuiusdam Jacobus Hering contra Dowhill, the lordis decernit the laird of Dowhillis infeftment of the landis of A, maid to him be the B, to be reducit in the haill or at the leist to the sowme of sex hundereth merkis aucht of befoir thairynto the said James Hering of Glasgw63. Fand that inhibitioun maid <be> oppin proclamatioun as is use, that na man sould by ony landis fra the said B in defraud of the said James his creditour, previt sufficientlie of the practik of the realme of Scotland.
63Actio Pauliana, D. 42.8, C. 7.75.

90. Pena deforciantis officiarios domini sui
<19 dec. 1541 - jan. 1542?> The tenentis that deforcis the lordis officiaris forfaltis his takis and tynis all his moveabill guidis that ar within his iurisdictioun. And this pane pertenis to sic tenentis and fewaris bayth of spirituall and temporall lordis.
Generalis absolutio a quibuscunque censuris incursis ad instantiam quorumcunque, nullius nomine expresso, ad effectum prosequendum valet.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 596. Ane tennent that deforces the officer of his maister tynes his takes and moveabill guidis.
Eo tempore <1541-1542>: It was fund be the lordis that quhen any tennent deforces the officer of his maister or overlord, giff he hes any takes, he tynes the samyn and thai forfalt, and also tynes all his moveabill guidis that ar within the jurisdictione of his maister quhais officer he hes deforcit. And this paine appertenis to the frie tennentis baith of spirituall and temporall landis.

91. De allegante se heredem et hoc non probante
Eodem die <19 dec. 1541>: In causa cuiusdam pauperis contra abbatem de Kilvynning petentis ab eo certas evidentias tanquam heres cuiusdam A, decretum est eum non esse audiendum in causa, ex eo quod non erat deservitus heres illius nec docebat de hoc legitime, cum tamen actio eius ex hoc penderet. Nec ratione poterat pendere ullum interesse, de quo ante omnia debet constare.

92. Exceptio contra spolium de legitima premonitione
Eodem die <19 dec. 1541>: In causa spolii contra dominum de Kilvynning et certos alios Hammyltonis, eius servos et amicos, intentata per quendam pauperem, censuerunt domini spolium elidi (et eius actionem), ex eo quod rei probaverunt (excipiendo peremptorie) quod actor (de spoliatione conquerens) erat legitime premonitus ad removendum se et sua de possessione super qua querebatur. Et inde postea debite foras eiectus est, et inde remotus per officiarium domini terre et per eundem ipse reus in possessionem deductus. Et ideo vim nullam factam, juris consuetudinarii solempnitate observata in hoc casu64.
64Parallel problem in nr. 372.

93. De protestatione contra actorem
Vigesimoquarto die mensis eiusdem <dec. 1541>: In causa domini Somerwell actoris, quidam pauper cognomine Thomesone docuit per instrumentum publicum quod dominus ille recusavit dare illi copiam literarum contra ipsum per eundem dominum levatarum, per quas citari fecit pauperum ad diem, ut asserebat, jam longe preteritum. Domini admiserunt protestationi dicti Thomesone ut non tenetur respondere, nisi receptis prius suis expensis et ipse de novo citato, licet copiam citationis non ostenderit quam habere non poterat.

94. Off landis gevin causa nuptiarum in vitalem redditum, matrimonio per devortium separato
Eodem die <24 dec. 1541>: In causa tenentium de N conquerentium de districtione duorum pretensorum dominorum, decretum fuit quod tenentes responderent mulieri sasite de terris illis nomine vitalis reditus, nonobstante quod vir docuit de sententia definitiva devortii inter eos lata, expresse ferente in se quod rescinderetur quicquid alter alteri dotis aut donationis propter nuptias <causa> dedisset, et quod ipse erat hereditarie sasitus in terris illis. Et hoc ideo quia dotem nondum restituerat mulieri, nec etiam poterat de iure eiicere propria sua authoritate mulierem de possessione, nec sententiam devortii per se ipsum executioni demandare.

95. Quod spoliatio petita non requirit tituli ostensionem, nisi in casu
Decimooctavo die novembris anno quo supra <1541>: In causa spolii intentata contra dominum de Lasterik per Valterum Ogilvy de Drumligens, loquuti sunt domini quod ipse actor Valterus de proprietate suarum terrarum (de quarum spoliatione hic agebat) non tenebatur docere de illa, ex eo quod spoliatus non tenetur de titulo sue possessionis docere, quamvis de titulo mentionem facit in libello65. Bot incace he vald conclud et restitutiones et possessiones terrarum tamquam hereditarie sibi pertinentium, tunc eum dicebant oportere eum summarie docere de sua proprietate et titulo, licet tunc plenaria proprietatis cognitio non haberet locum. De hoc vide ut in novis decisionibus, quarta66, si spoliatus docere debeat de titulo possessionis sue, et an plene.
65See quotations for nr. 53. Parallel problem in nrs. 106 and 124 and others.
66Decisiones Rotae Romanae novae, collected by Guilielmus Horborch (1378-1381), nr. 4 = de restitutione spoliatorum 1 [to the point].

96. Off reductioun of the lordis decrete
Primo decembris anno quo supra <1541>: In causa domini de Ogilvy contra quendam mulierem, domini reduxerunt decretum ipsorum dominorum Consilii Supremi domini nostri regis, ex eo quod dictum decretum latum erat contra dominum predictum in causa spoliationis intentata contra ipsum per dictam mulierem virtute acti adiornalis cuiusdam, et in libello super quo decretum latum erat, dicta actrix possessionem non libellavit, cum tamen de iure et practica regni de spoliatione agens necessario debet et possessionem et violentam eiectionem libellare et probare. Et altero eorum non libellato dicebant libellum ineptum esse, et ideo sententiam inde secutam ipso iure nullam et ideo retractandam, non obstante quod dicta exceptio videbatur dilatoria, et non erat in prima instantia opposita, et videretur in <secunda> instantia non admittenda; ac etiam non obstante quod in prima instantia reus opposuerat exceptionem peremptoriam et in eius probatione defecit et materia plene disputata tunc fuerat condemnatus. Dicebant domini quod de ineptitudine libelli potest opponi in quacunque parte litis et etiam post sententiam latam. Quod de iure verum est67. Et sit notum de practica quod in secunda instantia non-allegata allegabo et non-producta producam, albeit the saidis defenssis competebant mihi in prima instantia.
67See quotations for nr. 125.

97. Off doubill poinding be vertew of new infeftment and that auld infeftment with possessioun nochtwithstanding the auld infeftment aucht to ceis be the superiouris foirfaltour
Decimonono mensis predicti <dec. 1541>: In causa of doubill poinding, the lordis decernit the tenentis plenyeand thairof to ansuer and obey of the maillis and deweteis of the landis to ane woman quha wes infeft heretablie thairin, nochtwithstanding that be reasone of schir James Hammyltones foirfaltour (as I remember), all the landis become the kingis and he had gevin ane new infeftment thairof to ane man, and the woman to be keipit in hir possessioun quhill scho wes ordourlie callit and put thairfra. And that in this cace thai mycht nocht disput of thir titillis and ground rycht and als that ane tenent and friehalder of ane man foirfaltit mycht nocht be put out of his <possessioun> bot ordourlie callit be proces of law be the kingis grace nor na uthir his donatour. <Parallel case nr. 83.>
And the samyn wes laitlie practizat aganis the lord Somerwellis <in> causa simili.

98. Off takis set be kirkmen to be kepit be thair successouris
The 18 of the said moneth of thairby <dec. 1541>: In ane caus movit betuix the lord bischope of Abirdene and the executouris of umquhile Gawin bischope of that ilk, the lordis decretit that of the practik of Scotland all prelattis of the realme may set fyve yeiris takis and that thair successouris sould and aucht to keip the samyn68, and sua that the said William bischope aucht to keip the said fyve yeiris takis set to certane tenentis be the said umquhile bischope Gawin and nocht to clame the deweteis and gressomes thairfoir.
68Rule also stated in nr. 64.

99. Off wranguis uptaking of fermes of landis and doubill titillis and real possessioun of titill
The 20 day of the said monetht <dec. 1541>: In the caus betuix the maister of Haillis lord of Bowtoun and the laird of Stenepethe, the lordis decretit that, becaus the said lard wes be the space of xx yeiris of thairby in possessioun peciablie of certane landis as his propirtie of his said lairdschip and heretablie infeft thairin, quhilkis the maister clamet to apertene to him heretablie and schew thairof ane instrument of seasing and thairthrow allegit that the said laird be the said space had wranguslie uptakin the maillis, firmes, proffeitis and deweteis thairof and askit him to be decernit be the lordis decrete to refound the samyn agane to him, the lordis decretit the said laird to haiff done na wrang in the premissis for the termes foirsaid, and als becaus the said maister wes nevir in reall possessioun bot of the said seasing and that the samyn wes privatlie gevin, that the said maister mycht nocht put thairthrow the said laird fra his possessione thairof nor recover the proffeitis thairof fra him, his heretabill infeftment and seasing thairof standing with continuall, reall and actuall possessione.

100. Off spoilyie and poinding by taxmen the occupyaris of the ground
The xxi day of januar anno foirsaid <1542>: Ane callit Thomesoun movit ane actioun of spoilyie aganes ane James Ker as the cace followis: The said Thomesoun wes subtenent to ane uthir man, tenent to the quenis grace, quha is with God, of certane of his landis for the space of fyve yeiris, quhilkis ran furth at Witsounday in anno 1540. The said quene causit laufullie warne the said tenent to remove, ly furth and denud hir ground of him and his geir and enter the said James, hir new tenent and takisman thairto, quhilk James had of hir thre or four yeiris tak to rin eftir the eschew of hir foirsaidis uthiris tenentis takis. Nochttheles hir said first tenent and the said Thomesoun, subtenent to him, withheld the reall possessione of the said steading continuallie fra the said Witsounday. And the said James at the nixt terme theireftir payit his males and deweteis as takisman to the said quenis factouris and thaireftir poindit the said Thomesoun, occupyar of the said steding, for the males thairof as he allegit auchtin to him as takisman foirsaid. Quhairfoir the said Thomesone callit the said James for spuilye of the saidis guidis poyndit and takin fra him. And the said James exceptit and allegit that he had done na wrong nor spuilye, becaus the said principall tenent wes laufullie warnit, furthlaid and removit at the foirsaid terme and he than enterit be the quenis precept and, as he allegit, in reall possessione be paying of the males as said is. And producit his letter of tak, precept and acquittance thairof. It wes replyit to that be the said Thomesoun that the foirsaid allegance mycht nocht save him frome spuilye. The lordis decretit the said James to haiff committit spuilyie into this cace and decernit him to restoir the said Thomesones gudis agane, becaus the said James takisman had na powar to poynd and als mycht nocht at his awin hand poynd the said Thomesone nor put him furth of his steading via facti, the said Thomesone remaning continuallie in possessioune eftir the said feist of Witsounday, and thairfoir mycht nocht be denude of his possessione per viam facti bot aucht and sould haiff bene callit for violent occupatioun. And als ane takisman hes na powar to poynd nor to mak warning for removing of tenentis, and that to be understand gif the tak contenis nocht "with powar to output and input" etc.

101. Off exceptioun of less aige and falte of wit to comit spuilyie or uthir cryme
The 23 of the moneth foirsaid <jan. 1542>: The lordis of Counsall decernit in ane caus of spoilyie movit be ane A. Somerwell, paroche clerk of the kirk of N, <aganes ane> and his sone callit (ut recordor) Hammyltone, that the said sone aucht to ansuer in capite spolii, nochtwithstanding that tempore spolii his procuratour maister Thomas Marioribankis allegit that he wes bot 6 yeir auld and sua could nocht peccare nec vim committere nor yit be oblist ex delicto tanto defectu intellectus in causa illa. Quhilkis allegeance the lordis thocht ressonabill in causa criminali sed non in civili causa, ne "cum aliena jactura locupletetur" et iniuste alienam rem detineat69.
69Canon law doctrine of "restitutio", based on the biblical command "Thou shalt not steal" = Exodus 20.15, Leviticus 19,11, Deuteronomium 5,17. Words quoted from 6. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 48, based on D. 12.6.14 = D. 50.17.206.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 595. He that is in infantili aetate may be convict of spuilyie.
23 januar 1541 <= 1542> : Thair was ane Somervaill that persewit ane Hamiltone and his sone for spoliatione of certane guidis and geir. It was answerit be the sone that he aucht nocht to be decernit to haiff committit spuilye, becaus at that tyme he was bot vi. yeires of age et sic in infantili aetate and could nocht in that age committere spolium or obligari ex delicto. The lordis repellit the alledgance and fand that, albeit in criminall causses ane infant or ane of his yeires mycht nocht be convict, yit in civill causses and sua as concerning the spoliatione of geir he mycht, cum nemo cum alterius jactura debet locupletari70, ne ipse quidem minor aut puer infantilis aut quivis alius71.
70See notes to nrs. 101 and 407.
71The collector has thus grasped that "spuilzie", the unlawful interference with another's possession, has two consequences: On one hand there ensues criminal prosecution, applicable against persons who wilfully broke the king's peace. This will of course not apply against a child. On the other hand there also ensues a civil claim for restitution of possession. The civil claim lies against any unlawful taker of possession, regardless of whether there lies a moral reproach. Restitution may thus also be sought against someone who merely erred and thought the object in question was his own. This argument is also valid when restitution is sought from a child.

<23 jan. 1542> Kirkmen callit for warrandice aucht to answer befoir the temporall judge, as wes decernit be the lordis the xxiii day of the foirsaid moneth.

103. The lordis suppleis the irrelevancie of exceptioun of partie
The xxv day or thairby <jan. 1542>: In Johne Finlasones caus aganes maister Ker, the lordis fand that be practik and consuetude thai mycht help and supple the irrelevancie of ane parteis exceptioun nocht consavit dewlie, and sua thay did in the said Keris exceptioun proponit aganis violence intentit aganes him be the said Johne Findlasone. And sua usis the lordis to helpe and supple the falt, negligence and ignorance of the procuratouris.

104. Summondis upone men furth of the realme
The quhilk day <25 jan. 1542>: In causa cuiusdam patris contra Sempill, the lordis fand that ane man furth of the realme aucht to be summond upone iiixx dayis at the first terme and thaireftir in all uther termes his procuratour or him selff upone xv dayis or fewar be oppin proclamatioun quhair he duellis.

105. Off giftis of non-entres of the king with quhyt lynes in thame to be as plesis the pairtie fulfillit and warrandice of pairtie thairin
The thrid day of februar anno eodem <1542>. In the actioun of non-entres mowit be schir N. chaiplane aganes ane N McCultoun and the laird of Bargane for his entres to seclud the non-entres and the said chaiplanes gift thairof obtenit fra the kingis grace, the lordis fand be interlocutour the said lardis exceptioun that the said preist had raisit ane privie seill upone the signatour thairof grantit to him be the king sen the deceis of N, quhais name wes left furth, and the said preist in the privie seill specifeit ane man and usit the said gift in iudgement. And thaireftir upone the samyn signatour the samyn preist raisit ane uthir gift with ane uthir manis name and sen that manis deceis askit the non-entres, quhilk he mycht nocht do, becaus the signatour grantit him bot the non-entres sen ane manis deceis and sua he mycht nocht pas to ane uthir. And thairfoir be vertew of that signatour his secound gift mycht nocht be to him of availl. The lordis be interlocutour fand the exceptioun relevant.

106. Off schawing off wryttingis quhairupone fundand libellatur exc.
ione or the uthir pairtie answer thairto.
<CONTINUED> The said day <3 feb. 1542> in the said caus, the lordis be interlocutour decernit that ane pairtie fundand his exceptioun upone evidentis or writtis aucht nocht to schaw statim the said writ for the fundatioun of the uthir pairteis reply, albeit actor (fundans se sic), antequam reus libello respondeat debeat perhibere reo eiusmodi scripta72. And the lordis usis in causa exceptionis to reserve the parteis defensis contra producendas huiusmodi evidentias et scripturas. Vide Rotam in novis, decisio 3473 et evidentia(?) extra(?)74 hoc probat.
72Doctrine based on C. 2.1.5-6 et 8, also stated in nrs. 53 and 124 and others.
73Decisiones Rotae Romanae novae, collected by Guilielmus Horborch, 1376-1381, nr. 34 = De probationibus 2 [to the point].
74See quotations to nr. 53.

107. Off intimatioun of assignatioun and cessionarii to be made to the dettour
<CONTINUED> The said day <3 feb. 1542> in the said McCulteis caus, the lordis be interlocutour decernit intimatioun of cessionar and assignay maid to the dettour be the principall creditour sufficient to seclud the creditour fra actioun aganis the dettour, albeit the cessionar and assignay had nocht intimat the samyn to the dettour, nor contestet the caus aganis him, nor gottin payment - iuxta l. 3, C. de novationibus et delegationibus75.
75C. 8.41.3 pr. [to the point].

108. Exceptioun for impreving of instrumentis or evidentis
The first of Februar or thairby anno eodem <1542>: In causa Georgii Home contra quendam Leirthmonth civem de Perth, propter76 improbationem et falsationem assedationis cuiusdam factam dicto Leirmonth, quod asserebatur <per> dictum Georgium, the lordis decernit the said George nocht to be admittit to impreiff the assedatioun, becaus it wes understand to thame be the said George hand writ grantit to him in thair presens that the said assedatioun wes subscryvit be the said George hand, ut clare ex comparatione literarum constabat, and als the said subscriptioun of the assedatioun wes be sentence of ane judge of Striviling recognoscet, apprevit and fand the said George hand writ, as the sentence producit befoir the lordis schew. And attour the said George wald haiff imprevit the said assedatioun be tua uthir servandis of his awin being than actuallie in his service, and sua his caus wes suspectit nocht guid and the uthir pairtie absolvit.
76MS: penes.

109. Off producing of simpill billis
The aucht day of Februar foirsaid <1542>: In ane caus movit upone the pane of ten lib. statute be act of parliament aganis thame that skaythleslie sclanderis ony man, the lordis be interlocutour decernit that the pane thairof mycht be askit be ane simple bill, the pairteis being in Edinburgh, and nedit nocht to cum in be ony summondis, nather peremptour nor yit be ordour of tabill.

110. Off proceding upone ane bill for suspentioun of the kingis letters
The foirsaid day <8 feb. 1542>: The lordis decretit that the laird of Cragy desyrit the letters raisit upone him be the laird of Kilfawnis, for non-fulfilling of ane contract betuix thame, sould ceis aganis him now and be simpliciter suspendit for certane iust causis allegit and verefeit befoir the lordis, mycht cum in be ane simple bill and nedit nocht ane summondis.

111. Off reductioun of rolmentis at the kingis and pairteis instance
The iiii day of Februar foirsaid <1542>: The lordis decretit that in ane caus of the lord Lyndsay is tuiching the reductioun of ane decrete of the lordis, passing ane officiaris kenning of ane air to his terce of certane landis, that the said caus mycht nocht cum in the privalege of the kingis privalege and aucht nocht to byd dyet of partie, becaus it wes intentit at the kingis instance and pairteis aganes the officiar for wilfull errour in the executioun of his office and sua redoundis to the kingis proffeit, and the caus of the reductioun of the decrete concerning the partie wes fundit upone errour of the officiar.

The sevint day of februar instante <1542>: In the caus of ane pure man of Paislay tuiching the reductioun of ane rolment of court gevin aganis him for the pairt of Eduard Stewart, the said pure man libellit summondis of error aganis the assys and summond the said pairtie for his entres to heir the said rolment reducit, becaus the assys and inqueist as he allegit erret wilfully decernand him to haiff na rycht to his tak of certane landis of Paslay and the said Edward to haif rycht becaus he schew assedatioun thairof. And the pure man schew na thing bot allegit and referrit thairin to the assys. The lordis assignit ane day to the pure man to prove his allegeance de novo, albeit as the rolment buir he allegit the samyn in prima instantia et non probavit, ideo tunc condemnatus fuit.

113. Direct contrair to the uthir pairteis allegeance nocht to be admittit
The ix of februar <1542>: In the caus of spuilye of certane merchandis aganis the bailleis and eldermen of Vigtoun, the lordis decretit that of thair practik ane exceptioun, article or reply or quhatsumevir uthir answer or defensis direct contrair to the summondis or exceptioun of the uthir pairtie sould nocht be admittit to preve77, and sua thay repellit Mr. Thomas Marioribankis reply maid to Mr Hew Riggis exceptioun aganis the said spuilyie.
77This means: not admitted to be proved by the defendant - because in such cases the burden of proof lies on the pursuer, of course. The pursuer (and not the defendant) must be admitted to prove that his account of the facts of the case is correct. Parallel problem in nr. 19.

114. In mending of summondis thai fand sum parte of it pro deleto. And into quhat place of the proces the persewar may do the same
The said day <9 feb. 1542>: In William Rutherfurdis caus aganes the erle of Bothuile tuiching the reductioun of the erlis infeftment of certane husband landis of Langnewtoun, the lordis decernit that the said Williame mycht habere pro deleto thir wordis of the summondis "the saxt day of Februar", quhilk wes the dait of the chartour quhilk he askit to be producit be the said erle for reductioun thairof, quia non erat de substantia libelli, et litis contestatio wes nocht yit maid78.
78Based on commentaries to C. 2.1.3.

115. Quando censetur lis contestata coram dominis Consilii
<CONTINUED> Quhilk <litis contestatio> usis nocht to be maid of the lordis practik. Nochttheles in place of it in thair practik thair succeidis the proponing of ane peremptour exceptioun, gif it be anis put to preif, or how sone that ewer the mater beis put to probatioun79.
In the samyn caus thair wes divers exceptiounis dilatouris (be ressone of the kingis respect grantit to the said erle beand out of Scotland) proponit and disputatit be the pairteis and thair procuratouris at the bar, and interlocutouris gevin thairupone be the lordis. Nochttheles thai be interlocutour decernit that the said Thomas mycht mend his summondis and haiff pro deleto the saidis wordis, and that quia de iure ante litem contestatam actor potest emendare80 libellum, et de practica Scotiae similiter habere pro deleto aliquid quod de substantia libelli non sit, ut in casu presenti. Thay decernit that it is nocht necessar to libell the dait of ane uthir manis chartour quhilk ane man callis to produce81.
79This text is more explicit than the other ones on the topic. According to the Ius Commune, "litis contestatio" is not effected by mere demand in court and reply, not even if "exceptiones peremptoriae" have been raised - but only after the Court has reacted to such demand and reply (X 2.5.1): for instance by admitting the "libellus" or an "exceptio peremptoria" to proof. This is further qualified in nr. 149: The effect of "litis contestatio", namely barring of any further exceptiones, only ensues after the taking of evidence has actually started (first witnesses heard, etc.). "Litis contestatio" does not follow from mere "exceptiones dilatoriae" and their proof (see this nr. and nr. 124).
80Word from C. 2.1.3.
81Corresponds to doctrines for "actio ad exhibendum", D. 10.4; C. 3.42.

116. Be disputing upone dilatouris exceptionis and interlocutouris thairupone non inducit litis contestationem coram dominis Consilii.
<CONTINUED> And albeit Mr Hew Rig, procuratour to the said erle, proponit per viam exceptionis aganis the said William Rutherfurdis summondis that he sould be assoilyeit thairfra, becaus that the chartour that he had of the samyn landis wes of ane uthir dyet, nor wes expremit into the said William summondis, and this exceptioun supercedit to the morne thaireftir, nochttheles the lordis fand be interlocutour that yit the said William mycht mend his summondis in that pairt habendo pro deleto, becaus that exceptioun wes bot dilatoria. Sua videbatur causa adhuc esse iusta ante litis contestationem, ut patet.

117. Licet habere pro deleto et that the uthir pairtie hes anis foundit him upone and als proponit in modum exceptionis, petendo se ab exceptione illa absolvi, quando lis adhuc non habetur pro contest
ata<CONTINUED> Als in the said caus, the lordis decernit the said William' summondis irrelevantlie consavit and kest thame ratione generalitatis, becaus he boundit nocht nor specifeit cleirlie the fyfetene husband landis contenit in his summondis.

118. Respeittis grantit be the king nocht to be keipit in judgement to stop justice
<CONTINUED> Als in the said caus the lordis decernit proces to the said William aganes the said erle (absent furtht of the realme), nochtwithstanding his respect (and lordis decrete interponit thairupone and letters past thairupone, and the said decrete nocht being reducit): becaus the king under his letters of his seill chargit the lordis to proceid nochtwithstanding the respect (quhilk thai delyverit), <becaus it> sould nocht haiff proces in the caus intentit aganes the said erle at the obtening of the samyn and befoir his departing furth of Scotland.

119. Off instrumentis of seasing tint to be provin be witnessis and uthiris takminnis and argumentis and presumptionis cumulat togeader
The aucht of februar <1542>: The lordis, in the laird of Cragyhallis caus aganes the laird of Glenbarwie, in the caus of non-entres to preif certane landis in non-entres, the kingis advocat producit the copie of ane instrument of coniunctfie of the landis and tua decretis that the woman coniunctfear had obtenit langsyne aganis uthir persones for wranguis occupatioun of thai landis. The copie of the instrument wes registrat in the buikis of Counsall and extract thairof be the register clerk, and als ane uthir copie thairof under tua notaris subscriptiounis. And attour the advocat foirsaid allegit that the laird foirsaid had substractit the said instrument originall in defraud of the persewar. And offerit him to preve the samyn be witnessis, alleging this wayis the said tenendrie to be sufficientlie provin. The said lairdis procuratour, Mr Hew Rig, exceptit the copeis foirsaid nocht to be authentik, becaus thai wer maid and transumit the pairteis haifand intres thairto nocht callit as the law requyris82. And als exceptit that seasing and mater of heretage aucht to be provin bot be wretingis authentik and nocht be witnessis. Nochttheles the lordis, haifand consideratioun to the foirsaidis wretingis and uther gret presumptiounis for the pairt of the said laird of Cragyhall, and als becaus that ubi de iure scriptura requiritur, ut in casu nostro, secundum practicam regni Scotie, si scriptura interempta et perdita sit83 vel per adversarium substracta, ad hoc probandum per testes de iure quivis debet admitti: per <Pan.?> et alios in cap. Cum olim, extra de privile.84 et scribentes in l. Testium, C. de testibus85. And als becaus the said laird offerit to preve that the said woman as coniunctfear during hir lyfetyme joysit and brukit the samyn landis, and wes ane great takin that the instrument wes trew. And becaus of the law ex presumptionibus thairfoir thai admittit to the said advocatis to preif be witnessis as accordis of the law that the said instrument originall wes ane publict and authentik instrument, non vitiatum, rasum nec suspectum, and that it wes substractit be the said laird of Glenbarwie.
82Commentaries on Authentica "Si quis in aliquo documento", post C. 2.1.7, ex Nov. 119.3.
83Commentaries on C. 2.1.1 "id ex causa".
84Commentaries by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) and other authors, on X 5.33.12 [to the point].
85Legal authors on C. [to the point].

120. Quhat proffeittis the act of adiornall and quhat helpis ane protestatioun maid criminalie quhen ane man takis him to his compositour
The tent of februar <1542>: In the caus of Mr Andro Blakstok, assignay to ane Amwllikyn, aganes certane persones convict of spoliatioun fra him of certane guidis, as the act of adiornall proportit, the lordis be interlocutour decernit that the men persewit mycht use all thair defensis aganis the violent and wranguis taking of the saidis guidis, nochtwithstanding that thai tuik thame to thair compositioun in curia justiciaria and sua grantit the cryme. And that becaus thai schew authentik instrument of protestatioun for all thair defensis in that mater in civili judicio and sua mycht now allege ony iust caus of the awaytaking of the saidis guidis. And attour the saidis lordis decernit that, nochtwithstanding the said protestatioun, that thair confessioun of the guidis in speciall in the said act of adiornall aucht and sould of the practik mak full probatioun aganes thame upone the quantitie confessit, and that the uthir pairtie aucht nocht preve the quantitie uthirwyis.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 594. Confession of the spoliatione of guidis on speciall in ane act of adjornall is sufficient probatione, nochtwithstanding of protestatione for civil defenses.
14 februar 1541 <= 1542> : A persewit B. for the spoliatione of certane guidis, confessit be him to haiff bein tane away, in ane act of adjornall quhairintill he put him to his compositione. B. alledgit that at that tyme he protestit for his civil defenses quhilk he mycht us befoir the judge competent for the alledgit wrangous away-taking of the samen. And he was reddy to propone thame, and desyrit to be hard to that effect. To this was answerit that forsamekill as into the said act he had confessit the spoliatione of certane guidis in speciall, sic as ane hors and ane meir, he could us no defences aganes thame, nor yit was A. oblesit to prove the away-taking of the hors and meires, nor the quantitie of thame, in respect of his confessione of thame in speciall. The quhilk last alledgance the lordis fand relevant.

121. That ane procuratorie to resigne landis may be maid under forme of instrument
The xi day of the samyn moneth <feb. 1542>: The lordis decernit that ane procuratorie to resigne landis may be maid under forme of instrument, nochtwithstanding that reversionis and chartouris aucht to be maid under the annaliaris seill and hand writ and his seill, as the act of parliament beris, or be ane notar quhen he can nocht wreit. This wes decernit in ane Jonet Scottis caus contra Mr Robert Blair.

122. Quhair ane man previs him spuilyeit tua yeir or mair befoir that he allegit him to be spuilyeit.
The said day <11 feb. 1542>: In ane caus of N Somerwell aganis Hammyltone anent the spuilyeing of him of the fruttis of his paroche clerkschip of etc, the actouris witnessis, for preving of the spuilye producit, previt him spuilyeit tua yeiris or mair befoir the tyme of the spuilye quhilk tyme wes libellit, and sua previt nocht libellatum tempus spolii. Nochttheles the lordis decretit sentence condampnatour contra reos for the yeiris libellit. And thair ressone wes, becaus of thair practik spoliatus semell recensetur et semper spoliatus, donec spoliatus sit semell restitutus.

And in the samyn caus the lordis decretit that titulus obtentus a domino (vel habente authoritatem disponendi de rebus) per spoliatorem post spolium semell commissum may nocht save spoliatorem a spolio fra the dait of his titill in posterum, becaus oportebat spoliatum semell restitui, antequam ipse spoliator possit iuste quavis ratione possidere rem spoliatam86. And sua wes ane practik befoir, in causa cuiusdam contra dominum de Crawfurd that spuilyeit certane peittis fra certane puir men and pat thame violentlie furth of thair possessioun of ane moss and fewall casting thairin, and thairof obtenit ane infeftment fra the king. Bot the titill savit him nocht fra spuilye. And wes condamnit to restoir actores to thair possessione foirsaid. Alsua the said Hammyltone wes condemnit in spuilye and to restoir to the said Somerwell the fructis of the clerkschip.
86See note for nr. 125.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 593. The supervenient tyttill takis nocht away the spuilyie committit.
<13 feb. 1542> Thair was ane A.B. that persewit C.D. for the spoliatione of him of certane fruites and dewties, the quhilk he was in possessione of the tyme of the alledgit spuilyie. It was answerit be C.D.: he aucht nocht to be decernit to haiff committit any spuilyie, becaus he had obtenit the richt of the saidis fruites and dewties, and now the richt of thame appertenit to him only. And at the tym of the alledgit spoliatione the persewar had na richt to the same. To this was answerit that the supervenient richt could nocht tak away the spuilyie, quia "spoliatus ante omnia semell venit restituendus"87. And quhair it was alledgit that the persewar had na richt uit, nevertheles he aucht nocht to be put fra his possessione bot authore pretore. The quhilk last alledgance the lordis fand relevant. And that the supervenient richt saiffit nocht fra the spuilyie.
87Decretum Gratiani, Causa 3, quaestio 3, c. 1-2.

123. Off mending of libellis
The said day <11 feb. 1542>: In the caus of spuilyie intentit be certane pure tenentis of N aganes the provest and communitie of Selkirk (as I remember), tuiching certane peittis and fewall casting, the said tenentis procuratour (James McGill) faillit in the libelling of his summondis, and in the conclusione thairof askit the tenentis to be decernit to restoir the saidis peittis, quhair he sould haiff sayet and askit the persones libellit to be decernit etc. And for his falt of the summondis Mr Andro Blakstok (procuratour for the uthir pairtie) askit absolvitour sentence fra the summondis, causante illa ineptitudine.

124. Pro deleto habere licet id, super quo altera pars iam fundavit et proposuit suam exceptionem, ratione cuius etiam petit absolutionem
The said McGill ansuerit that he wald haiff thai wordis the saidis pro deleto and sua his summondis wes yit out of perfyt sentence and the conclusione thairof desyrand thame or ony ane of thame to be decernit to haiff done wrang. And said that the relatum illud thairin referrit sufficientlie personas libellatas. The lordis fand be interlocutour that the said Mr James McGill mycht do the samyn et in hoc corrigere libellum suum, habendo illa verba pro deleto, becaus of the practik and law usque ad litis contestationem libellus possit emendari modo predicto88, and als li<ti>s <contestatio> coram dominis Consilii per propositionem dilatoriam et interlocutorias desuper latas non inducitur, sed tunc cum conventum est ad probationis terminum statutum ad probandum89, quhilk wes nocht done in this caus. And als in this caus the lordis mendit the said libell and schew the samyn to the said Mr James McGill, and that eftir that the said Mr Andro had proponit exceptionem hanc inepti libelli and askit thairfoir absolutoriam for his client.
88Commentaries to C. 2.1.3.
89Rule in nr. 149. See also nr. 115 (note).

125. Pro suo interesse debent admitti in causa spolii.
The xiii of the said monetht <feb. 1542>: In causa of the men of Selkirk aganes certane tenentis of Kelso, anent the allegit spuilyeing of the men foirsaid of Selkirk of thair possessione of certane landis quhilkis thai clamit to pertene to the burcht of Selkirk in propirtie and communitie in possessione past memorie of man unto the tyme of the spuilye libellit. Than Mr Thomas Marioribankis, procuratour for the abbot and convent of Kelso, desyrit to be admittit for thair enteres, allegeand thai landis, of possessioun of the quhilk the questioun wes, to pertene to the said abbay of Kelso. And desyrit ane copy of the summondis and ane day to ansuer thairto, becaus thai wer nocht summond. The lordis decernit the said procuratour nocht to haiff the samyn, nor to be admittit now ratione interesse to dispute upone the propirtie of the saidis landis for stopping of the caus of spuilyie. And albeit de iure tertius pro suo interesse posset de dominio suo agere ad impediendum spoliatum restitui ad suam possessionem (nam regula iuris quod "ante omnia spoliatus est restituendus"90 non obstat tercio comparenti pro suo interesse), nochttheles de practica dominorum Consilii obstat exceptio huius regule non solum spoliatori sed cuicunque etiam alteri pro suo interesse comparenti.
90Decr. Grat. C. 3 q.1 c. 3-4; X 2.13; 6. 2.5.

126. Exceptio direct contrare nocht to be admittit in possessione recipienda, upone possessioun past memorie of man.
<CONTINUED> And als the said Mr Thomas exceptit that the saidis tenentis of Kelso did na wrang in eiectioun of the uthir pairtie in thair allegit possessioun foirsaid, becaus the said abote and convent and thair predicessouris and thair servandis and tenentis in thair name past memorie of man wes in possessioun of the samyn landis as thair propirtie and patrimonie of thair abbay and sua did na wrang, seing thai bot keipit and defendit thair awin possessioun. The lordis decernit this exceptioun nocht to be admittit, becaus it is direct contrair to the uthir pairteis summondis, and sua repellit the samyn exceptioun91.
91See note for nr. 19 and 113.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 592. In action of spuilyie the thrid persone will nocht be admittit for his entres.
13 februarii 1541 <= 1542> : The inhabitantis and communitie of Selkirk intendit actione of spuilyie aganes certane tennentis of the abbot of Kelso for the spoliatione of thame of thair possessione and debarring thame from using of certane landis, belonging to thame as commontie and propertie of the quhilk thai had bein in possessione, of past memorie of man. Compeirit the abbot of Kelso for his entres and desyrit to be admittit for his entres, alledging the landis to appertein to him as ane pairt of his patrimonie. It was answerit that in this caicie he aucht nocht to be admittit, for heir the questione was of spuilyie, et quod "spoliatus ante omnia venit restituendus"92. To this was answerit that the toun of Selkirk acclamed this possessione as of the landis quhilk appertenit to thaim in propertie and communitie, and sa the questione was nocht onlie for the wrang and spoliatione that was committit, bot also upone the propertie of the ground, quhilk the abbot wald prove to appertein to him. The lordis wald nocht admitt the abbot to be hard for his entres to stop the actione of spuilyie93, quia interest rei publicae jure ne crimina maneant impunita, aut saltem ne quis violenter de sua re ejiceatur.
92Decretum Gratiani, Causa 3, quaestio 3, c. 1-2.
93Because the "iudicium possessorium" must strictly be separated from the "iudicium petitorium". See X 2.10.

127. Exceptiones aganes witnessis ratione affectionis
<CONTINUED> Als in the foirsaid caus the lordis decernit that kynnismen to the provest and bailleis of Selkirk and uthir induellaris of the toun, quhilkis provest and bailleis and communitie wes actouris principallis in the caus, mycht nocht be witnessis to the said provest, bailleis and communitie. And in the said caus dubitatum fuit gif the burcht nixt adiacent to the said burcht and pasturit oftymes thair guidis and cattell upon the said communitie mycht be witness to the said provest and communitie. And it than apperit to the lordis that thai wer suspect ratione affectionis ad communitatem and becaus thai gat in pasturing foirsaid proffeit of the said communitie. And als it wes allegit be ane of the said lordis that for the samyn caus witnessis wes repellit of befoir in ane siclyk caus of the communitie of Ranfrow and Rugling, in qua causa erat quidam pauper N. Bot this day in causa communitatis de Selkirk hoc non fuit decisum.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 592, continued:
And in the samyn caus the lordis admittit the inhabitantes of the toun to be witnesses.

128. Quod confessio in causa criminali be act of adiornall protestando pro defensionibus super contentis in acto illo confessato convincitur in causa criminali94.
The xiii day of the moneth foirsaid <feb. 1542>: In the vicare of Kingorne caus aganes the laird of Siefeild, the lordis fand be interlocutour that the act of adiornall, quhair the laird foirsaid tuk him to his componitour for all crymes, the quhilk laird than protestit for all his defenssis, as ane instrument producit befoir the lordis schew, and albeit the said laird wes indytit for violent occupatioun of the said vicaris gleib and haldin waist of the uther pairtie be the space of sex yeiris, the said act of adiornall sufficient to preve the deid and quantetie and sua admittit the said vicare to preiff the said violence and waist halding be the said space.
94Nrs. 128-130 refer to the same case as nr. 279. Practick nr. 150 refers to the same case in a later stage.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 591.Alledgance contrair to the act of adjornall nocht admittit.
4 februarii 1541 <= 1542> : The vicar of Kingorne persewit the laird of Seyfeild for the violent occupatioune of ane pairt of ane gleib pertening to him, halding it wast for the space of vi. yeires. And foundit his lybell upone the said lairdis confessione in ane act of adjornall, <in> quhilk he tuik him to the compositioune of the samyn and all uther crymes that he had committit. It was answerit be the laird that he tuik him to compositioune with protestatione that he mycht us his defences quhen any actione was civilie intendit aganes him. And now he offerit him to prove that the vicar during all the tyme occupeit the gleb himselff, and tennendis and servandis in his name. The lordis repellit the summondis, nochtwithstanding of his protestatione.

129. Articulus directe contrarius non admittitur.
<CONTINUED> And vald nocht admit the said laird to prove that be the said <time> the said vicar be him selff and his tenentis in his name occupyit all the said gleibe, becaus that exceptione wes direct contrair to the summondis of the uthir pairtie and swa de practica aucht nocht to be admittit95.
95See footnotes for nr. 19 and 113.

130. Appellatione "partis" intelligitur dimedia <pars>, maxime cum dictione "alterius"
<CONTINUED> And in the said caus be interlocutour the lordis decernit that the act of adiornall etc., berand that dictus dominus libellatus accepit se ad compositionem suam pro vasta detentione unius partis glebe antedicte et violenta occupatione alterius partis, suld be interpreit that appellatione "partis" veniat et intelligatur dimedia pars, and that tam de iure scripto quam respectu dictionis "alterius" posite in dicto articulo, quhilk word inferris and is relative of twa alanerlie, secundum communem usum loquendi.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 591, continued:
And also in the samyn caus, as quhair the vicar persewit for the halding waist of ane pairt of the gleb, the lordis fand it mycht be interpreit the ane halff et dimedia pars, juxta communem usum loquendi.

131. De probatione per privatum scriptum et testes de iure susceptos
The xxv of the said moneth <feb. 1542>: In the actione of spuilye movit at the instance of ane Gelis Tod contra quendam (ut opinor) Crawfurd, per Irland procuratorem rei, exceptum fuit that eftir the allegit spuilye committit it wes transactit, componit and aggreit betuix the saidis pairteis, and the said Gelis had renuncit and ourgevin to him (that wes reus in the caus) hir said maling and all hir rycht and kyndnes thairof. And for verefeing thairof the said Mr David Irland producit ane writ contenand the samyn and als witnessis contenit thairin, to preve the samyn. In the contrair it wes allegit be Mr Thomas McCalyeane and Mr Andro Blakstok (procuratouris for the uther pairtie), that the writ previt nocht becaus it wes bot privat, and that the said exceptioun suld be provin be authentik writ. And als thai allegit that the witnessis suld nocht be reasavit in this caus ubi requirebatur de practica probatio per scripturam, et eo maxime becaus the said witnessis wes of grei desendand of kin in consanguinitie and affinitie to the man that producit thame, and rekynnit the degreis, and thairfoir aucht nocht to be admittit. Nochttheles the lordis resavit thame. And becaus the writ apperit to be veray auld and the caus wes of xxi yeiris, and als the witnessis wes veray honest and unsuspect men and previt cleirlie the writ and the contentis of it, the lordis gave ane sentence absolvitour reo ex verisimilibus coniecturis, albeit de rigore aliter fuisset judicandum.

132. Exceptioun aganes witnessis. Et quod par affectionis causa suspitionem non tollat
The xvi day of the said moneth <feb. 1542>: The lordis, in ane caus of ane Patrik Dicsoun in Hardrip aganis schir Thomas Ratho notar publict and Johne Dicsoun for his entres, the lordis repellit certane witnessis producit be the said Patrik ratione consanguinitatis in gradu prohibito inter Patricium et ipsos testes, licet testes ipsi attinerent alteri parti in gradu eodem propinquo. And that becaus that be(?) thair practik the theorik of the legistes and canonistes "par affectionis causa tollit suspitionem"96 hes no place.
And als in the said caus the lordis admittit the Patrik foirsaid to prove ane instrument quhilk he desyrit the notar to give him, quhilk the notar refusit to do becaus he allegit that his prothogoll buik wes burnt in his chalmer in Kelso quhen Kelso was first burnt, and that he could nocht remember perfytlie quhat the instrument contenit. Thairfoir the lordis admittit to the said Patrik the witnessis of the burning of the said prothogoll and the witnessis of the instrument and that it wes haill and nocht vitiat be thame that had red it, and schew the samyn, to that effect that the notar mycht be compellit to gif furtht ane new publict instrument.
96Brocardicum, based e.g. on doctrines on C. 3.1.16; similarly on X 2.28.41 and X 2.20.24.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 589. The pairtie may prove casu amissionis tenorem instrumenti per testes qui sciverunt instrumentum.
<7 feb. 1542?> The lordis admittit to Patrik Dicksone of A. to prowe casu amissionis tenorem instrumenti per testes qui sciverunt et legerunt instrumentum. The caus <was> that the said <Patrik> summondit the notar in quhais prothogall the instrument was insert and he answerit that the said prothogall was brunt at the burning of Kelso.

133. Off mending of summondis habendo pro deleto
The xvii day of the said moneth <feb. 1542>: In the erle of Bothuile caus aganes Archibald Betone for redemptione of certane landis of his, comprysit to
mquhile James, last bischope of Sanctandrois, the lordis fand be interlocutour that maister Hew Rig, procuratour for the said lord, mycht haiff thir wordis "the fyve merkis et" pro deleto, eftir that the said Archibaldis procuratouris had desyrit absolvitour becaus that the saidis summondis bure "fyve merk landis of" etc. and revera thair wes aucht merkis and s. worth of thai landis comprysit, and allegit that he mycht nocht redeme the apprysit landis bot altogedder. And sua, the saidis wordis being deletit, the summondis importit the haill landis. And sua the lordis admittit the said erles procuratour to haiff pro deleto the samyn wordis97.
97Commentaries on C. 2.1.3 "emendare".

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 590. Befoir the lybell be acceptit, thai may hald any pairt thairoff pro deleto.
7 februarii 1541 <= 1542> : The earle Bothwell intendit actione aganes David Beatoun for the redemptione of certane landis, quhilkis war comprysit be J.B. archbischop of St. Androis. Efter the reiding of the summondis and answeres maid thairto that the said David aucht to be assolyeit fra the summondis, the persewer answerit that he wald hald certane wordis of the summondis pro deleto. It was answerit be the uther pairtie (in respect thair was answer maid to the summondis), he mycht nocht do the same. <To> which was ansuerit that, albeit thair was ansuer maid thairto, lis non fuit contestata, nec libellus fuit acceptatus. And unto that tyme he mycht non solum demere de libello, sed etiam renunciare liti et causae or pas fra the instance as he pleisit best, argumento l. Thesaurus, ff. ad l. Juliam de adulte.98. The lordis fand be interloquitour that in respect the lybell was nocht acceptit as yit, quod potuit actor habere pro deleto vel demere de libello prout ei placuerit.
98Misquoted, or garbled by wrong copying. Perhaps messed up with a standard reference book, namely with the collection of decisions of the Senate of Piemont, edited by Antonius Tessaurus? See case note nr. 39 above.

134. Off doubill poinding and exceptione repelland the persute thairof
The xxiii day of the said moneth <feb. 1542>: In ane caus of doubill poinding movit be ane pure man callit Fyne aganes N Leirmonth and uther men, the lordis decernit the said complenar to haif na actione aganis the saidis pairteis for double poinding, becaus the said Leirmonth allegit and schew his heretabill infeftment of the landis possessit be the said Fyne, and offerit him to preve his possessione be vertew thairof and uptaking be him of the males and dueteis thairof be certane yeiris last bypast. Quhilk allegeance the said Fyne could nocht deny. And sua the said Leirmonth allegit that he had guid rycht to poind etc., he beand in possessione cum titulo. And als the uther pairtie schew ane rolment of court, quhair he had obtenit ane sentence of violent occupatione of the saidis landis aganes the said Fyne be the space of ane yeir or thairby befoir the allegit dowbill poinding. And thairfoir the said uther pairtie, quhome for the said rolment wes gevin, mycht poind the said Fyne. And in respect of the said rolment: that the said Fyne mycht nocht complene that the pairtie poindit him wranguslie.

135. Sententia non preiudicat absentem
<CONTINUED> And nochttheless becaus the said sentence and rolment wes gevin <contra Leirmonth tantum>, the said Leirmonth being summonit thairto, the lordis decernit that it could nocht preiudge him <= Fyne> in his rycht, and <in particular nocht> sua that be vertew thairof he mycht be put fra his possessioun. And thairfoir, the premisses considerit, the lordis decretit actorem non posse conqueri of doubill poinding.

136. Off casting of summondis of assythment nocht raisit at the instance of the kyn and freindis bot at ane mannis.
The said day <23 feb. 1542>: In ane caus of assythment movit be N McCarthnay, burges of Edinburgh, aganes N, for the slauchter of his brother, the lordis be interlocutour decernit that in casu tali non erat necesse libellare annum neque mensem homicidii facti.

137. Assythment pertenis to the kyn and freindis. Et quod non sit melior conditio primi petentis et agentis nisi defectu aliorum recusantium prosequi
<CONTINUED> And attour decretit that becaus the assythment for slauchter pertenis to the kyn and freindis of the deid, and the said persewar libellit vcmerkis for assythment to him and intentit nocht the actioun at the instance of the kyn and frendis, nor yit schew quhair he had requyrit thame to concur with him heirin, the lordis decretit that he his allane had na actioun to persew the samyn. And sua the summondis wes castin, nochtwithstanding that Mr Thomas Marioribankis procurator actoris offerit cautioun that the kyn and freindis suld hald ratum quhatevir wes now judgit, and als wes content nocht to tak ane penney quhill he gave to the pairtie ane letter of slaynis for all the kyn and freindis, and als allegit that in hoc casu melior debet esse conditio prius agentis - quhilk allegeance the lordis repellit.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 588. Assythment of slauchter aucht to be persewit be the adwys and consent of the haill kin and freindis.
<7 feb. 1542?> Thair was ane McCartney that persewit for the sythment of ane slachter of his brother. It was objectit aganes the summondis that he had na actione to persew this allone, becaus the actione appertenit to the kin and freindis and he allone could nocht be esteimed the haill kin and freindis, except he wald haiff schawin thair concurrence with him. He answerit and offered cautione de rato that the haill kin and freindis sould hald the thing done be him firme and stabill, and unto the tyme he obtenit the letter of slaynes fra the haill kin and freindis, he sould ressave na assythment, and he being narrest off blood and brother sould be first hard. The lordis wald nocht give him actione upone his letter, becaus he schew na power of the rest of the kin and freindis.

138. Error nominis non nocet ubi de persona constat
The xxii of the said moneth <feb. 1542>: The lordis decernit that error nominis proprii (ubi de persona constabat) non nocet in acto adiornali. The persewar wes my lord Hay contra William Amulgat etc., and the act of adiournall in the begynning bure "Willielmus Amulgat indictatus" etc., et postea it bure "quicquid Joannes", albeit it suld haiff said "quicquid Willelmus". And this exceptione being proponit be Mr Hew Rig, the lordis ordanit him to ansuer nochtwithstanding.

139. Summondis of recent spuilye to be callit upone xv dayis, albeit uthir summondis aucht to haiff xxi dayis
The xxvii day of the foirsaid moneth <feb. 1542>: In ane caus of recent spuilye movit be Mr. Hew Rig, procuratour for N, aganes N comperand be Mr Thomas Weymes, the lordis decretit that summondis of recent spuilye mycht be callit upone xv dayis, albeit that the said Mr Thomas allegit that his client suld haiff bene summonit upone xxi dayis as use is in uthir summondis, and his client in this caus wes bot summond upone xviii dayis.

140. Off poinding of gudis in ane uther mannis land
The said day <27 feb. 1542> : In ane caus of N aganis the laird of Collarny, baillie to the abote of Lundoris, the lordis be interlocutour decretit that poinding of guidis beand upone ane uthir mannis ground mycht be provit be witnessis, and that it wes necessar to schaw the lordis or lairdis precept. And quhen gudis wes in ony cornes and medowes, that I or my officiaris aucht nocht to tarie upone ane wretin precept.
99Probably same case as in nr. 193.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 587. Ane persone may poynd uther mans geir without any precept and it may be provin be witnesses.
Ultimo februarii 1541 <= 1542> : Into the caus betuix the laird of Collerny, bailyie to the abbot of Lindores, and A.B., it was fund be the lordis that ane persone may poynd uther manes guidis cumand in his ground without ane precept or wreit, and that the samyn mycht be provin be witness and nocht be wreit.

141. Off escheatis to be callit be simple billis
Item the last day of the said moneth <28 feb. 1542> in ane caus of escheat movit be Hew Ormestoun, donatar to the kingis grace to the escheat, aganis the provest of Edinburgh, the lordis be interlocutour decernit that the said caus mycht cum in be ane bill and sould nocht byd ane precept summondis upone xxi dayis as Mr. Hew Rig, procuratour for the said provest allegit. Nochttheless the lordis ordanit xv dayis to the said provest thairto.

142. Unica dilatio datur ad probandum exceptionem vel replicam
The samyn day <28 feb. 1542>: In the laird of Cragyhallis caus aganes the laird of Glenberwie, it wes found be the lordis that of the practik to preve ane exceptioun or reply the pairtie aucht nocht to haiff bot ane terme. And gif thair wer any witnessis than summond and nocht comperit, that the pairtie suld haiff letters to summond thame upone grittar panes, bot the pairtie aucht nocht to haiff uthir witnessis than thai that wes first summond. Et idem dicendum in probanda replica, duplica, triplica, quadruplica etc.

143. Interesse oblatum non admittitur
The last day of Februar <1542>: In the caus of ane pure man callit Reid aganes the abote and convent of Mewrus99, the said aboite and convent wer warnit be decrete of the lordis of Counsall to restoir the said Reid and his moder to thair maling, out of the quhilk the said abote had put thame, or ellis to ane als gud maling alsweill lyand and of als great availl for 5 yeiris. The abote allegit that he mycht nocht get thame thair awin maling, becaus he had set it langsyne to utheris, and als that he culd nocht get him ane uther in Mewrus, for that place wes promitit with his bischoprik, and als the convent wald nocht consent that he set ony landis of the place fra thyne furtht, and sua that it wes nocht in his powar to fulfill in terminis the lordis decrete, and thairfoir offerit to the pure man all his intres that he mycht liquid and prove. The lordis decretit that becaus the said abote wes oblist in this cace ex sententia judiciali and als wes ane potent and mychtie lord and mycht by in sum pairte ane steding sic as the lordis decrete buir, and attour it wer to the pure man inpossibill or at the leist veray difficill to liquidat his intres,

144. Interesse non semper succedit loco facti
<CONTINUED> and als that be sik obligatione of intres the executiones of the decretis mycht be oftymes eftirvard delayit and frustrat, quhilk suld nocht be, and that of the law obligatus ad factum ex sententia iudicis vel aliter, si factum facile prestari possit, non liberatur prestando interesse, thairfoir the saidis lordis decretit: the said abote aucht nocht to be hard in this caus offerand intres of pairtie, bot aucht to fulfill the said decrete specifeit. <Thus: the Court decreed specific performance!>

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 586. Ubi factum prestari debet ex sententia judicis, idem specifice prestandum est - et non interesse.
Ultimo februarii 1541 <= 1542> : The abbot and convent of Melros was decernit be the lordis and thair decreit to restoir ane puir man, callit Rid, to his meling, furth of the quhilk thai had ejectit him, or to ane meling as guid, as weill lying and as weill haldin, to haiff the samyn in tak and assedatione for the space of v yeires. It wes alledgit be the abbot that it was nocht possibill to him to get the man his stading againe, becaus it was set unto ane uther, nor yit could he get any uther meling, becaus he and the convent was inhibit to do the same, bot yet for the obedience of the decreit he wald be content to pay the interesse, to be modificat be the lordis. Et ubi quis ad factum tenetur, prestando interesse liberatur, argumento legis ultime, ff. cum quis in judicium100. To this was answerit quod hoc fuit factum ex sententia judicis prestandum: quod specifice debet prestari. And the abbot being sua potent ane prelat, it was nocht veresimile bot he mycht fulfill the same. The lordis wald nocht heir him mak any liquidatione of interesse, be ressone of the decreit that buir specifice to restoir the puir man to his meling or to ane uther als guid. And sua repellit the abbottes alledgance.
100Misquoted, or garbled by wrong copying.

145. Off libelling of ane thrid persones intres quhair he appellis fra the sentence gevin aganes ane uthir
The first of Merch, the yeir foirsaid <1542>: In ane caus of the lord Oliphantis aganes the laird of Inneis, the lordis decretit that in the said lordis summondis makand mentioun of the said lordis intres for reductioun of ane decrete gevin aganes the airis of Barridell, in the begynning of the saidis summondis befoir thir wordis of the samyn "Our will is and we charge N laird of Inneis at the instance of the said lord Oliphant to compeir" etc., the said lordis intres wes sufficientlie libellit, albeit that Mr Henry Lawder, advocat for the said laird Inneis allegit in the contrair that the said lordis intres aucht to haiff bene libellit eftir the foirsaid wordis, the quhilk he allegit wes in the begynning of the said lordis summondis, and the said lordis prefatioun wes nocht ane pairt of the libell, nor yit of the maior, minor nor conclusioun of the samyn, bot ane simpill narrative quhairupone na sentence may follow. Nochttheless the lordis fand be interlocutour that it wes na pairt of his libell and that all his summondis behovit to be tane togeader. And als ane thrid persone appelland for his entres fra the sentences gevin betuix uther persones aucht to be admittit, schawand his entres. And attour the lordis fand that summondis befoir <thame> requyris nocht necessarlie all the thre pairtis be ordour, bot that of the practik the conclusioun mycht be put in the begynning of the summondis. And sua the lordis decernit the said Mr Henry to answer farder in the said caus. And attour in the said caus the said laird askit the decrete foirsaid to be reducit becaus of ane secound gift of the mariage of the laird of Duffus airis, be vertew of the quhilk possessioun first followit ane the said gift wes maid to the saidis airis, or thai wer requyrit to marie be vertew thairof, and thairfoir the said lord askit the said decrete gevin be vertew of the said first gift to be reducit. The said laird Inneis schew the assignatioun of the said first gift maid to his father (ut recordor) titulo oneroso, and becaus the questioun now wes upone the strenth and effect of the said first gift he desyrit ane day to call his warrand.

146. Off calling of warrand in the productioun of decrettis
<CONTINUED> In the contrair allegit Mr Robert Cawrocht, procuratour for the said laird, that he aucht to haiff na warrand, becaus that in the gevin of the said first decrete the said laird omittit the persute of his warrand, ane terme being assignit unto him thairto, and attour in this cace agebatur de retractione decreti et non de viribus prime donationis maritagii predicti, et quod heredes comitis de Erroll, a quo predecessor dicti domini de Inneis habuit assignationem predictam, non tenebantur varantizare dicto domino de Inneis istud decretum de cuius retractione agebatur. Et quod ex causis predictis non erat danda dilatio predicta domino de Inneis. Nochttheless, becaus the said reasone of the summondis wes foundit super invaliditate et annullatione prime donationis, et ad faciendum effectum omnem eius cessare, ideo the lordis assignit to the said laird of Inneis ane day to call his varrand.

147. Off landis frie of waird for ane certane soume to be siclyke bruikit be the coniunctfear, albeit thair be na mentioun of hir in the infeftment grantit be the king in that sort to the man and his airis
The 2 day of the moneth foirsaid <mar. 1542>: Violat Gowrlay101 be reasone of coniunctfie clamit and intentit hir actioun aganes Mr Johne Spens for the wrangus occupatioun of certane landis. The said Mr Johne allegit he did na wrang, becaus he had the waird thairof be assignatioun of the samyn maid to him be Mr Alexander, chantour of Murray, donatour thairof to the king. The uthir pairtie replyit that the landis wes gevin to hir guidman and his airis frelie, but waird, and quhen the samyn happynnit, the vardature suld haiff bot xl s, and thairfoir he be reasone of the waird aucht nocht to haiff ony mair to schaw quhair the landis wes sa gevin be the king as said is. It wes duplyit that scho wes nather the man principall nor yit air to him and thairfoir that the kingis privilege culd nocht help hir. Scho treplyit that scho wes in the airis place be ressone of hir coniunctfie and that thairfoir the privilege gevin to the air sould be extendit to hir. And thairfoir the lordis decernit that the wardatare sould haiff actioun alanerlie to xl s. conforme to the said womanis guidmannis infeftment.
101Later stage of this case in nr. 335. Violat Gourley also named in nr. 199.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 585. The ward of the landis wil be stoppit be the conjunctfear.
Eodem die et anno <28 feb. 1542>: Thair was ane Violat Gourley that persewit Mr Johne Spens for the violent occupatione of certane landis, alledging the samyn to appertein to hir in conjunctfie. He answered that he had committit na violence, becaus that thair was ane Mr Alexander Lyoun quha had obtenit the gift of the ward of the saidis landis, and he being maid assigney to the said gift, be vertew of the samyn occupiet the saidis. To this was answerit be the woman that lang tyme of befoir the landis war disponit to the husband and to the aires maill and femell with this provisione that, giff it hapnit the said landis fall in ward, the king sould haiff na mair for the samyn bot cl s., the quhilk soume scho had reallie and with effect offerit, lyikas scho was presentlie reddy to pay the same. To this was answerit that the dispositione (quhilk was maid to hir husband and his aires) could nocht be extendit to hir, nor was nocht maid to any conjunctfear. The lordis pronuncit in respect of the said dispositione: thair could be na mair socht be the wardatar bot that (the soume of cl s.), and that the womanes conjunctfie could nocht cum under the ward.

148. Off escheit of bastardie, and that thairin cumis bot onlie the pairte of the geir concerning the bastard, and nocht his vyffis pairte
The 3 day of March the yeir foirsaid <1542>: The lordis decernit in ane caus of the gift of bastardie grantit be the king to the erle of Erroll of the escheit of ane N that the said gift culd nocht extend bot to the pairte of the moveabill geir that aucht to pertene to the man and he had nocht bene bastard, and thairfoir decernit his vyfe, Male Stewart, to haiff the half of the gudis, becaus the man deit without barnes and thairfoir of the practik the ane half of the geir aucht to pertene to hir, and sua the king could get na mair bot the tane half that concernit the man.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 584. Ane bastard that decessis without laufull successione of his body: the ane halff of the geir pertenis to the wyff.
Eodem die et anno <28 feb. 1542>: The earle Arroll persewit as donatour to the king of the gift of bastardrie <of> ane N. for all the moveabill guidis that appertenit to him, becaus that N.102 decessit bastard, hawing na laufull successione gottin of his body. Compeirit the wyff (the relict of the said N.) and alledgit the ane halff of the guidis to appertein to hir becaus of the practick and consuetud of the countrie that, quhair thair is na bairnes betuix the husband and the wyff, the ane half of the guidis pertenis to hir. The quhilk the lordis fand relevant and ordanit the king and his donatour to haiff bot the on halff.
102MS: C.

149. Off proponing of dilatouris and peremptouris exceptiones post terminum ad probandum jam assignatum alteri parti, in penam alterius partis semper contumacis, aliqua probatione iam producta
The said day <3 mar. 1542>: In ane caus of assythment be Andro Lowreisoun of that ilk movit aganes William King of Burke and certane Lesleis in the Northland, the lordis be interlocutour decernit that Mr Johne Spittell (procuratour for the said William) aucht to be hard to propone ony dilatouris exceptionis, albeit the said Mr Johne desyrit to propone his peremptouris, becaus his client comperit nevir yit in the caus, bot in it wes ay procedit in penam contumacis. The lordis decernit that, becaus in this caus thair wes ellis witnessis producit pro prima dilatione (albeit in absence of pairtie) and this wes the secound terme and productioun of witnessis, thairfoir the uthir pairtie aucht nocht to be hard to propone ony exceptioun (etiam non peremptoriam), quando aliquid productum est iam in primo termino ad probandum, sive sit instrumentum sive testes - albeit that, si esset secundus vel tertius terminus ad probandum et esset semper processum in contumaciam alterius partis et si nihil esset productum, semper audienda est pars altera iam comparens <et> admittenda ad proponendum non tantum dilatorias sed etiam peremptorias exceptiones. And thairfoir the said Mr Johne wes nocht admitttit in this cace to propone peremptorias, becaus that thair wes ellis in it producit witnessis pro prima dilatione. The caus of this decisioun wes, quia si reus in primo termino fuisset presens et peremptorias non propossuisset, iam in dicto termino non audiretur eis uti volens103. Ergo nec iam hoc licet contumaci, cum non debeat contumax melioris esse conditionis quam non-contumax.
103Because "litis contestatio" had yet been effected. See nrs. 115 (note) and 124.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 583. Post terminum assignatum ad probandum non auditur reus ad purgandam contumaciam.
2 martii 1541 <= 1542> : Into ane actione persewit be Andro Lauresoun of that ilk aganes ane William King of Bortrie and certane Leslies, anent the assythment of ane slachter, it was proceidit aganes King tanquam contumacem. Ad secundum productionis testium terminum comperit Mr Johne Spittil procuratour for him and desyrit to be admittit to propone his defenses declaratouris and peremptouris, and offerit him ad purgandum contumaciam. The lordis wald nocht heir him to propone any defence, in respect of the termes assignit and production of witnesses.

150. Off executeris of letters nocht to be witnessis104
The said day <3 mar. 1542>: In ane caus of the vicare of Kingorne aganis the laird of Siefeild, the lordis decernit that the man quha executit the vicaris summondis upone the said laird wes suspect to be witnes for the vicar aganis him, and sua repellit the said witness for that man that wes executour officiar in that pairt and nocht creat the kingis officiar. And sua, becaus it nocht beand his office, he schew him selff partiall.
104Same case in nrs. 128-130, 279 - in earlier stage of procedure.

151. Off ane assedatioun to be provin be witnessis
The iiii day of marche anno 1541 <= 1542> in the caus of the abote of Glenlus aganes N Vas, the lordis decernit that the said N Vas had provin sufficientlie his exceptioun, viz. that his wyffis father and predicessouris, the maling upone quhilk the debait ves movit now, the said N Vas previt as is foirsaid that thai had in assedatioun of the said abote and his predicessouris of the foirsaid maling past the memorie of man, becaus the said Was schew ane rentall and assedatioun thairof in the said abbotis rentall buik for the space of fyve yeiris immediatlie <eftir> Maii (ut arbitror) anno 1535, and attour schew and previt be witnessis that his said fader and his predicessouris bruikit xxx yeiris and mair. And sen the witnessis could remember the said maling of the said place of Glenlus payit to the abbotis thairof thair deweteis and males, albeit the said witnessis culd nocht verefie that thai had thai landis in assedatioun of the said abbotis, and the said Vass allegit the assedatioun thairof past memorie of man and schew na assedatioun bot of the fyve yeiris foirsaidis, and sua na assedatioun quhilk may be provin be witnessis, na writ thairupone beand schawin.

152. Off reductioun of schireffis rolmentis
The 7 day of the said moneth <mar. 1542>: In ane caus of the lady Fascherlies, Elizabeth Mertene, aganes the laird of Blenarme, the lordis decretit that the schiref depute of Berwik, quha gave ane rolment of court for the said laird aganes the said lady, did wrang, in sa far as thai wer bot schireffis deputtis for that ane cuntrie alanerlie. And thairfoir, as the said ladyes procuratouris desyrit, the saidis judges vald nocht schaw thair powar nor yit quhair thai and the memberis of that court wes sworne, quhilk at the desyre of the pairtie thai aucht to haiff schawin, becaus thai nor thair memberis wer nocht knawin generall nor ordinar officiaris of the said schirefdome, bot alanerlie constitut for that court, and thairfoir did wrang to the said lady and procedit inordourlie. And becaus the assys fand the said laird in laufull possessioun clamit of the said mailling, albeit in veratie the ladyes procuratour allegit that the caus ellis wes endit be decrete of the lordis of Counsall and that he wes decernit to haiff spuilyeit hir of hir possessione of the samyn maling and scho decernit to be restorit agane to hir possessioun, and sua the said decrete standing the schireff aucht nocht to haiff procedit in that court. And becaus the assys fand the said laird to be in laufull possessioun thairof, albeit the decreit wes red and schawin in judgement, the lordis decretit for the said caus the rolment to be reducit.

153. Off wilfull error of assys in civill courtis
<CONTINUED> And als condamnit the assys in wilfull error, howbeit it wes nocht provin befoir the lordis that the assys hard the decrete red in judgement, nor yit that it wes schawin to him. Than nochtheles the lordis decretit for the maist pairt that the assys could nocht pretend ignorance of the thingis that wes done judicialie.

154. Off reductioun of the decrete of the lordis for nocht libelling possesioun in ane caus of spuilyie
The said day <7 mar. 1542>: In the said lairdis caus aganes the said Elizabeth Mertene, the lordis reducit ane decrete of the lordis gevin xxii yeiris syne or thairby for the said Elizabeth, tuicheing the said maling and allegit spoliatioun of the said lady thairof maid be the said laird, becaus the said decrete bure nocht that the said lady at the tyme that scho allegit hir spoliatioun wes in possessioun thairof, and als the said decrete wes gevin na possessioun being libellit be the said lady as scho suld haiff done.

155. Decretis of the lordis reducit pro parte, licet secus in retouris
<CONTINUED> And sua the saidis lordis reducit the said decrete in sa far as it ordanit the said lady to be restorit to hir possessioun agane and to the Martimes maill of the said maling, and decernit that decrete to stand in all uther pointis of it, quhilk wer divers and sindrie, tuicheing the restoring of certane geir to hir spuilyeit fra hir be the laird of Blenerne etc., albeit of the practik ane usis to be reducit in toto, licet erratum sit tantummodo in uno capite separato ab aliis et penitus diverso.

156. Exceptio contra reductionem decreti arbitralis for approving thairof be paymenttaking conforme thairto
The aucht day of the said moneth <mar. 1542>: In ane caus of Mr Johne Spens aganis the laird of Pitoladdo, the lairdis procuratour, Mr Thomas Marioribankis, allegit that the said Mr Johne had na actioun to call for the reductioun of the decrete arbitrall gevin betuix thame be the archedene of Breichen and certane his colligis, becaus the said Mr Johne had tane restorance of certane geir fra the said laird be vertew of the said decrete. And thairfoir he obeyit and approvit it and sua mycht nocht now cum in the contrair of it, nor yit allege it null, nor ask it to be annullit nor reducit, quia "quod semell quis approbat, amplius reprobare non potest"105. And the lordis decretit the exceptioun relevant and admittit the samyn to the said Mr Thomas prufe.
1056. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 21.

157. In redemptioun of landis non vocatur varrantus
The said day <8 mar. 1542>: In ane Johne Pettones caus aganes Marioun Ogilvy, the lordis be interlocutour decretit that in causa redemptionis terrarum non datur dies ad vocandum varrantum. And sua albeit the said Marioun had coft the tenement of landis, for the redemptioun of the quhilk the said Pattone callit hir, fra ane uther persone for greatter sommes than the said Pattones predicessouris had wedset it, nochttheles the lordis decernit hir to haiff na terme to call hir warrand, quhilk Mr Thomas Marioribankis hir procuratour desyrit.

158. Petenti reductionem sententiae late super spolio non obstat exceptio quod spoliatus ante omnia venit restituendus
The ix day of the said <moneth mar. 1542>: In the caus of Johne Halyburtone aganes Helene Rutherfurde, the lordis be interlocutour decretit that exceptio quod "spoliatus ante omnia est restituendus"106, proponit be Mr Hew Rig, procuratour to the said Helene, allegeand that the said Helene had nocht gottin yit restitutioun of the spuilye committit aganes hir be the said Johnes father, as the decrete of the lordis <decernit>, for reductioun of the quhilk the said Johne of new intentit actioun befoir thame, thairfoir that unto tyme that scho wes plene restituta quoad omnia contenta in dicto decreto, that the said Johne sould nocht be admittit nor hard ad agendum contra eandem Helenam super reductionem eiusdem decreti. The lordis repellit the said exceptioun and decernit quod agenti ad retractationem <et> reductionem decreti lati super spolio non obstat exceptio quod "spoliatus ante omnia venit restituendus"107, ex eo quod regula hec habet locum cum agitur super proprietate eiusdem rei vel super alia re, agendo principaliter, et non cum per viam appellationis venit spoliator condemnatus ad retractandam sententiam super spoliatione contra eum latam. Quo casu non dicitur proprie actor, sed potius defensor. Et quod de iure (ut habetur in cap. 1o de seq. poss. et fructuum in Cle.108, notatur et per Pan. in cap. Cum ad sedem, nu. 3o, extra de restitutione spoli.109 et scribentes in l. 1a, C. si de mo. pos.110 ) licet appellare a sententia lata in casu spolii, licet per appellationem istam restitutio possessionis non impediatur, ut viz. casus in dicta l. 1a111. Et quod hoc casu liceat appellare, vide Rotam in novis, decis. 417112. De practica autem regni Scotie loco appellationis succedit ius seu actio retractandi sasinam latam. Et ideo decreverunt domini quod dictus Mr Hugo Rig exceptione non obstante responderet summonitioni et libello ipsius Joannis, quia hoc casu potius reus et defensor quam actor et petitor principalis.
106See notes to nr. 125.
107See notes to nr. 125.
108Clem. 2.6.1.
109Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.13.15, marginal number 3 in the edition which the collector happened to use.
110Legal authors on C. 7.69.1 [to the point].
111C. 7.69.1.
112Decisiones Rotae Romanae novae, collected by Guillielmus Horborch, 1376-1381, nr. 417 = De causa possessionis et proprietatis 10 [to the point].

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 581. Petenti reductionem <decreti> super spolio lati non obstat exceptio "Spoliatus ante omnia venit restituendus"113.
9 martii 1541 <= 1542> : Thair was ane Johne Haliburtone that persewit Helein Rutherfuird for the reductione of ane decreit of spuilyie, the quhilk the said Helene had obtenit aganes him. Scho answerit that he aucht nocht to be hard to persew for reductione off hir decreit quhill scho war first restorit to the guidis spoilyeit and tane way fra hir, quia "spoliatus ante omnia venit restituendus". To this was ansewrit that the theorick of the law aucht nocht to haiff place in this cauce quando agitur per viam reductionis aut appellationis, sed quando directe agitur super proprietate. Et regula illa multas exceptiones petit. De qua vide Johannem de Ferrariis in forma libelli <de> perturbata possessione114. The lordis repellit the alledgance and ordanit the defendar to answer to the summondis, nochtwithstanding of the same.
113Decretum Gratiani, Causa 3, quaestio 3, c. 1-2.
114Iohannes Petrus de Ferrariis, Practica libellorum Papiensis.

159. Pendentia retractationis decreti ipsius eiectionem non impedit
<CONTINUED> Concordabant omnes domini quod ista appellatio seu actio reductionis et eius intentatio et pendentia non deberet impedire executionem decreti ipsius Elene, ad cuius refassionem et retractationem agebatur, ut notatur in dicta l. 1115 et per Pan. in dicto cap. Cum ad se.116, die dato actori ad probandum in presentia rei.
115C. 7.69.1.
116Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.13.15 - see above.

160. Reus vel eius procurator non auditur postea ad probandam peremptoriam
The xi day of the said moneth <mar. 1542>: In Johne Merschellis caus aganes the abote and convent of Pasla and thair baillie and the assys that past upone ane cognitioun betuix the said Johne and Edward Stewarte, the lordis be interlocutour decernit that, becaus the said persone comperit be Mr Thomas Marioribankis thair procuratour in the first terme of the summondis and ane terme wes assignit to the said Johne to preve the secound ressone of his summondis, theirfoir the said Edwarde mycht nocht be hard now to propone ony peremptour exceptioun, sic as he allegit that the said Johne had dischargit him all his rycht, his intres and clame and kyndness to the maling of Rathbuikis upone the quhilk the pley wes betuix thame.

161. Off varrand calling in actioun of spuilyie
The said day <11 mar. 1542>: In the caus of ane pure man, tenent of Towquhy, aganis the laird of Balquhannane for spuilyeing of him, the lordis decernit to the said laird ane day to call the varrand of the said spuilye, viz. the laird of Towcht, allegit assignay to all his tenentis to the said spuilye committit aganes thame be the said laird of Balquhannane. And the lordis allegit that the samyn wes practicat of befoir, et ubi - ut mihi videbatur: non bene, becaus "wrang hes na varrand"117.
117Maxim also quoted in nrs. 167, 337, 583.

162. Summondis of spuilyie aucht to mak mentioun of possessioun of him that is spuilyeit
The said day <11 mar. 1542>: In schir Johne Campbell of Lundie caus of spuilye aganes the lord Home, the lordis decernit the said schir Johnnis libell inept in the spuilye allegit of certane cornes, becaus he libellit nocht his possessioun of the samyn at the tyme libellit. In the begynning of his libell he libellit him spuilyeit be the said lord of the guidis underwritin than being in his possessioun as his awin propir guidis, viz. certane oxin, as the libell proportit.

163. Libellus potest pro parte valere et pro parte non
<CONTINUED> And the said libell wes decernit irrelevant for that parte and nocht for the uthir, becaus it wes diversum caput, et diversa ut ex libello apparebat spoliatio, non facta tempore eodem. Quae prior spoliatio esset bona.

The xiii of the said moneth <mar. 1542>: In Jonet Scottis caus aganis Mr Robert Blair, to impreve ane instrument of resignatioun of tua chalder wictuall, haldin be Robert Downe of the laird of Tullybaredyn, allegit maid be Robert Downis procuratour in the saidis lairdis handis as superiour thairof, maid as wes allegit be the said Mr Robert be vertew of tua procuratories of the said Robert Downes, ane in parchment and ane uthir in paper, the said Jonet producit the said laird of Tullibaredyn to preve the resignatioun maid bot be vertew of the paper procuratorie, and sua that the instrument of resignatioun wes fals becaus the samyn maid be vertew of thame bayth.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 578.Being bot tua witnesses insert in one instrument: giff ane depone aganes the instrument, it is improvin.
14. martii 1541 <= 1542> : Thair was one Johne Scott that persewit ane instrument to be improvit, usit be ane Mr Robert Blair. Quhilk was ane instrument of resignatione of certane landis in the handis of the laird of Tillebard, superiour of the same. Thair was bot tua witnesses insert in the instrument. Off the quhilkis ane deponit <aganes it>, and the uther baid at the instrument. The lordis decernit the said instrument improvin, becaus of the practik and law ad substantiam instrumenti publici requiruntur ad minus duo testes, ut notat Johannes de Ferrariis in forma libelli appositi contra instrumenta, in versiculo "Dignoscitur" in margine118et Felinus capitulo Cum Johanne Herimita, extra de fide instrumentorum119.
118Iohannes Petrus de Ferrariis, Practica libellorum Papiensis.
119Commentary by Felinus Sandeus to X 2.22.10 [to the point].

165. The superiour nocht to be admittit witnes in impreving of resignatione maid in his handis
<CONTINUED> The lordis decernit the said laird nocht to be admittit witnes in this caus, becaus the instrument being imprevit he vald get profeit for the said annuelrent of tua chalder wictuall, quhilk vald be in non-entres in his handis as superiour thairof, and als becaus he wes testis instrumentarius contentus in dicto instrumento resignationis.

166. Off varrand calling in caus of spuilye of teindis of the kirk
The said day <13 mar. 1542>: In Johne Gemilles caus of spuilyie of his aganes James Lowsoun of Humbie, the lordis decretit the said James ane day to call his varrand (ut recordor) Mr George N as factour to Mr Robert Vachope of the said vicarage, than perteining to the said Mr Robert and now to the said schir Johne be resignatioun in Rome in favouris of him be the said Mr Robert, becaus the said James wes in possessioun of the saidis teindscheves be vertew of tak maid to him be the said Mr George as factour foirsaid, and thairof wes yit certane yeiris to rin.

167. Off varrand calling in causa spolii
<CONTINUED> And the said Mr George oblist him to varrand the said teindscheves to the said James for the yeiris contenit in his letter and thairfoir gawe him agane to call his said varrand, albeit Mr Andro Blakstok, procuratour for the said schir Johne, allegit that "wrang had na warrand"120 and thairfoir na day suld be gevin to the said James to the effect foirsaid. Nochttheles the lordis decretit as said is. And that of the practik howivir ane man is in possessioun cum titulo for termes to ryn, and ane uthir call him for wrang in occupying that geir or land, reus debet habere diem ad vocandum varrantum suum, for yit it is nocht kennit wrang nor spuilye and the man that I allege my warrand may haiff guid defenssis unknawin to me.
120Maxim as in nr. 161.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 582.He that persewis for spuilyie of teind schavis will get ane day to call his warrand, giff he tak him to ane tak and possessione be vertew of the same.
13 martii 1541 <= 1542> : Thair was one schir Johne Greinlay that persewit James Lausone off Humbie for the spoliatione of certane teind schawis. The said James desyrit ane day to call his varrand and producit ane tak, set to him be ane Mr Robert Vachop. And alledgit him to be in possessione be vertew of the said tak for termes to rune. It was answerit that he aucht to haiff na day to call his warrand, becaus "wrang aucht to haiff no varrand"121. The lordis nevertheles in respect of the tak and possessione assignit him ane day.
121Maxim also quoted in nrs. 161, 167, 337.

168. Rolment reducit becaus of ineptitude and irrelevancie of the caus for the quhilk it is gevin be vertew of letters be delyverance of the lordis contenand the said inept caus and the saidis lordis
letters of cognitioun nocht beand reducit.
The 13 day of the said moneth <mar. 1542>: In the caus of the laird of Kilbirny aganes Robert Cunynghame of Robertland and his spous (the relict of Johne Calhoun, laird of Luss), the lordis decretit the rolment of court gevin aganes the said laird Kilbirny, bering that the said lady Luss aucht to haiff ane terce of the landis annaleit to the said laird Kilbirny be the said laird Luss, becaus the sowme of threttene hundereth merkis (in securitie of the quhilkis the said land wes annaleit and sauld puirlie and simplie) wes payit compleitlie to the said laird, and thairfoir decernand the said laird to desist and ceis fra the thrid thairof to be brukit be the said ladie as hir terce, to be reducit, becaus this caus (for the quhilk the said rolment wes gevin) wes inept in the selff and nocht inferrand nor concludand necessare that the said ladie aucht to haiff ane terce,

169. Ane lady aucht na terce bot of the landis of the quhilk hir husband diet last vestet and saisit as of fie
<CONTINUED> and attour becaus the said ladeis husband diet bot superiour of the landis, and nocht saisit thairin as of the fie and in fie heretablie thairof than as wes the said laird Kilbirny. And of the practik of Scotland na voman aucht to haiff terce bot of the landis that hir husband dies last westet and saisit of.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 580. Ane woman aucht na terce bot of the landis hir husband died last vest and seasit <thairintill> as of fie.
<9 mar. 1542> The laird of Glenberwy persewit for reductione of ane rolment of court quhairinto thai had servit the lady Luss (spous to the laird of Robertland) to ane terce of certane landis, the quhilk the laird of Luss (hir husband) had annaliet to the laird of Glenbervie upone the reversioun of xiiicmerkis. The ressone of the summondis was that the said lady aucht nocht to haiff bein decernit to haiff had any terce, becaus hir husband died nocht last vest and seasit thairintill ut de feodo, becaus he had bot onlie the superiority of the samyn and had seasit in ane uther man in fie of the landis. And of the practik of Scotland na lady aucht to haiff any terce bot of that quhilk hir husband died last wast and seasit ut de feodo. The lordis fand the said alledgance relevant and sua reducit the said rolment of court.

170. Non est necesse(?) reducere literas cognitionis directas per dominos Consilii, cum agitur de reductione sententie vicecomitis desuper late
<CONTINUED> And sua the said rolment wes reducit, nochtwithstanding that it wes gevin conforme to the letters of cognitioun direct to the schireff. And Mr. Hew <Rig>, procuratour for the said laird of Robertland, allegit, theis letters standand unreducit, that the rolm<ent> past conforme thairto could nocht be reducit. Quhilk allegeance the lordis repellit becaus in prima instantia he mycht haiff had this defenss and the schireff could nocht haiff justlie repellit it, becaus of the claus that in all cognitionis is now, that the judge, to quhome the cognitioun is directit, admit to bayth the pairteis thair iust and lawfull defenssis

171. In secunda instantia non-allegata allegabo, non-producta producam
<CONTINUED> and that in this secound instance this defence mycht be proponit, per regulam generalem quod "in secunda instantia non-allegata allegabo, non-producta producam"122.
122Self-evident doctrine.

172. Actor fundans se super titulo antequam testes recipiantur vel reus respondeat, tenetur illud exhiberi. Et actori datur dilatio
The said day <13 mar. 1542>: In the caus of spuilye intentit be the dene of Dunbaris brother for certane his teindis aganes Mr Alexander Ogilvy and certane uthir tenentis, the said denes brother as fermorar to him foundit him upone ane assedatione maid to him be the said dene, quhilk the uthir pairteis procuratour James McGill askit to sie or he answerit forther in the caus. And incace the samyn wer nocht verefeit instantlie, he protestit for ane absolvitur. The lordis decernit that the uthir pairteis witnessis mycht nocht be ressavit ante ostensionem tituli actoris123and gif ane day to him to produce his titill, becaus he allegit it wes in the commissaris handis of Abirdene and mycht nocht get it, and thairfoir askit letters of the lordis to requyre the said commissar to delyver the samyn to him.
123See quotations for nr. 53. Additional problem: Proof of legitimate quasi-"possession" of a right to collect teindschevis (= "decimae") can rarely be brought without showing the title on which this quasi-possession is grounded: 6. 2.5.2.

173. In caus of thirll mulcture and spuilye requiritur libellatio tituli
The said day <13 mar. 1542>: In ane caus movit be Alexander Ogilvy aganes certane tenentis for spoliatioun of him of thair thirll multure, the libell wes cast in becaus the said Mr Alexander libellit nocht the titill quhairby he clamit the samyn multuris to pertene to him. And ex sola consuetudine utendi ad molendinum alicuius dominus illius molendini non potest pretendere jus in multuris. Nec cogi possunt venire soliti ad veniendum inposterum, quia ex actu mere voluntario etiam per centum annos non inducitur consuetudo, nec alteri ius acquiritur, and sua iura hec incorporalia et servitutes non possunt sine titulo possideri.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 579. He that persewis for thirle multures aucht to alledge and found himselff upone ane tytill.
Eodem die et anno <9 mar. 1542>: Thair was ane Alexander Ogilvie that persewit certane tenentis for the spoliatione of certane thirle multouris. It was alledgit aganes the lybell that the samyn was nocht relevant, becaus he lybellit na tytill quhairby he acclamed the saidis multures to appertein to him, quia ex sola consuetudine veniendi ad molendimum alicuius, dominus molendini ex hoc non potest pretendere jus ut cogi potest aliquos in posterum venire ad suum molendinum. Quia ex actu mere voluntario etiam per spatium centum annorum non inducitur jus aut consuetudo. And sua the lordis concludit (according to the meaning off the law) quod sine titulo hec iura incorporalia et servitutes non possunt prescribi.

174. Off impreving of ane instrument, uno testium necessariorum expresse contradicente instrumento124
The said day <13 mar. 1542>: In Janet Scottis caus aganes Mr Robert Blair, the instrument producit be Mr Robert Blair, berand that the resignatioun of tua chalder wictuall, allegit pertening to him in heretage and that pertenit to umquhile Robert Downe, wes maid in the laird of Tullibarnes handis superiour thairof be vertew of 2 procuratories of the said Robert Downes, in paper the ane and the uthir in parchment sub forma instrumenti publici, wes decernit be the lordis improvin sufficientlie, becaus thair wes bot tua witnessis thairin insert. Ane of thame deponit that the said resignatioun wes maid be the procuratorie in paper and that he saw the samyn and that thair wes na uther procuratorie in parchement than schawin, and sa he wes direct contrair to the instrument. The uther witnes conforme, except he said thair wes na procuratorie in parchement than schawin (as he rememberit). And becaus ad substantiam instrumenti publici requiruntur ad minus duo testes cum notario, et sic, uno eorum contradicente instrumento directe, remanebat instrumentum sine solemnitate illa testium substantiali, et quod eius quod referebat instrumentum non remanebat iusta probatio, ideo non valet instrumentum, ut notat Felinus in cap. Cum Joannes, nu. 5o, extra de fide instrumentorum125, et idem ibi Pan. 14126.
124Parallel problem in nr. 66.
125Commentary by Felinus Sandeus on X 2.22.10, marginal number 5 in the edition which the collector happened to use.
126Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.22.10, marginal number 14 in the edition used by the collector.

175. Reus probare debet affirmativam, ubi actor libellat negativam
<CONTINUED> And sua onus probandi affirmativam de practica semper incumbit reo, ubi actor libellat negative.

176. The ladeis terce, that precedit the superiouris forfaltour, forfaltis nocht be vertew thairof
The 15 day of the said moneth <mar. 1542>: Elene Douglas, relict of Bartilme Levingstone, askit the schiref N. to enter hir to hir terce of certane landis of the barony of Levingstoun, to the terce of the quhilk haill baronie be deceis of hir said husband scho wes servit be the brevis of the kingis chapell and kennet thairto be the schiref that for the tyme wes upone xxi yeirs syn, albeit scho as yit wes nocht enterit thairto, becaus thair wes ane lady of the great terce ay levand quhill Yuill lastwas, quhilk tyme be vertew of the said great terce scho bruikit thei landis that this Elene desyrit to be enterit to. This land wes haldin of schir James Hammyltoun. And be his foirfaltour the kingis advocat allegit all to haif cumit in the kingis handis. The lordis decernit that the said Elene aucht to be interit to hir terce foirsaid, and that the samyn could nocht be foirfalt in this caus, becaus it fell lang befoir the superiouris foirsaid foirfaltour, albeit be ressone the lady of the great terce the said Elene had nevir bene yit enterit realie in possessioun thairof.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 576. Ladeis being once servit in thair terces, the samyn cumis nocht under foirfaltour.
18 martii 1541 <= 1542> : Helene Douglas, the relict of umquhill Barthilmo Levinstoun, desyrit the schireff of A. to enter hir to hir terce of the barronie of B., becaus efter the deceis of hir husband scho was servit thairto be brewis of the kingis chappell and thairefter enterit to thame be the schireff principall of the scyre. Comperit the kingis advocate for his entres and alledgit scho aucht nocht to be servit nor answerit in ony terce of the landis acclaimed, becaus thair was ane lady of gryt terce on lyff quhilk secludit hir fra the entrie to hir terce. And since the deceis of the said lady the saidis landis is fallin in the kingis handis be ressone of the foirfaltour of schir James Hamiltoun, of quhom the landis war haldin. To this was answerit that, albeit scho was nocht entreit during the tyme of the gryt tearcar, yit befoir the forfaltour scho being servit to hir terce the samyn thairefter could nocht cum under foirfaltour. The quhilk alledgance the lordis fand relevant and admittit the same.

177. Proving of haldin of landis
The 17 day of the said moneth <mar. 1542>: In ane caus of vilfull error intentit at the kingis instance aganes certane persones that wes upone the inqueist of apprysing of certane landis of N. Inglis' allegit haldin of the erle Bothuile, the lordis decernit that the instrument of that N Inglis' seasing, gevin be vertew of the said erlis precept insert thairin, schawin to the appryssaris, provit nocht the haldin, becaus it wes bot ane simple narratioun of the allegit superiour, quhilk inter alios mycht nocht mak fayth to his awin utilitie. And thairfoir that halding of landis behovit to be provin be chartour and seasing, or ellis be ane retour.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 577. Halding of landis man be provin be chartour or retour and no uther wayis.
17. martii 1541 <= 1542> : Thair was ane caus of wilfull errour persewit at the kingis instance aganes certane persones that was upone ane inqueist to haiff comprysit certane landis of ane Inglis, the quhilkis landis war haldin of the earle of Bothvell. The ressone of the summondis war that the assys hat committit wilfull errour in nocht-comprysing of the landis, becaus thair was ane instrument of seasing producit befoir thame with the tenour of the erle Bothvellis precept insert thairin to verefie the halding of the landis, quhilk was nocht sufficient to prove the halding of the landis aganes utheris nor the earle Bothvellis selff. For halding of landis cannocht be provin bot <be> the chartour and retour. The quhilk the lordis admittit and fand relevant.

178. Off reductioun of seasing and infeftment
The samyn day <17 mar. 1542>: In ane vommanis caus callit (ut recordor) Agnes Lyndsay and hir husband for his intres aganes Jonet Auchinlek, the lordis decernit the said Jonet Auchinlekis seasing and infeftment of the landis of N to be reducit, becaus hir infeftment of seasing buir that seasing wes gevin to hir as assignay to umquhile N. Lyndsay, and scho culd nocht schew to the lordis ony assignatioun, and the ovirlordis simple narratioun culd nocht verefie the samyn in preiudice of ane thrid persone.

179. Letters of serving of airis previs the deid of the predicessouris
<CONTINUED> And in the samyn caus the lordis decernit that the said Agnes' serving as air to umquhile Andro hir brother previt him deid, albeit Mr George Strange, procuratour for the said Jonet Auchinlek, allegit that he was levand and sua ane levand man culd nocht haiff ane air. And that becaus sic serving proceidis cum cause cognitione and makis fayth thairfoir ay quhill it be reducit.

180. The reductioun of the decrete arbitrall. And that it previs nocht the probatioun allegit led thairin, bot gif the samin be schauin in secunda instantia
The said day <17 mar. 1542>: In the caus of Jonet Blak aganes Andro Hammylton upone ane reductioun of ane decrete arbitrall gevin for him aganes the said Jonet, the lordis decernit the said decrete to be reducit, becaus the said decrete buir that it wes provin befoir the arbitraris that scho renuncit and dischargit him of ane contract maid betuix thame anent the lauboraris of the said Jonettis maling to hir be the said Andro for hir lyfetyme, becaus the said Andro schew nocht how the samyn wes provin to thame. And the lordis decernit that sententia arbitratorum non probat, nisi ex actis constet. Et idem dicebant domini de decreto vicecomitum.

181. Discharge of ane contract in writ aucht to be provin be writ and nocht be witnes
<CONTINUED> And albeit ex actis constaret quod probatum fuit per testes, that scho dischargit the said Andro of the same, the lordis fand that probatioun wes nocht relevant, and it aucht to be by writ and nocht be witnessis, of the practik,

182. Decretum arbitrale ultra compromissum latum non tenet
<CONTINUED> and attour reducit the said decrete, becaus it wes nocht conforme to the compromit, and that the arbitraris had condamnit the said Jonet to haiff done wrang to ane uthir persone nocht in the compromit.

183. Quod unus testis de veritate et facto ipso cum duobus aliis de confessione rei super facto simul et plene probant: vide de hoc Pan. in cap. iii, extra de sucess. ab intestato127.
The xviii day of the said moneth <mar. 1542>: In ane caus of spuilye intentit aganes Bannatyne be M, the lordis decernit the spuilye sufficientlie provin per actorem, albeit he had bot ane witnes that previt possessionem eius et spoliationem contra eum factam and uther tua witnessis that provit his possessioun of the geir that he allegit spuilyeit fra him, and the spuilye thairof fra him thai provit nocht in specie, bot thai said that thai hard reum confitentem in presentia ipsius actoris that he had the geir and guidis that the uthir man allegit spuilyeit fra him. And sua ex probatione unius testis de facto ipso et aliis duorum testium depositionibus de confessione rei, coniungendo eas, simul dicebant domini Consilii spolium esse probatum satis ad deferendum quantitatem iuramento spoliati. Nihilominus non videtur confessione rei, quod habeat res petitas, probata per duos testes, quovis modo probare quod reus spoliavit actorem eisdem rebus. Et sic non videbatur spoliatio esse probata. Quia non sequitur: reus est confessus se habere res illas, ergo spoliavit actorem illis. Sed domini habuerunt in hac causa, ut solent plurimum, quedam nova motiva.
Et licet hoc fuerit in hoc casu practicatum per dominos Consilii, tamen contrarium per omnes pene dominos vocatum fuit sex mensibus ante (aut eocirca) in causa cuiusdam vidue, (ut opinor) dicte Jonet Bell, contra dominum de Lochquhynvay. Nam iste excepit de solutione centum librarum ab ipso petitarum. Et solutionem quinquaginta mercarum probavit per acquittance scriptam manu (ut recordor) Joannis Maine, cuius scriptura fuit approbata a parte altera, et sic fecit fidem, licet esset privata scriptura cuiusdam. Ad solutionem vero aliarum 50 lib. probandam produxit testes, quorum tres aut quatuor tantum deposuerunt de confessione creditoris de solutione integra <centum librarum> earundem, et unus alius de reali numeratione ultimarum 50 lib. facto marito dicte vidue, cum in summa antedicta dominus antedictus tenebatur. Et quia solutionem realem et actualem non probaverunt testes, sed confessionem creditoris de solutione recepta per se a dicto domino in eiusdem domini presentia, et ipse dominus de solutionis confessione non excepit, domini omnes, uno excepto, decreverunt dictum dominum defecisse in probatione exceptionis antedicte et decreverunt eum solvere dicte Jo<net> Belli ulterius. Vide de hoc in cap. Quum mo., X de confessionibus128. Et sic nota variabilem practicam in hoc casu.
127Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 3.27.3 [to the point].
128X 2.18.1 [to the point].

184. Quod contra confessionem creditoris factam in causa criminali admittitur defensio in causa civili
The said day <18 mar. 1542>: In causa spolii movit be Mr Andro Blakstok and ane uthir his collegis cessionaris and assignais to ane man callit N Amulget aganes ane man callit Wilsone upone ane act of adiornall, into the quhilk ipse reus conventus tuk him to his compositour for certane oxin violentlie tane be him fra the said N Amulget, the lordis, becaus the said Wilsone schew be ane instrument quhair he had protestit in the justiceair court for his laufull defensis befoir the civill juge, admittit to his preiff that he causit laufullie apprys to him thre of the ky that he tuik for to his compositour in the iusticeair. And sua causante protestatione admittitur in causa civili quis contra confessionem suam in causa criminali factam, etiam ad purgandum se de crimine, albeit he tuik him thairfoir to his componitur and sua crimen confessum videtur. Et ad hoc movebantur domini Consilii quia confessio hec fit metu mortis, et ideo non debet preiudicare nisi quis in ea perseveraverit. <Continued in nr. 195.>

185. Off inordinat retouring of materis to the lordis directit be commissioun to schireffis in that parte be the lordis
The samyn day <18 mar. 1542>: In ane caus of the laird of Petslego and James Gordoun, the lordis decretit that ane commissioun to Johne Pardowan and James Johnistone maseris to pas to the ground quhair the cornes grew, upone spuilyie of the quhilk the said laird of Petslego intentit actioun of spuilye contra dictum Jacobum, and ordanit the saidis maseris schireffis in that part to tak cognitioun upone the ground of the said pairteis possessionis, and, as thai fand, to retour agane to the lordis. The saidis schireffis upone the ground summond and chusit ane inqueist and referrit the mater to the saidis inquisitouris and assys and, becaus thai past away the first day nocht having delyverit, chargit thame agane to compeir on the said ground and to delyver, as use is, affirmative or negative. And becaus thai could nocht thane agre amangis thair selffis, the said schireffis in that part with thair clerk examinat the said assys and inqueist ilk ane of thame separatlie and insertit thair depositiones ad longum in thair proces and sua retourit the samyn to the lordis. The saidis lordis, findand that the schireffis had led thair proces inordinatlie and had nocht tane and endit thair cognitioun ut moris est, ordanit letters to be direct of new to charge the assys to compeir in the tolbuyth of Edinburgh, and thair the saidis schireffis to incluse thame thairin and hald thaim inclusit ay and quhill thai delyver affirmative or negative upone the mater referrit be the saidis schireffis to thair knawlege.

186. <Post scriptum:>
<CONTINUED> And the 24 day of May <1542> the saidis James Johnestoun and Johne Pardovan retourit the samyn mater agane to the lordis and maid na delyverance of thair court thairupone, bot onlie insertit in thair proces the depositiones of witnes examinat in this caus, and returnit to the lordis but ony delyverance maid be thame schireffis in that part. And the lordis resavit this proces and decernit conforme to the witness, albeit this last proces of the schireffis foirsaidis contenit the samyn inordinance and falt of the uther proces quhilk thairfoir the said 18 day of Merch wes retourit.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 575.Quhan any caus or action is put to ane inquest, it behuiffis the inquest to delyver affirmative or negative.
<18-24 mar. 1542> The laird of Pitsligo persewit ane James Gordone, be way of commissione direct to Johne Pardowane and James Johnesone (tua ordinar messeres befoir the lordis) as schireffis in that part, to tak cognitione of certane debeatabill landis betuix the saidis pairties upone the ground of the same. The judges past to the ground and thair causit ane inquest to be chosin and refferit the mater to the sensment of the inquisitouris. The inquisitouris could nocht agrie amanges thame selffis, bot depairtit without any delyverance affirmative or negative. Thairfoir the judges and thai mett upone <the> ground agane. And thai as off befoir disagriet amang thameselffis. The judges did examinat every one of thame and wreit thair depositiones ad longum and patt the samyn in proces be thair clerk and retouris the samyn to the lordis of sessione and thoucht thai had done thair dewtie and satisfiet thair commissione direct unto thame. The lordis pronuncit be interloquitour that the saidis judges and maissares had nocht done thair dewtie nor satisfiet thair commissione direct unto thame. Thairfoir ordanit letters to be direct, to charge the said inquest and the persones that was upone the same, to compeir in the tolbuith of Edinburgh, the saidis judges and schireffis to hald thame thairin inclosit quhill thai deponit ather affirmative or negative. For quhen any mater is referrit to ane inquest, they behuiffit of necessit to delyver and depone agane ather affirmative or negative.

187. Quod minor <21> annis non tenetur respondere super reductione sui infeodamenti et sasina terrarum, nec etiam maior annis possidens easdem terras cum minore pro indiviso, donec minor ad perfectam aetatem pervenerit
The xxiii of the said moneth <mar. 1542>: Katharine N and William Lyndsay hir spous pro suo interesse callit Alexander Chene, William and James Chenes to heir thair infeftment of seasing of ane tenement within Edinburgh, maid to thame pro indiviso be resignatioun of ane James Young notar publict in ane of the bailleis handis of Edinburgh, to be reducit for certane caussis, as the summondis contenit. The saidis barnes procuratour Mr James McGill exceptit that tua of thame wes infra minorem aetatem and sua de iure regni non tenebantur placitare super hereditate. And becaus the thre wes in the said tenement pro indiviso, na proces suld nor mycht be laid aganes thame. Quhilk allegeance the lordis be interlocutour fand relevant, and thairfoir decernit to preve minorem aetatem.

188. Minor de nova dissasina tenetur placitare. Et quid sit nova dissasina
<CONTINUED> And thair is actio de nova dissasina, upone the quhilk minor tenetur placitare, as Mr Hew Rig allegit, for nova dissasina clare patet in "Regia majestate", ubi tractatur de casibus in quibus minor placitare tenetur129.
129"Regiam maiestatem" ...

189. Exceptioun aganes spuilyie and ressone to reduce the decrete thairof
The said day <23 mar. 1542>: In Johne Halieburtonis caus aganes Helene Rutherfurd for reductioun of ane decrete of spuilyie obtenit be hir aganes the said Johnes father (ut recordor), becaus the tyme of the allegit spuilyie et continuo multis annis ante ipse reus wes in possessioun of the saidis landis that scho allegit hir spuilyeit of, as ane part and pertinent of his mailling of Murehous (ut recordor), and that at the tyme of the allegit spuilyie scho put hir pleuch thairin, he being than in possessioun, and how sone he gat wit thairof, he come and pat hir furtht agane incontinent, and sua did na vrang thairin, for he defendit bot his awin possessioun, quhilk wes laufull to him. And thairfoir in his summondis of reductioun of the said decrete of spuilyie gevin contra predicessorem indefensum et non comparantem, he askit to be reducit. The lordis decernit the said exceptioun relevant, becaus this is the secound instance, in qua non-allegata allegare, non-producta producere licebit, and als becaus this samyn ressone vald haiff bene admittit in prima instantia and stoppit the said decrete gevin, and sua aucht to be reducit.

190. De emendatione libelli, pro deleto aliquid habendo.<Et non potest emendari> dummodo unum iota addatur aut innutetur in libello per actorem, licet aliquid calamo deleatur per ipsum
The 23 mensis eiusdem <mar. 1542>: In causa domini de Petslego contra quendam N etc., the said Petslego summondis wes cassing, becaus thair wes libellit thairin xxiii yeiris, and the libell mycht nocht stand bot for sevin yeiris. And sua Mr Thomas Marioribankis, procuratour to the said laird, ante litem contestatam said he vald hald pro deleto of thai yeiris xvi, sua that his libell suld beir bot sevin yeiris. And Mr David Irland procuratour ex adverso allegit that, as the libell wes written, he culd nocht hald pro deleto as said is, bot behovit to writ new and eik to his libell "sevin yeiris" and put away thai wordis "xxiii yeiris", and that of the practik he mycht nocht eik to his libell nor change ane word thairof. And thairfoir allegit that the libell wes nocht relevant. The lordis decernit that, as Mr David allegit. And thairfoir, the summondis beand irrelevant, assoilyeit as wes libellit.

191. The letters conforme to ane decrete of baillie or schireff ar gevin, howbeit it be notour the said decrete rolment of court be gevin in all ex causa insufficienti, for thairupone than the lordis may tak cognitioun
The said day <23 mar. 1542>: In Mr George Hayis of N. caus aganes certane tenentis of the regalitie of D., <the said tenentis> allegit, the decrete of the baillerie of that regalitie aganes thame gevin for the said Mr George wes gevin uniustlie and for ane unsufficient caus, as be inspectioun of the samyn cleirlie wes understand be the lordis of Counsall. Viz. the said Mr George desyrit thame to be compellit to cum to his myln and <pay> thair multuris to him allegit, <and> the samyn thirlit to his myln, becaus the tymes bygane past memour of man thai war wont to cum to his myln and pay thair multuris thair. And becaus the said Mr George previt his said allegeance, the saidis bailleis of that regalitie condamnit and decernit be thair decrete the saidis tenentis to pass to the said myln and pay thair multuris thair, for the caus foirsaid, and summondis to summond the tenentis to heir letters in the four formes gevin conforme to the said rolment. And for the tenentis pairt it wes allegit that the lordis aucht nocht to gif the saidis letters, becaus the caus of the decrete foirsaid wes nocht sufficient to haiff decernit thame to haif past to the said Mr George myln. And sua the said decrete wes evidentlie ewill and wranguslie gevin, as of the samyn mycht be cleirlie understand as said is, and thairfoir aucht nocht to haif executioun. Nochttheless the lordis, understandand the tenentis allegeances iust and relevant and that thai war wranguslie condamnit and the caus of the decrete wes <nocht> relevant,

192. Executionem meretur sententia judicis quaecumque, etiam iniusta, donec stat non reducta
<CONTINUED> nochttheless thai decernit the letters conforme to the said rolment aganes the saidis tenentis, becaus de practica regni quhatsumevir judge sentence, how wrang, uniust or ewill it evir be in the selff, it aucht to be put to executioun ay and quhill the samyn be reducit agane130.
130As stated in nr. 16.

193. Actioun spuilyie
<24 mar. 1542> John Millar131, servant to the erle of Rothes, wes windand his bollis of schilling upoun the cunningarhill of Lundoris within the boundis of the said abay. And becaus it wes upone the said abayis ground, the abbote and the laird of Cullarnie, his baillie, his officiar with thair complicis come, tuik and poindit his sekis and windowing claithis and turnit out of the sekis, and kest of the saidis claithis the said Johnes schilling doun upone the hill, sua that the said schilling wes fylit and spilt. The said Johne Millar callit the said laird Cullarnie and his officiar, callit (ut recordor) N Wantoun, for the wrangus, violent and maisterfull(?) spoliatioun fra him of the foirsaid geir. The lordis decernit the said laird and his officiaris to haif done wrang in the awaytaking and withhalding fra the said Johne Millare of his hors, seckis and windowing claithis. And forsamekill as the said laird allegit that he had realie restorit agane to the said Johne the samyn als guid as thay war the tyme thai wer takin fra him and that he refusit to tak thame agane and left thame in his presens at his hous, the lordis fand that the said Johne wes nocht oblist to tak agane the said hors and guidis agane, quhilk wes bot ane pairt of the guidis that wes tane fra him, for he wantit yit his schilling, and als fand that the instrument culd nocht preve the valour of the guidis and the hors, quia notarius non potest testificare nisi de eis quae percepit sensu corporis, the quhilk instrument publict thai producit berand quhair ane monk offerit agane realie to the said Johne the foirsaid hors and geir als guid as thai wer the tyme thai war tane fra him, quhilk instrument culd nocht preve the valour of the guidis bot as is aboue wretin. Et valor rei judicio intellectus percipitur et non sensu exteriori. And sua that be the instrument it wes nocht previn the guidis ressavit sa guid as thai wer the tyme thai wer tane be titill of poinding, absolvit the saidis persones fra spuilyie thairof and condamnit thame in wrang, and als condamnit thame in the wrangus casting doun of the said schilling among the said. And becaus thai tuik it nocht away with thame, the lordis absolvit thame fra the allegit spuilyie(?) of the said schilling, albeit ane gret pairt of the lordis thocht it spuilyie, becaus the said schilling beand upone the winding claithis and in the seckis in the said Johnes possessioun, the saidis persones intromettit with the samyn and kest the samyn doun out of the saidis seckis and claithis amangis the sand, and sua pat the said Johne fra his possessioun becaus he culd nocht get it up clene agane and sic as it wes befoir, becaus it wes spilt and mixt with sand, and thairthrow the said Johne wes put fra his possessioun and spuilyeit thairof. Siclyk Titius come to me in the mercat and careit daun upone the hie foulgait ane laid of meill aut of my sek, or dang out ane heid out of my punscheoune of wyne and lat it all out, the samyn Titius videtur spoliare me mea possessione dictarum rerum, for he violentlie intromettit thairwith and pat me fra possessioun thairof and I recoverit nevir my possessioun agane, nor mycht gait the samyn agane. Et sic videor spoliatus esse mea possessione earundem rerum. Et ibidem de iure vide etc. Nochttheless pro maiore parte concludebant quod prius est: that it wes wrang and na spuilyie. Sententiatum fuit per dominos Consilii anno 1541 mense Martis die 24.
131Probably same case as in nr. 140.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 574. Thair is na spuilyie quhair thair is no geir tane away.
24 martii 1541 <= 1542> : Thair was one Johne Miller, servand to the earle of Rothes, that persewit the abbot of Lindores, his bailyie, the laird of Collerny, and his officer and thair complices for the wrangous spoliatione fra him of certane horses and seckes and certane bollis of schilling, the quhilk he was windnand upone the cunningar hill of Lindores, castin done and tenned furth of his saidis seckes be the abbot among the sand and dirt and sua maid unproffitabill the said schilling.
To this was answerit that he could nocht alledge any spolyie to be committit, becaus the samyn was done upone the abbots ground, he did laufullie stope him be his bailyie and officiar et sic authore pretore hoc fecit. And as to the away-taking of the horses, he instantlie restorit thame agane als guid as thai war quhan thai war tane away.
To this was answerit that the restitution of the horses was nocht sufficient without he had restorit all that was spilt and spolyeit, schilling and all.
To this was answerit that he could nocht alledge spoliatione of the schilling becaus it was nocht tane away nor spolyeit, quia "spolium" sive "spoliatio" est rei proprie mobilis ablatio.
To this was answerit that spuilyie is committit nocht onlie in away-taking, bot quhen any persone is spulyeit of his possessione violentlie. Et est vis sive violentia non solum ablativa, sed etiam inquietiva: de quo vide Johannem de Ferrariis in forma libelli in causa possessionis132, et vide titulos ff. et C. uti possidetis, et ibidem doctores133. For in sa far as I newer gat <quiet> possessione of the thing quhilk is once tane fra me, I am spuilyeit of my possessione. Et sic respectu possessionis sublatae committitur spolium, licet res non auferatur. The lordis (being dewydit amang thameselffis) concludit that thair was na spuilyie committit, becaus the schilling was nocht away - bot decernit wrong to haiff bein done.
132Iohannes Petrus de Ferrariis, Practica libellorum Papiensis.
133Commentaries on D. 43.17 and on C. 8.6.

194. Reductioun of rolment of court propter legitimam exceptionem non admissam
The 24 day of merche <1542>: The lordis be thair decrete retractit ane rolment gevin aganes Robert Bruce in Edinburgh at the instance of the abbote of Halierudehous, fader Robert Caulcros, be the bailleis of the regalitie of Halierudehous, becaus the questioun wes upone the said abbote arreist allegit brokin be the said Robert, and quha allegit that the said arreist wes lowsit agane at the said abbotis command be his officiaris that maid the samyn, and that the keyis of the barnis, quhair the guidis and cornes <wes> arreistit, wes delyverit to him agane be the officiar, and sovirtie(?) fund be him to the said Robert and ressavit be him that the said Robert suld do quhat accordis of the law for the saidis cornes. And thairfoir that he intromettit thairwith, bruik nocht the said arreist. And offerit him to preve the samyn be sufficient witnessis. Quhilk the bailyeis wald nocht admit, allegeand the said lowsing of arreistis mycht nocht be provin bot be writ and nocht be witnessis, and sua decernit him to haiff brokin the arreist. The lordis fand and decernit that the lowsing of arreist mycht be provin be witnessis in this caus, and sua that the bailleis did wrang nocht admitting the said Robertis witnessis134. And thairfoir the lordis retreatit and reducit the rolment of the bailleis foirsaidis. And becaus he offerit to preve the said exceptioun and wes repellit, the lordis reducit the said rolment, the said exceptioun nocht beand provin befoir the judges, becaus iudex gravavit partem in repellendo exceptionem legitimam. Vide hoc in cap. Interposita, extra de appellatione135.
134Similar problem in nrs. 24, 289 and 425 where this case is quoted. Same parties litigate in nr. 289
135X 2.28.70.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 573. Lousing of arrestment may be provin be witnes.
<Mar. - maii 1542> The samyn tyme the lordis fand be interloquitor and reducit ane decreit gevin be the bailyie of the regalitie of Halyrudhous aganes ane Robert Bruce, becaus the bailyeis refuissit to prowe the lowsing of the arrestment be witnes; and fand that the lowsing of ane arrestment may be provin be witnesses and the officer sine scriptura.

195. Libellit lousing of arreistment may be provin be witnessis and na writ. Et motivum dominorum in hac causa erat quod solent domini terrarum hodie ubique tantum committere officiariis suis hanc potestatem, et <quod> raro inde fiat scriptura quantum in arrestando super solet intervenire.
The 16 of marche anno 1542 in the caus of Mr Andro Blakstok, assignay to N Amulgat to ane spuilyie contenit in ane act of adjornall aganes ane man callit Wilsone, the lordis be interlocutour delyverit the said Wilsones exceptioun aganes the spuilyie, allegeand that thre ky allegit spuilyeit be him contenit in the said act wes ordourlie poindit and apprysit be him for his maill of his landis occupyit be the said N in the tyme of the allegit spuilyie, to be provin be witnessis. Et quod scriptura hoc casu non fuit necessaria ad probandum premissa, quoniam de consuetudine hoc etc. intervenire raro solet. <= Continued from case nr. 184.>

Directly contradicted by the following supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 572. Poynding and apprysing aucht to be provin be wreit.
26 maii 1542: Thair was one Mr Andro Blakstok quha persewit as assigney ane Wilsone for the spoliatione of certane guidis and geir, and that be vertew of the act of adjornall. The defender alledgit that he committit na spuilyie bot had laufullie poyndit and apprysit the saidis guidis as for the mailles and dewties of his landis. Quhilk exceptione being admittit, it was alledgit that the samyn aucht nocht to be provin bot be wreit. The quhilk the lordis fand relevant and ordanit the samyn to be provin be wreit, licet inter rusticos hoc rariter intervenire solet.

196. Exceptione legitima repulsa reducitur sententia per iudicem superiorem, exceptione etiam non probata
The thrid of Maii or thairby anno predicto <1542>: In ane caus movit be A aganes ane puir woman that wes air to certane landis of Dunbar, the <lordis reducit ane rolment, in vertew of ane> instrument of seasing of thai landis, gevin be the said A to Mr George Hay be vertew of resignatioun thairof, allegit maid in the said bailleis handis for seasing gevin thairof to the said Mr George to the utilities of the narrest freindis of the man that resignit the saidis landis, becaus <the judge had injustlie repellit the saidis A exceptioun that> the said woman culd nocht schaw quhair the said resignatioun wes maid, and be the practik the allegeance of the bailleis in his seasing geving that the samyn landis, as said is, wes resignit in his handis, preves nocht the resignatioun in preiudice of thame that clame the saidis landis now in heretage be deceis of the man quha is allegit to haiff maid the said resignatioun in maner foirsaid.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 571.
<Maii 1542> Thair was ane seasing of ane puir womanes in Dumbar persewit to be reducit, becaus the bailyie (quha gaiff the said saising) had no power. It was answerit that the instrument of seasing buir the resignatione to be maid in the bailyies handis - quhilk was sufficient. To this was answerit that, albeit this was sufficient to orive136aganes the bailyei, yit the samyn was nocht sufficient aganes the thrid persone. Quhilk alledgance was fund relevant.

197. Exceptio contra spolium
The 6 of Maii the yeir foirsaid <1542>: In ane caus of spuilyie intentit be the laird of Altar aganes Johne Grand of Balladannocht, the said Johnes procurator, Mr James Macgill, exceptit that the horsis and meiris allegit spuilyeit fra the said laird be the said Johne wes realie and with effect incontinent restorit to the ground agane quhairof thai war callit be the said schir Johnes servandis to the said Johne stokfald for drawing of the said Johnes wyld horsis and meiris all pasturand and rynnand togeader, quhilk utherwyis culd nocht bene separatit and gottin be the said Johne, quha allegit the consuetude wes sua to do. And sua eftir he had restorit the said lairdis wyld horsis and meiris to the hillis quhairupoun thai ran, that the said laird intromettit thairwith thaireftir, and sua that the said laird culd haiff na actioun of spuilyie for the premissis aganes the said Johne the Grant. The said laird replyit that he callit him for the wrangus spuilyie, awaytaking and withhalding fra him of the said horsis and meiris and offerit him to preve that the said Johne yit withhaldis fra him ane pairt of the same, and sua gif ony restorance wes maid, illa restitutio fuit tantum momentanea, for incontinent he intromettit with thame agane. Quhilk he desyrit to be admittit to his preiff. The lordis be interlocutour decernit the exceptioun probationi admittenda, replica repulsa quod restitutio semel facta extingat spolium precedens.

198. Be the practik na <exceptioun> directe contrare articulis libellit is admittit
<CONTINUED> Et pars replice, tuichand the said Johnes withhalding presentlie of ane pairt of the meiris and horsis libellit, fuit repulsa becaus it wes direct contrare to the exceptioun, and of the practik the lordis nocht admittis directe contrarios articulos, nec ad libellum nec ad exceptionem137.
137See note for nrs. 19 and 113.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 570. Immediatlie and incontenenti restitution being maid takes away spolyie.
12 maii 1542: The laird of Alter persewit the laird of Grant for the spoliatione of certane horses and meires. The said John Grant of Bannadalaoch alledgit he had committit na spoilyie because the saidis hors and meires that war alledgit to be spuilyeit, war incontinent and immediatlie restorit againe reallie and with effect callit to the ground quhairof thai war spuilyeit be the said Jones servandis. And that the said Johnes servandis tuik thaime nocht away animo spoliandi, bot called thame to his stoikfald for drawing of his staiges, becaus his meires and the said lairdis war mixt togidder. It was answerit that the alledgance aucht to be repellit in respect of the lybell quhilk buir wrangous taking away and withhalding, and sua the alledgance was contrar to the lybell, and sua138 he micht restoir thame ones againe and thairefter intromet with the same, as he offerit him to prove. The lordis admittit the exceptione of restitutione, nochtwithstanding the lybell and reply, and fand that the immediat restitutione tuik away the spuilyie and was relevant.
138In the sense of "gif" = for instance, he may have restored the animals once and may have taken them away a second time thereafter.

199. Off arreistment of moveabill guidis or ony debait be kend or pley thairon dependand
The 7 day of the said moneth <maii 1542>: In ane caus of Violat Gourlayis139aganes maisteris James Wawane and David McEsone, executouris to Mr Alexander Lyoun, chantour of Murray, rasit letter to arreist all the said Violatis gudis moveabill ay and quhill scho fand cautioun for xvc merkis allegit awin to thame as executouris foirsaids, quhilk sowme thai intentit to recover upoun hir, scho callit for thir letters, desirand thame to be reducit, becaus thai war wranguslie gevin upone ane fals narratioun140, for scho aucht thame nothing, and als the saidis executouris had nocht movit ony play aganes hir, and thairfoir allegit that scho aucht nocht to find ony cautioun and that hir geir suld nocht be arreistit. The lordis (me excepto) decernit the letters of arreistment weill gevin quoad mobilia bona, et quod ita quotidie solet practicari, and sua that scho aucht to find souertie that the guidis suld be furthcumand for the said sowme to the executouris, that the arreistment suld stand unto cautioun be found as said is.
139Violat Gourley also mentioned in nr. 147.
140Argument of nullity of "gratia obreptitia" (= obtained by explicit lies). See the quotations noted at nr. 55.

200. The pane of the superior lyand furth of his superioritie in defraud of his tenent
The said day <7 maii 1542>: In the caus of ane N aganes the laird of C, the lordis be interlocutour decernit that the said N mycht nocht ask at the said laird bot the said males and deweteis that the land usit to gif, et alios fructus qui percipi potuerunt, forsamekill as in defraud of the said N his tenent he wald nocht entir to his landis haldin of the said laird, bot lay out of the same, and thairfoir wes decernit to haiff tint the superioritie of the saidis landis haldin of the foirsaid laird of Cannis, and sua aucht to refound to the said N his tenent the males and proffeitis of the landis, quhilk the said N had gottin and the said laird of Cannes his superiour thairof haid nocht <permittit him to perceive,> lying furth of his land in defraud of his tenent eftir that he was requirit be his awin tenent to entir to his superioritie of the saidis landis as use is upone xl dayis warning.

201. Peremptoria proposita et repulsa non relevat ab onere probandi petita probationi semel admissa sic, licet in eius probatione deficiat reus.
And becaus Mr Thomas Maccalyeane, procuratour for the laird of Cannes, proponit ane exceptioun peremptour aganes the said Mr Thomas Marioribankis, thair procuratour for the uther pairtie, quha allegit that he sould haiff sententiam condemnatoriam upone his summondis etiam super valorem et quantitatem fructuum libellatorum et reddituum, the lordis decretit that he behovit to preve the males and proffeitis, becaus his exceptioun peremptour proponit wes repellit et non admittitur to his preif. Quhilk and it had been, and he had faillit in the probatioun thairof, in that cace of the practik the said Mr Thomas Marioribankis pairtie had gottin sententiam pro se upone his libell etiam quantitate aliter non probata, et quod deficiens in probatione peremptorie quidem videtur per illius probationem totum libellum confessisse. Et <sic propter suam confessionem potuisset> condemnari. And sua the lordis assignit ane terme actori ad probandum quantitatem of the males and the deweteis libellit.

202. Reductioun of commissioun becaus the schireff principall wes nocht callit thairto conforme to the act of parliament.
The 12 day of maii <1542>: The lordis decernit the commissioun obtenit to the schireff in that pairt be the laird of Elphinstoun aganes the lady Setoun, tuiching certane collis allegit spuilyeit be hir and hir servandis fra the said laird out of the landis of Elphinstoun, inordourlie and wranguslie purchessit, becaus the schireff principall, the erle of Bothuill, wes nocht callit as he sould haiff bene be act of parliament 82 in the new prentit actis of king James the fyft. And als for the said caus the said commissioun wes annullit and reducit be decrete of the lordis of our Counsall.
The number of the act of parliament is quoted wrongly: see Kenneth Reid / Reinhard Zimmermann (ed.), A history of the private law in Scotland, Oxford 2000, vol. 1, p. 70 note 369.

203. An in danda commissione debeat vocari vicecomes si sit extra regnum, et licet causa concesse commissionis sit notoria dominis Consilii.
<CONTINUED> Nochttheles becaus the act of parliament foirsaid speikis generalie et sine ulla exceptione, thairfoir thai retreitit the said commissioun, nochtwithstanding that divers tymes of befoir sen the said act wes maid propter notorietatem suspitionis contra vicecomitem principalem soliti fuerunt domini eo non vocato concedere huiusmodi commissiones.

204. The schireffis principall depute admittit to desyre commissione be reducit, gevin non vocato suo domino.
<CONTINUED> And als in this actioun for reduceing of this commissione the summondis wes rasit at the said erles instance, albeit the said erle to the persute thairof nevir comperit be himselff nor his procuratour. The said laird allegit the said actioun mycht nocht proceid. Nochttheless the lordis admittit the saidis deputtis in this cace, and that becaus it pertenit to thaim to defend the said erle Bolduellis jurisdictioun, and albeit that the said laird allegit that it wes nocht necessar to call the saidis schireffis principall in this cace, becaus he wes notourlie out of the realme and als he and his deputis wes notourlie of kyn within grie defendand to the said ladie Setoun, as wes cleirlie understand to the lordis quhen thai grantit the said commissioun, and that for the notoritie of the caus foirsaid.

205. The tak of ane man haifand land in wodsett saiffis nocht the takisman fra violence, he being ordourlie removit be the laird of the ground, the land beand redemit.
The said day <12 maii 1542>: In ane caus of violent occupatioun be ane man N aganes ane uther man callit (ut recordor) William Bad, the said William allegit that he did na violence becaus he had v yeiris tak of the landis libellit of N, quha the tyme of the tak making wes heretabill possessour thairof, and that fra Witsounday libellit he had of the fyve yeiris tua to rin and sua iustlie occupyit the saidis landis. The uther pairtie replyit that that tak culd nocht save him fra violence, becaus the persewar lang befoir Witsounday wes heretablie infeft in thai landis and had redemit thame fra the man that set the 5 yeiris takis and that he had laufulie warnit, removit and outlaid the said Bad as use is, and sua that uther mannis tak culd nocht save him for na yeiris eftir the landis wes redemit fra him. And the lordis decernit the samyn Bad to haiff bene violent possessour of thai landis sen the said feist of Witsounday, ay nochtwithstanding his allegit tak, be ressone foirsaid and that he wes laufulie warnit and removit as said is.

206. Tenentes testificantur
The said day or thairby <12 maii 1542>: In ane caus of Johne Haliburtoun (ut recordor) contra dominam Rutherfurd propter141 reductionem cuiusdam decreti spoliationis, per dominos Consilii lati pro dicta domina contra eundem, the lordis admittit the abote of Mewrus' tenentes to preve the said Johnes possessioun of ane peice land, that the said ladie allegit hir spuilyeit of be him, as pairt and pertinentis of the landis of M<ewrus> pertening to the said Johne in maling haldin of the said abote and convent of Mewrus, becaus the questioun wes heir bot upone the said Johnes possessioun of the landis and nocht upone the propirtie thairof, and sua the said abote and convent culd nocht get hurt nor proffeit of this caus howevir it ga. And sua the witnessis wes admit, albeit the uthir pairteis procuratour Mr Hew Rig allegit thai suld <be> repellit, quia erant tenentes dicti abatis et agebantur super parte et pertinentia certarum terrarum ad eundem ut predicitur spectantium.
141MS: penes.

207. Reductioun of the gift of non-entres
The 15 of maii <1542>: Ane puir woman callit M movit ane caus aganes William Lyndsay of Prestoun. Scho askit the said Williames gift of non-entres of certane landis and rudis lyand besyd the toun of Couper to be reducit, becaus the non-entres thairof wes lang of befoir disponit be the king to hir husband and scho maid assignay be him thairto, and be vertew of his assignatioun scho wes in possessioun of the saidis landis, and sua the secound gift of the non-entres thairof wes of nane awaill and aucht to be reducit. The said William Lyndsay exceptit that the manis, be quhais deceis hir husband gat the non-entres, dochter 2 yeir or thairby wes enterit be hir father to the landis. And sua the said actricis husbandis non-entres wes extinct in the selff. And that his gift wes be deceis of that manis dochter and thairfoir his gift aucht nocht to be reducit, and to preve omnino negabat. The said William producit ane decrete of the lordis of Counsall anno (ut recordor) 1535, quhairbe the non-entres of the landis wes adiungit to the king and A his donatour thairof, sen the deceis of Jonet dochter foirsaid last and immediat tenent heretabill, to the kingis grace of the samyn landis, quhilk decrete wes gevin ista actrice ad hoc vocata et presente, and sua the decrete stand. And the lordis be interlocutour decernit actionem non competere ipsi actrici ad revocandum the said William Lyndsayis gift.

208. That intres and seasing of landis may be provin be sentence iudiciall citra productionem instrumenti sasinae
<CONTINUED> And that the said decret provit sufficientlie aganes the said woman that the manis dochter foirsaid wes interit to the saidis landis, albeit thair wes na instrument of hir seasing schawin, sine quo dicebat procurator actricis non esse per decretum antedictum sufficienter probatam suam sasinam et introitum filie antedicte ad terras predictas. Et hoc ea ratione quod contra ipsam mulierem the said decrete of non-entres per decessum filie antedicte nominatim citatam latum fuit.

209. Nyntene yeiris tak reducit becaus of the rentall and diminutioun.
The 15 day of maii <1542>: The lordis per sententiam definitivam reducit the xix yeiris tak gevin to schir William Ramsay of certane landis of the priorie of Sanctandrois set be Patrik pryor thairof, becaus in it wes omittit the biging of the dykis and casting and clene haldin of the stankis of Pitlethie, quhilk thing wes put of befoir in the said Williames tak of the xix yeiris immediatlie preceding the tak that wes immediatlie reducit.

210. Diminutio rentalis fit per omissionem servitutis debite ratione locationis.
<CONTINUED> Sua the lordis decernit the rentall to be deminissit heirthrow and thairfoir the tak of nane awaill, becaus of this servitude and dewetie usit and put in uthir takis and left out of this last tak. And albeit the said schir William erat presbiter, the lordis of his proper consent ordanit him to answer befoir thame in hoc casu, quod enim de iure non licebat, cap. Si delexeret, extra. De foro competen.142.

And sua it is to be rememberit thair wes nocht interlocutour at that tyme gevin heirupone, bot, the exeptio declinatoria iudicum beand proponit be Mr James McGill (procuratour to the said William), ipse dominus Willielmus resiliit. Nec poterunt domini Consilii meminisse de practica huius casus, nec quod in simili causa clericus potest coram iudice seculari condemnari convenire, licet reductiounis of all infeftmentis and nyntene yeir takis semper tractantur coram dominis Consilii, ubi agitur contra laicos. Et credo quod, si in causa dicti domini Willielmi fuisset processum ad interlocutoriam, quod fuisset lata pro ipso, et quod coram dominis in hoc casu respondere non fuisset compulsus, ideo quia clericus erat, et actor debebat sequi forum rei143.

Als in the said caus the lordis thocht the ressone libellit for reduceing of that tak, becaus it wes set within the half iust awaill of the landis and teindis contentit thairin, nocht relevant144.

And in lentrone last was the lordis iugit the samyn lyk caus of reductioun of xix yeiris tak, maid be Mr Robert Erskin (provest of the Quenis College prope Edinburgh) to the laird of Balcleuche, of the teindis of the kirk pertening to the said provestrie, for reductioun of the quhilkis schir George Clapperstoun (provest of the said college) callit the said laird befoir the lordis of Counsall. Et sic lex secunda Cod. de rescindenda venditione145 hic <non> habet locum de practica Scotie - licet de iure (ut ibi scribitur <per commentatores>) <haberet locum etiam> in locationibus.

In this caus actores erant commendatarius prioratus Sanctiandree filius regis, administrator et conventus eiusdem, contra dictum dominum Willielmum reum.

And als in the samyn caus the lordis ordanit the said persewaris to preve to refound agane pro rata temporis et residuo novemdecim annorum nondum decurso to the said William the intres silver and gressome gevin be him to the said Patrick <and> convent, quha conforme to thair letter of tak grantis thame to haiff resavit the samyn ad summam viginti mercarum in utilitatem ecclesie conversam. And that albeit successor ecclesie non cogitur ex contractu predecessoris, nisi quatenus vertatur in utilitatem ecclesie, ut in cap. 1o de solu.146, Quod, de fideius.147. Alias de pignore148. Domini Consilii versionem hanc de practica Scotie fieri <censebant> ex confessione huiusmodi prioris et conventus virtute assedationis facte dicto domino Willielmo. Et insuper dicebant domini Consilii quod, nisi restituta dicta pecunia, non debebat contractus rescindi. Et ideo sententiatum fuit contractum cassandum fore, actoribus tamen restituentibus primo dicto Willielmo grissumam pro rata temporis sequentis de dicto novemdecem annorum, ut dicitur in actione "quod metus causa": petentem contractum per metum initum rescindi debere et efferi item quod gratia illius contractus accepit149, ff. quod metus causa150. <Continued in nr. 213/569 + 243.>
142X 2.2.12 makes this point; starts "Si diligenti", however.
143X 2.2.8, C. 3.13.2.
144Against X 1.41.1. The legal rules about Laesio enormis are thus not extended to rentals! Yet by customary law of Scotland a different rule applies: namely church institutions (and similarly the King, cf. nr. 236) get restitutio in integrum if their caretakers set a tak for a rental lower than the previous rental. This may be seen in the light of ius commune's doctrine which likens churches to minors: namely minors and thus also churches obtain restitutio in integrum when their caretakers have made a bad deal.
145C. 4.44.2 [to the point].
146X 3.23.1 [to the point].
147X 3.22.4 [to the point].
148This remark is correct: see X 3.21.3.
149This doctrine is based on C. 2.19.4 "reddito a vobis pretio" - in contrast to C. 2.19.11 "et nihilominus etiam pecunia retineatur".
150D. 4.2.

211. Dominus in causa servi sui admittitur testis, licet non e contrario
The said day <15 maii 1542>: In causa exceptionis domini de Pitbladdo contra Mr Johne Spens de Condei(?), the lordis gave interlocutour that the lord Lyndsay may be witnes for the said laird, nochtwithstanding that he wes presentlie the said lordis man and servand, quia jus non prohibet dominum testificari pro suo servo, licet e contrario iure hoc vetetur, and als nochtwithstanding that the said Mr Johne exceptit that the said lord wes lang of befoir the intenting of the caus under summondis at his instance for the spuilyie of the samyn geir that he wes instantlie playand aganes the said <laird> of Pitbladdo and sua wes suspectus testis quia videbatur ex depositione sua reportari comodum, quia restitutione bonorum allegata <per> dictum dominum de Pitbladdo probata dictus dominus de Lyndsay fieret immunis ab actione spolii pro eisdem rebus per dictum magistrum Joannem contra ipsum intentata ut predicitur. Hoc ideo quia summonitionis levatio super crimine contra aliquem non probat eum culpabilem participem ullius criminis.

212. Repelling of witness for sibnes to the solistar in the caus.
The 16 day of maii <1542>: In the caus of non-entres of certane landis of Braidwod movit be Johne Dowy, donatour to the kingis grace to the samyn, and the kingis advocattis instance, aganes the laird of Glenberwy, the lordis repellit a testificando in illa causa the witnes that wes in grie desendand of consanguinitie to the laird of Craighall, albeit the summondis wes nocht intentit at his instance, becaus he wes haill solistar, persewar and mantenar of the caus and insistit thairin upone his awin expensis, as wes notourlie knawin to the lordis. And sua gaif thair interlocutour.

213. Quod generalitas libelli potest in processu cause declarari et sic super generali libello sententia fieri.
The 17 of maii <1542>: In the caus of the commandatour and administratour and convent of the priori of Sanctandrois, the lordis, albeit the libell wes generall and sua that it culd nocht be kend quhairin the place wes hurt or the rentall diminissit, becaus it wes nocht libellit quhair the castin of the stankis and uphald of the dykis of Pitlethy, usit to be put in the fermoraris takkis and now left out of the said schir William Ramsayis takis of xix yeiris, wes of awaill, and sua the libell wes generall in that pairt, nochtheless the lordis be the said schir Williames confessioun (maid in judgement of the awaill yeirlie of the premisses) understud the place in sa far as it hurt the rentall and diminissit <it>, as the saidis deweteis war yeirlie worth. <The lordis> decernit the tak for the samyn caus to be reducit. Et hoc ideo quia, licet super libello generali sententia fieri non possit, quia de iure generalis libellus procedit, si <a> parte altera opponatur, l. final., C. de annal. except.151. Satis est generaliter declarari in processu, ut scribitur ibi. Ideo in causa presenti domini Consilii sententiaverunt, generalitate illa non obstante, ex eo quod per processum dicti domini Willelmi in processu <generalitas illa> facta fuit clarior. <= continued from nr. 210.>
151C. 7.40.3 [to the point].

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 569. Ane tak, albeit it be reducit, yit the gressum gevin for the samen aucht to be restorit.
<20 mar. 1542> The pryor of Sanctandros and his administratour persewit the laird of Colluthie to heir and sie ane tak reducit, set to him of certane landis and teindis of the said pryorie. The tak being reducit for the diminishing of the rentall, the said laird (callit Schir William Ramsay) alledgit he aucht to haiff the silver and gressum agane, quhilk was gevin for the said tak and concevit in the same, quhairof the pryour and the chaptour grantit thame weill contentit and satisfiet and had convertit the samyn in utilitatem ecclesiae. And unto that tyme the sentence of reductione aucht to stand. It was answerit that for the gressum he had intromettit certane yeiris with the landis and teindis. The lordis fand be interloquitor that the gressoume aucht to be restorit agane pro rata of the yeires that was restand, quia hoc iure "aequum est ut nemo cum alterius jactura locupletetur"152.
152D. 50.17.206. See notes to nrs. 101 and 407.

214. Quotiens exceptio (quamvis irrelevans) admissa <est> probationi et probata, secundum eandem debeat sententiari.
The 18 day of the said moneth <maii 1542>: In ane caus of spuilyie movit be certane tenentis of Touche aganes the laird of Bowquhannan, the said laird allegit that ane copie of ane instrument of assignatioun, allegit maid be the saidis tenentis to the said laird of Touche of the spuilyie foirsaid, the quhilk the tenentis allegit maid na fayth, per Auth. Si quis, C. de edendo153, the lordis admittit to the said lairdis preiff that that wes the weray copie of the principal instrument of assignatioun maid be ane notar publict callit Cunyngham, and previt the samyn thaireftir. The tennentis allegit that, becaus copia non probat nisi probata amissione et scriptura et signo notarii de iure, Jas. in dicta auth.154 et Pan. in capitulo <Cum olim,> de privilegiis155, and becaus the premis wes nocht prowin nor yit contenit in the exceptioun, thai allegit it wes irrelevant, and sua thai sould haiff ane condemnatour upone him. Et quod iudex, licet admiserit exceptionem irrelevantem probationi et fuerit probata, non tunc secundum illam sententiare debet, ut per Pan. in cap. Cum contigerit, extra de officio dele., nu. 8156. Item quia de ineptitudine libelli potest in quacunque parte litis opponi, et tunc debet iudex ab observatione iudicii absolvere reum. Ergo idem de exceptione, cum illa sit libellus rei. Nochttheless (me excepto), albeit thai grantit the exceptioun wes relevant, it wes nocht for the caus foirsaid, and that thairfoir the interlocutour admittand the samyn to probatioun, and als this sentence definitive that thai war instantlie to gif becaus of this exceptioun probationi admissa et probata, mycht be all reducit, yit be thair practik thai behovit to gif sentence secundum istam exceptionem probatam, quia de practica interlocutoria semel lata et facit ius inter partes et secundum illam semper est iudicandum, si fuit prolata, donec retractetur - and for observing and keping of formall process. And sua the lordis definitive absolvit Balquhannan fra the petitione of the saidis tenentis. Et iudicio meo non licet bene fundare se in hoc super practica antedicta.
153Authentica "Si quis in aliquo instrumento", post C. 2.1.7, ex Nov. 119 c. 3.
154Commentary by Jason de Mayno on the authentica behind C. 2.1.7.
155Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 5.33.12.
156Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 1.29.36 [starting "Cum contingat"], marginal nr. 8 in the edition which Sinclair happened to use.

215. De juramento in litem non deferendo actori verisimiliter veritatem facti ignoranti
The 19 day of may <1542>: In ane caus of Patrik Kircaldies and Jonet Ramsay his wyfe aganes Mr David Pitcarne <archedene> of Brechen, the said archedene referrit to the persewaris aith quanti sua intererat the wanting of the chartour and the seasing of xli pund land or annuelrent of Carrestoun gevin in keping be the said Jonettis father. And the said Patrik allegit: contra non-exhibentem dolosum juramentum in litem deferendum actori lex non ignorabit, C. ad exhibendum, cum ibi not. per Paulum157, and sua askit his intres to be referrit to his aithe. The uther pairtie allegit in the contrair that he sould prove it legittimis probationibus and nocht to haiff it to his aithe, becaus he grantit at the bar judicialiter in presens of the lordis that nather he nor his wyf evir saw the avidentis nor yit wist quhat thai contenit, als agebatur hic de facto alieno actori ignoto. Et de iure veritatem ignoranti juramentum non est deferendum, etiamsi sit casus ubi de jure debet juramentum deferri actori, ut not. Ja. in l. Si quando, C. unde vi158; Paulus in l.159; Bar., Pan.(!) <(= Bal.?)> et alii in l. In bone fidei, et ibi in glossa magna, C. de rebus cre.160 ; Bar., Alexr. et alii in l. Admonendi, ff. de jurejurando161. Et interlocuti sunt domini Consilii unanimiter iuramentum in litem in causa hac premissis causantibus non esse deferendum, sed eum debere probare suum interesse aliter legittime.
157Commentary by Paulus de Castro on C. 3.42.
158Commentary by Jason de Maino on C. 8.4.9.
159Commentary by Paulus de Castro on the same text.
160Respective commentaries by Bartolus de Saxoferrato and Baldus de Ubaldis and other authors, and gloss by Franciscus Accursius, on C. 4.1.3.
161Commentaries by Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Alexander Tartagnus and other authors on D. 12.2.31.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 568.The interest of him, quha hes his evidentis dolose substractit, no referrit to his oath, bot the samen aucht to be provin.
19 marcii 1542 <= 1543> : Patrik Kirkaldi and Jonet Ramsay his spous persewit Mr David Pitcairne archdeane of Sanctandrois for delyverance off ane chartour of xli s. land, being annaliet of the landis of Cairnstoun, the quhilk chartour was gevin to him in keiping be the said Jonetes father. The archdeane maid litill defence in the mater, bot allegit he had nocht the charter, and denyet nocht bot that anis <he> had the same. The questione come upone the entres, and the said Patrik allegit that the said entres sould be referrit to his oath, quia contra dolosum et contumacem non exhibentem defertur juramentum in litem actori l. ff. de in litem jurando, et ibidem doctores162. It was answerit in the contrair that the entres aucht to be provin via ordinaria judicii et legitimis probationibus, in sa far as the said Jonet and Patrik grantit that thai newer saw the saidis evidentes and knew nocht quhat was into thame, et agebatur de facto alieno actori ignoto. Et de jure veritatem ignoranti non est deferendum juramentum, etiam si sit casus ubi de jure debet juramentum differi actori, ut notat Jason in l. Si quando, unde vi163, Barto. et Alex. et alii in l. Admonendi, ff. de jureiurando164. The lordis pronuncit be interloquitour that the interest sould nocht be referrit in this caice to the pairties ayth, bot that he sould prove the samyn ordinaria via.
162Commentaries on D. 12.2; much more pertinent: D.
163Commentary by Jason de Mayno on C. 8.4.9.
164Commentaries by Bartolus de Saxoferrato and Alexander Tartagnus de Imola and others on D. 12.2.31.

216. Verba narrativa principis de resignatione facta in suis manibus, an probent.
The 20 of may <1542>: In ane caus of reductioun of infeftment, rasit at the kingis and Thomas Dudistoun his donatouris instance aganes N Dudistoun, allegeand that the said N granschir quha resignit the pleyabill landis and gat new infeftment aganes ros(?), and sen the said N retour wes <groundid upone the narratioun of the said resignatioun>, it wer nocht reasonabill that he sould haiff ony proffeit thairof sine titulo.

217. Litere testimoniales judicis de absolutione facta non probant eandem.
The 28 of junii <1542>: The laird of Eist Neisbit Niniane Chirnesyde persewit the lord Home for ane spuilyie. The lord exceptit that he wes cursit, per cano. Si quis suadente, in 17 q.4165, for the slauchter of the prior of Coldinghame - the lordis of Counsall understanding that thairfoir he wes cursit langsyne. And sua the said lord said he mycht nocht stand in judgement in agendo. The said laird producit ane testimoniall of the bischope of Breichen commissar apostolique ad effectum absolvendi dictum Ninianum ex causa predicta, and testefeit be his letters that he had absolvit lang syne the said lord. The lord replyit that that wes na absolutioun, bot quod per testimoniales has literas non probatur absolutio, ut per auth. Si quis, C. de edendo166. Et quia de actis cause non creditur iudici nisi quantum constat ex actis, ut Inno. in cap. Quoniam contra, de probat., extra167. the lordis be interlocutour decernit that the said lairdis letters testimoniallis provit nocht absolutioun. Et sic repulerunt dictum Ninianem ab agendo, pretextu excommunicationis obiecte.
165Decr. Grat. C. 17 q. 4 c.29 [to the point].
166Authentica "Si quis in aliquo instrumento" post C. 2.1.7, ex Nov. 119 c.3 [to the point].
167Commentary by pope Innocentius IV (Sinibaldus Fliscus) on X 2.19.11.

218. Quod terre in lecto aegretudinis possunt dari in coniuncta infeodatione per coniugum alterum alteri, non obstante jure municipali regni huius, de quo hic.
The said day <28 jun. 1542>: Schir William Silver askit ane resignatioun of certane landis of Dundie maid be ane Euphane Silver, his brother docter, in lecto egretudinis, and alienatioun followand thairupoune <...>, becaus thai landis wes gevin to hir agane and David Barbour alias Young hir spous in coniunctfie, to be reducit, as maid in preiudice of him air to the said Euphame, aganes the lawis of this realme, sayand quod nemo potest in preiudicium heredis sui alienare terras in lecto aegritudinis. The lordis decernit that de practica, et consuetudine huius regni municipali preallegata non obstante, potest alter coniugum terras suas dare alteri coniugi in coniuncta infeodatione, et eo quia sic heredes alienantis non priventur perpetue hereditate.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 555. The husband or the wyff may dispone to uther in lecto aegritudinis in lyfrent or conjunctfie.
<Jun. - jul. 1542 or 1543> Thair was ane preist callit schir William Sommer that desyrit ane reversione of certane landis with the infeftment that past thairupone to be reducit, becaus the samyn was maid be his brother' dochter, Eufame Somme, to quhom he was to succeid as narest air of lyn, in lecto aegritudinis, juxta legem in legibus burgorum, ca. clii168, quod nemo potest in prejudicium sui heredis terras in lecto aegritudinis alienare. To this was ansuerit that (nochtwithstanding of the law) the wyff or the husband may give to utheris uther landis in lyfrent or conjunctfie, albeit it be in lecto aegritudinis, quia in hoc casu multum sit prejudicium levius, quia heredes non per hunc actum privantur hereditate. The lordis fand relevant be interloquitour that the alienatione or resignatione of conjunctfie maid be the wyff to the husband aucht to stand, and sua wald nocht reduce the said resignatione and infeftment past thairupone.
168"Regiam maiestatem" ?

219. That na preist aucht to obey the lordis letters for finding of.
The said day <28 jun. 1542>: James Fentoun and David Dowglas had gottin letters of lawborous aganes schir Johne Johnestoun preist be the lordis delyverance, quhilk letters the said preist callit befoir the lordis and askit thame to be simpliciter suspendit, becaus the lordis wes na competent judge to him. The lordis <of> Counsall for the said caus reducit and suspendit the letters simpliciter and remittit him to his judge exclesiasticall ordinar to find the lawborous as efferit of the law.

The said day in ane caus of N., in the quhilk schir Roger Spotiswode, archedene of the kingis chapell, the lordis decretit the said schir Rogeris summondis nocht dewlie execut upone the contrair pairtie, becaus he wes nocht personalie apprehendit. And albeit the officiar delyverit ane copy of the summondis to his servand, it wes nocht aneucht, as is contenit in the act of parliament maid thairupoun.

220. Transferring of ane decrete of warrandice.
The said day <28 jun. 1542>: In the laird of N <caus, the said N> desyrit ane decreit of warrandice of certane landis and act thairof be the lordis of Counsall, gevin as he allegit for ane James Lyndsay (ut recordor) his foirgranschir, to quhome he allegit him to be successour lineall, to be transferrit in the laird of Dundas as air and successour to qumquhile N Dundas, aganes the quhilk N the decrete wes gevin. The laird of Dundas desyrit that his pairtie adversar ante omnia suld verefie that pairt of his summondis quhairinto he allegit him successour lineall to the said James. The laird of Covingtoun said it wes notourlie knawin, and that the said laird of Dundas wald nocht deny the same, and askit super hoc ab eo juramentum calumniae. The laird of Dundas said he aucht nocht to gif the samyn, quia adversarius suus predictus non habet actionem nisi verificet illam partem libelli sui, et idem ante omnia intelligi debere ei ius agendi competere. The uthir pairtie allegit that juramentum calumnie potest peti in quacunque parte litis. The lordis of Counsall decernit juramentum calumniae prestandum nunc a dicto domino Dundas super exceptione predicta per ipsum opposita, antequam predictum punctum libelli cogatur adversarius verificare. Quo juramento prestito per Dundas, the said laird of Dundas petiit dictum punctum instanti tempore verificari, eo quia actor debet venire cum facto parato. The lordis ad petitionem alterius partis assignarunt terminum ad premissa, eo quia de facto antiquo agebatur et de lineali 4 aut 5 personarum successione, et raro solent homines tot evidentias in manibus habere.

221. That ane man beand heretablie infeft, his infeftment standand, aucht nocht to be put thairfra
<28 jun. 1542?> The laird of Luss promesit certane somes of money with his dochter to the laird of Kilbirneis sone, and in securitie thairof gave heretabill infeftment of certane landis to the said laird of Kilbirnie. And vicmerkis beand awin thairof at the laird of Luss deceas, the laird of Kilbirnie sauld certane of the landis for four hundereth merkis to ane Mr Johne Pottarfeild, and thaireftir gat tua hundereth merkis fra the laird of Luss wyf, and that in compleit payment of the haill tochir, and gave thairupone his acquittance. And the schireff be command of the kingis letters be delyverance of the lordis tuke cognitioun heirupone and fand the haill tochir payet, and thairfoir decernit the said laird of Kilbirnie and Mr Johne to desist fra the landis to be bruikit and joysit be the said laird of Luss, becaus thai war gevin bot in securitie of that sowme and wes als prowin payit be the said laird of Kilbirneis acquittance. The said Mr Johne desyrit that rolment to be reducit, becaus he wes heretablie infeft in pairt of the landis, and his infeftment standand unreducit, he aucht nocht to haiff bene decernit to desist. It wes replyit that he wes ordourlie callit befoir the schireff, and that the laird of Kilbirnie mycht nocht mak him mair rycht nor he had him self, and that thai landis wes gevin him in maner foirsaid in securitie of the tochir foirsaid, and sua, as the laird of Kilbirnie mycht nocht him selff with thai landis the sowme being payit to him, in lyke wyis nor yit the said Mr Johne, quia "nemo potest transferre plus iuris in alium quam ipse habet"169. The lordis be sentence diffinitive reducit the said decrete in safar as it wes gevin contra dominum Joannem, for his infeftment standand he aucht nocht to haiff bene decernit to desist and ceis fra the landis. In contrarium faceret l. Lex vectigali fundo, ff. de pig.170, dicens <quod> resoluto iure datoris resolvitur ius acceptoris.
1696. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 79.
170D. 20.1.31 [to the point].

222. Off thirll multure and gif it vel liberatio ab ea may cum in alienatione terrarum eam debentium, si de ea ac liberatione ab ea non facta mentio sit171.
The first of junii <1542>: Alexander Inglis clamit the thirll multure of the cornes that grew certane yeiris bypast upone the landis of Blairinaid, at Andro Astie, tenent thairof to James Gordoun, quha held thai landis of the said Alexander, and the saidis multures of the cornes that grew upone the landis of Ladinspike, at James Stewart heretabill tenent thairof haldin of the said Alexander, becaus the said Alexander wes heretablie infeft in the haill forrestrie of Bonie with thirll multure of the landis thairof to his myln callit The New Myln, and the landis foirsaid lyis within the said forrest. It wes exceptit ex altera parte quod non tenebatur eam solvere dicto Alexandro, becaus thai wer heretablie infeft and immediat tenentis to him of thair landis foirsaidis in blenche, payand ane penny nomine albe firme tantum si petatur, pro omni alio onere, exactione, questione seu demanda that mycht be askit of thai landis vel occasione earum cum multuris, molendinis etc. And becaus the said Alexander father, that annaleit thai landis, reservit nocht the said thirll multuris to the said New Myln of the forrest of Boni, thairfoir that <he> mycht nocht clame the same, becaus it is ane dewetie that is aucht ratione occupationis terrarum et sic occasione earundem. And the lordis, nochtwithstanding divers allegeances maid in the contrair, be thair sentence definitive decreverunt the tenentis frie of all the said Alexanderis clame, and sua <becaus> the settar of the landis man varrand it to thame of all chargis, bot alanerlie thaim that he specifeis in the alienatioun making. And sua venditor varrantizat terras venditas emptori ab omni annuo redditu et alio onere quocunque de dictis terris, nisi aliter conventum aut expressum fuerit inter ipsos tempore alienationis. And sua the lordis fand that this thirll multure is onus reale et servitus que venit in contractu, nisi hoc dictum sit. Et quod censetur remitti nisi contrarium sit conventum, et hoc virtute specialium clausularum reservativarum predictarum in cartis specificatarum. And als the said servitude videbatur extincta, eo quia eftir the said Alexander had coft the said multur of all the forestrie, he gat all the landis in heretage to him self. And sa the landis aucht to be thirll to him selff: "Res sua nemini servit"172. Et sic illa servitus fuit semel extincta et consolidata cum superioritate et proprietate terrarum earundem, et per alienationem partis earum reviviscere non potest.
171Same case in nr. 358.
172D. 8.1.26; parallel rule for "ususfructus" in D. 7.6.5 and D. 7.1.63.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 551. Landis nocht astrictit to pay thirle multurs except it be expreslie provydit be chartour.
<Jul. 1542 or 1543?> Thair was ane named Alexander Innes that persewit for the thirle multures of the cornes that grew upone certane landis. Comperit ane Andro Castie, tennent of the landis to James Gordonem quha held the samyn landis of the said Alexander, and siclyk ane James Stewart, heretabill tennent of the landis of Baldinspink haldin also of the said Alexander, and allegit that thai aucht no thirl multur: be ressoun that thai war heretablie infeft and immediat tennentis to him of the landis foirsaidis, haldand the samyn in blench for the payment of ane pennie nomine albefirme (si petatur, tantum) pro omni alio onere etc. that mycht be askit off the landis, and war also infeft in generali clausula "cum molendinis et multuris". And sua be ressoun off thair infeftment disponit to thame be the said Alexander thai aucht na thirl multures of thair corne. It was ansuerit be the said Alexander that he was infeft into the haill forrestrie of Boyne with all the thirle multures off the landis thairoff, to be payit to his milne callit the Newmilne, and all the foirsaid landis lyand within the said forrestrie thairfoir aucht to pay to him the saidis multuris. The lordis pronuncit be interloquitor that the said tennentis aucht nocht to be compellit to pay the saidis multures becaus thirl multures sunt onus reale a servitiis, the quhilk na man aucht to be bund except it be expreslie prowydit in his charter. The lordis had some consideratione into the matter that the said Alexander had coft and obtenit the propertie of the landis to himselff and consolidat the superioritie with the propertie.

223. Giff the outquyttar of the landis may keip in his handis the money. Et iam bene potest.
The thrid day of junii <1542>: In ane caus of redemptioun of landis betuix James Scrymgeour and Johne Kynnarde the said Johne allegit the ferrie boit and fisching of Greinsyd nocht lauchfullie redemit, becaus the said James hes still in his handis the money contenit in the reversioun, and nocht consignit nor yit deponit in na suir manis keping as use is to the said Johnes utilitie. The said James allegit he had fulfillit the reversioun, quhilk had put the money in the constabill of Dundeis handis, in cais thai, quhomefra the landis happynait to be redemit, vald nocht resave the same. And becaus the constabill refusit the keping of the money, the said Johne allegit he mycht nocht haiff deponit it in na uther manis hand in keaping, bot he mycht hald it still him selff, and sua that thairin he had fulfillit the reversioun. And the lordis decretit planelie the samyn and sua the reversioun fulfillit and the landis redemit.

224. Quod actor ante libelli oblationem potest renunciare instantiae coram ecclesiatico iudice intentate et eandem causam de novo incipere coram seculari iudice.
The said day <3 jun. 1542>: The lordis decernit the archedene of Brechen and his colligis preistes ad exhibendum evidentias certas ab ipsis petitas exhibere, per dominum de Segy, eo quia, licet dictus dominus super exhibitionem earundem egisset coram commissario Brechen, a quo fuit appellatum ad Sanctumandream et inde ad papam, et causa appellationis unacum negotio principali per papam commissa dictis iudicibus delegatis apud Abirdene et super articulo appellationis per delegatos lata sententia, et cognitioni principali <ante libelli> oblationem et litis contestationem in principali causa factam renunciavit instantie, litis expensis refusis. Ideo dicti domini Consilii admiserunt dominum Segy ad agendum de novo coram ipsis, et quod actor ante libelli oblationem et rei citationem possit renunciare instantie, reo etiam invito. Vide scribentes in auth. At qui semel, C. quomodo et quando iudex173; Bal. in l. Postquam liti, ubi Alexander, Paulus et alii, C. de pactis174.
173Authentica "At qui semel" post C. 7.43.8, ex Nov. 112 c.3.
174Commentaries by Baldus de Ubaldis, Paulus de Castro, Alexander Tartagnus and other authors on C. 2.3.4 [to the point].

225. Suspensioun of letters in the four formes.
The v of julii <1542>: Mr William Blair obtenit Mr James Multrayis collatioun of the vicarage of Carnbie and the ordinar letters thairupone retretit iudicialiter Sanctandreae, and he gat new collatioun thairof and ordinar letters thairupone. Mr James appeill ad curiam Romanam fra the sentence gevin aganes him. The said Mr William desyrit Mr James' kingis letters in the four formes, past upone his ordinar letters or his collatioun quhilk wes reducit, to be simpliciter suspendit, becaus his collatioun and ordinar letters foirsaid wer reducit be ane sentence, and sua said he the letters in the four formes aucht in lykwyis to ceis and be simpliciter suspendit. The said Mr James allegit that he wes under his appellatioun fra the said sentence and that the samyn wes actuallie dependand in Abirdene coram delegatis pape175.
175MS adds first words of 226 (thus doubled!): "And sua is the effect."

226. Appellatione pendente a sententia retractiva literarum ordinarii non suspenduntur litere regie desuper obtente.
<CONTINUED> And sua the effect of the sentence gevin contra ipsum erat adhuc suspensa per appellationem. And thairfoir his letters in the four formes foirsaid aucht nocht to be simpliciter suspendit. The lordis of Counsall decernit conforme to Mr James allegeance that his letters aucht nocht to be suspendit, appellatione pendente.

227. Off calling of varrandice in reductioun of redemption of landis
<5 jul. 1542?> The said day James Maxwell callit the laird of Dalhoussie to heir ane instrument of redemptioun of certane landis allegit quytout be the said laird fra the said James' father to be reducit agane, becaus in the said instrument the said James father oblist him and his airis to varrand the said laird and his airis in thai landis. The lordis decretit that he aucht to haiff ane day to call his warrand.

228. Off calling of ane for spulyie quhair the caus was of befoir intentit contra plures.
The vi day of julii <1542>: The laird of Ruthven callit schir Johne Campbell of Lundy and certane uther persones of spuilyie, quha all wes absolvit be decrete of the lordis, quhilk decrete the said laird gat reducit agane be ane uther decrete of the lordis. Thaireftir the said laird of new callit the said schir Johne alanerlie for that spuilyie, quha allegit that he mycht nocht, bot he aucht to call thame all that he had anes chosin in prima instantia. The lordis decernit that he mycht now proceid aganes ony ane, quia sententia retractata habetur perinde ac si numquam fuisset ea lata aut causa intentata.

229. Verba narrativa principis de resignatione facta in suis manibus an probent.
The 19 of maii <1542>: In ane caus of reductioun of infeftmentis rasit at the kingis and Thomas Dudistone his donataris instance aganes Noie Dudistoun, <it wes> allegit that the said N granschir, quha resignit the pleyabill landis in the kingis handis and gat new infeftment agane, wes nevir sasit in the landis. And sua his infeftment, makand mentioun that the landis pertenit of befoir to the fathir resignant in heretage, aucht to be reducit, bot gif the said N mycht now schaw his granschiris seasing. All the lordis in ane consent thocht that reus non deberet astringi ad hoc probandum, et quod carta domini regis hoc testificantis contra regem, suosque successores et eorum donatores plenam fidem de premissis deberet facere, et quod esset nimis grave toto regno et omnibus baronibus Scotie, si tam veteres sasinas ostendere compellerentur. Et de iure verba narrativa principis faciant plenam fidem contra ipsum: Cle. de probationibus, et ibi Imol., Jac., Ancha. et alii176. Et licet decretum hoc non fuit in presenti, tamen omnes domini erant in hoc concordes et ita decidendum si res ad vota discendissent. Et dixerunt istud jam fuisse practicatum in simili causa olim vertente inter dominos de Loalland et Cunynghameheid et in causa dominorum de Kincraig et Lundy. And hoc procedit respectu regis, sed non in preiudicium tertii, qui legitime posset de iure suo doceri ad terras per regem cuivis hoc modo dispositas.
176Commentaries by Iohannes ab Imola, Petrus Ancharanus and other authors on Clem. 2.7. The abbreviation "Jac." is probably a misreading of "Jo.a." = Johannes Andreae, glossa ad Clementinas.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 567. Verba narrativa principis plenam faciunt contra eum fidem.
About the samyn tyme <mar. - may 1542 or 1543> : Thair was ane infeftment persewit to be reducit at the instance of the kingis advocate and ane Mr Thomas D. donatour aganis ane uther J.P. The ressone of the summondis was that the defendares granschir, quha resignit the landis in the kingis handis and thairefter gat new infeftment agane, was newer seasit, and that the landis newer pertenit to him in heretage. And sua, without he sould schaw now the said seasing or quhair the landis appertenit to him, the said infeftment past upone the said resignatione aucht to be reducit, juxta l. Si quis, in authen., C. de edendo177. Nam non creditur referenti nisi constat de relato. To this was ansuerit that the infeftment gevin be the king (bearand in effect that the landis pertenit of befoir to the resignatour) was sufficient. Et verba narrativa principis plenam faciunt fidem contra principem. And it was very prejudiciall to all the barrones of Scotland to be bund efter resignationes of lang tyme past in the kinges handes, to be obleist to schaw thair seasingis and tytillis quhairupone the saidis resignationes and infeftmentes <had bein groundit>. The lordis concludit all in one voice and votit (albeit it was nocht pronuncit) that the narrative of the infeftment was sufficient aganes the king and his donatour to prove that the saidis landis pertenit of befoir to the resignatour, albeit it was doutsome gif it wald prowe contra.
177Auth. "Si quis in aliquo instrumento" post C. 2.1.7, ex Nov. 119.3.

230. Quhair ane man is oblist be ane contract to caus ane uther sell land - quhilk is efficax de iure.
The said day <19 maii 1542>: In causa Colini Campbell contra dominum de Keir, the lordis be interlocutour decernit the said Coline efficaciter obligatum dicto domino per contractum in quo promisit ipse Colinus se causaturum Elenam (ut recordor) Balquhannan ad vendendum ipso domino de Keir certas suas <terras> hereditarias. Et quod hec obligatio erat efficax de iure, pro eo Si quis alium, in fine178instrumenti(?) St.(?). Et not. Jas., Bar., Alexander et alii in l. Stipulatio ista "habere licere", in principio, ff. de verb. obbl.179.
178Auth. "Si quando quis pro se vel pro alia persona", post C. 4.18.1, matches this garbled quotation.
179Commentaries by Jason de Maino, Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Alexander Tartagnus and other authors on D. 45.1.38 pr.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 566. Ane pairtie may obleiss himselff to caus ane uther pairtie <to> fulfill the deid.
20 maii 1542: The laird of Keir persewit ane Colin Campbell for the performing of ane contract in the quhilk the said Coline band and oblesit himselff that he suld caus Elein Buchanane sell to the said laird certane landis pertening to hir in heretage. It was ansuerit that he aucht nocht fulfill the said contract becaus it was aganis the law to him to contraict the thing to be done be him quhilk lay into ane uther manes hand to do, quia nemo alienum factum promittendo <se> obligat, l. Stipulatio rei aliene, ff. de verborum obliga.180. To this was ansuerit that, albeit it was alienum factum et stipulatio rei aliene, yit in sa far as he had obleist himselff be contract to caus the said woman do it, he aucht to fulfill the same, quia de jure si quis effecturum se, ut alius daret, sponderit, obligatur iuxta § Si quis alium, Instit. de inutilibus stipulationibus181. The lordis decernit the said Coline to fulfill the said contract in all poyntes becaus he had obleist himselff to caus ane uther pairtie do it.
180D. 45.1.51 is meant.
181Inst. 3.19.3 [to the point]. See also D. 45.1.81.

231. Advocatioun of auld and greit causis to the lordis of Counsall, actore etiam refragante.
The said day <19 maii 1542>: In causa domini de Wauchtoun et collegarum suarum contra executores domini Jacobi Creichtoun de Frendrecht militis, the lordis advocat ad instantiam reorum altera parte invita causam inter reos vertentem et seipsos a certis clavigeris et aliis per specialem commissionem dominorum deputatis ad cognoscendum in eadem, ex eo quod ex antiquo agebatur debito, viz. spolio 28 yeiris, et de ingenti summa, viz. plusquam decem millium librarum. Et de practica omnes huiusmodi antique cause et summe ingentes solent tantummodo coram dominis Consilii tractari, propter eorum difficultatem.

232. Off resaving of witnessis nochtwithstanding ane <exceptioun> peremptour proponit be the uthir pairtie and nocht yit discus sit bot the samyn being yit undiscussit.
The said day <19 maii 1542>: In ane caus of the laird of Inneis aganes Robert Richesone, James Stewart and certane utheris, the lordis be interlocutour decernit, nochtwithstanding the said uther pairteis procuratour Mr Hew Rig dissentit alanerlie thairfra, that the said laird Innes' witnessis upone his summondis to be resavit and examinat, without ony preiudice of the said Mr Hew Rigis exceptioun peremptour proponit be him aganes the summondis. Upone the quhilk he said: the lordis suld first discuss or thai resavit witnessis in the caus. Quhais allegeance wes nocht admittit and the witnessis as said is wes resavit. Et hoc ad parcendum sumptibus partis alterius in citando de novo dictos testes; et quia ex eorum receptione nullum alteri parti preiudicium fiebat.

233. Quod actor litecontestata non potest renunciare instantie, reo invito. Et cessante actore, ad diffinitivam proceditur ad instantiam <rei>
The first day of the said moneth <maii 1542>: In the caus movit aganes the airis of Inrugie and thair spous, the erle of Merschell, Johne Keith and utheris besyd, <audivi actorem> Stirveling Glawray (ut recordor) petentem in libello certas terras alienatas per quondam N patrem (ut opinor) of the said airis to be decernit be decrete of the lordis unredemabill, and incais thai be found redemabill, petentem dictum N, a quo dicte terre fuerunt alienate ipsi actori cum pacto quod illi non possent redemi per quoscunque, decerni per decretum dominorum ad varrantizandum actori dictas terras irredimabiles. Mr Thomas Marioribankis procurator actoris petiit terminum ad vocandum varantum suum. The lordis, prout causa hec evenerat, denegarunt ei terminum. And als his said procuratour vald haiff tane up his summondis and renuncit the instance et recederet a lite, et quod materia erat iam iudicialiter disputata.

234. Litis contestatio inducitur peremptoria proposita et disputata in iudicio.
<CONTINUED> Et Mr Hew Ryge, procurator comitis predicti, peremptoriam exceptionem iam proposuit. Et sic ex practica videbatur lis in hac causa contestata. Dixit actorem non posse desistere, nec denunciare instantie. Et ita interlocuti sunt domini Consilii.

235. The lordis proceidis ad difinitivam super copia libelli.
<CONTINUED> Ideo ad instantiam ipsius comitis rei, actore omnino(?) tacente, domini visis iuribus rei definitive pronunciaverunt contra actorem terras redimabiles secundum rationes reversionis ibidem iudicialiter in ostensas. Et processum fuit ad sententiam super copia summonitionis porrecta per reum, ex eo quod procurator actoris subtraxit principalem summonitionem et recusabat in causa procedere.

236. Retreiting of few landis of the crowne propter diminutionem rentalis.
The 21 of maii <1542>: The lordis definitive retreitit ane few abak gevin be the king to the sone naturall of the cardinall of Sanctandrois, becaus the samyn wes in diminutionem rentalis of thai landis annexit to the crowne and sua in hurt of the crowne182. And the samyn wes prowin be witnessis that thai laite gaif mair yeirlie befoir the said few than wes contentit in the chartour maid to the said cardinall sone. And albeit he wes within aige, viz. xiii annos (or eocirca) et sic minor, et citati erant tutores, curatores et gubernatores sui in genere tantum et nemo <eorum venit et> eum <non> defenderunt, et ideo de iure sententia contra eum indefensum lata fuit nulla, l. Acta, ff. de re judi.183, tamen domini sententiam contra eum tulerunt. Et hoc de practica esse dixerunt.
182= Restitutio regis secundum consuetudinem Scotie; cf. parallel case in nr. 210 + 213.
183D. [to the point].

237. An super proprietate placitare debeat minor annis, vel <possit> contra eum agi de retractatione sui infeodamenti
<CONTINUED> Et licet super proprietatem immobilium de practica et iure Scotie minor placitare non tenetur, tamen dixerunt domini non habere locum ubi agitur super retractationem sasine minoris quam nullus suorum maiorum ante habuit, et quod ei et nulli suorum unquam competit, ut in hoc casu <de> iure. Et ratio ferende sententie esse opportebat, et procedendi contra eundem, quod, licet minor etas ei debeat patrocinari, ita ad aliorum iniuriam referri non debet.

238. De solutione facta non-domino, nec de eius mandato, <servitori> illius potestatem non habenti recipiendi. Et quod, si in rem domini versa sit pecunia, quod nihilominus debitor liberatur
The 22 day of maii <1542>: In ane caus of Mr Johne Cheisholme assignay to the king, and to <i>iiic merkis allegit restand awand to the king be the communitie of Edinburgh of the sowme of ane thowsand merkis lent be the kingis graice to thame, for payment of the quhilk thowsand merkis the toun gave thair obligatioun to pay the samyn to the king, or ony utheris haifand thairof his graice command. The tounis procuratour exceptit peremptourlie that thai had payit the samyn iiiic merkis to umquhile James Colwill comptrollar, and thairwith boucht wyne to the kingis utilitie and proffeit, and that the said wyne wes expendit in his hous. And sua <thai haille sowme> payit to the <kingis> comptrollar, of that money, convertit as said is in rem et utilitatem regis, liberabat dictam communitatem de summa antedicta, licet ad receptionem solutionis summe eiusdem dictus Jacobus non haberet mandatum regis, nec ad eius officium spectaret se de huiusmodi rebus ad regem spectantibus providere. Et hoc pro ratione aequitatis, ne dicta communitas ad solutionem duplicem eiusdem debiti compelleretur contra l. Bona fides, ff. de reg. iur.184, et l. dicentem "ne quis cum aliena iactura" etc.185, l. Nemo, eodem tit.186. Et quod de iure esset sufficiens hec solutio ad liberandum debitores allegabatur l. Debitores et l. Qui bonam § Si nullo, ubi Pau., ff. <de> solutio.187, l. Non solum, cum l. seq., ubi glo. fi. et Jas., Bar. et alii, ff. soluto matri.188.

Et ita interlocuti sunt domini dictam exceptionem de iure relevantem, licet in contrarium allegabatur quod defectus mandati secundum tenorem obligationis deberet obstare, et quod ad officium dicti Jacobi non pertinebat intromittere <se> cum talibus (viz. accidentibus ad regem pertinentibus), sed quod illa regio pertinebat thesaurario. Et ideo ut de iure, solutione facta uni tutori vel curatori de re aut debito pertinente ad administrationem alterius tutoris vel curatoris, ut quando certe cetere res et terre pupilli vel adulti singulis tutoribus aut curatoribus date essent ad administrandum, debitorem non liberat: l. Qui hominem, § Si nullo, l. Vero procuratori, ff. de solution.189. Ideo videretur solutione premissa dictam communitatem Edinburgensem non esse liberatam, quia iura habere locum.

Fuit responsum: <Haec iura allegata> et intellegenda esse secundum illam l. Debitores190 et Pan. in dicto § Si nullo191. Ad id quod solutio hec liberaret communitatem, allegabatur l. Pupillo (in ratione sua), ff. de solutio.192, l. Apud Celsum § Si quis pupill., de doli mali193. Ex aduerso glo. fi. et ibi Pau., Alexander, Bar., Jas. in l. Non solum194 preallegata(?).

184D. 50.17.57 [to the point].
185D. 50.17.206 = D. 12.6.13 [to the point]; taken up in 6. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 48.
186"Nemo plus iuris in alium transferre potest quam ipse habet", 6. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 79 [to the point].
187D. 46.3.28 and commentary by Paulus de Castro on D.
188D.24.3.3 and 4, with last gloss by Franciscus Accursius, and commentaries by Jason de Maino, Bartolus de Saxoferrato and other authors.
189D. and lex 12.
190D. 46.3.28 [to the point].
191Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis), commentary on D.
192D. 46.3.15 [to the point].
193D. [to the point].
194D.24.3.4, with gloss by Franciscus Accursius, and commentaries by Paulus de Castro, Alexander Tartagnus, Bartolus de Saxoferrato, Jason de Maino.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 564. Si conversum fuerit debitum in rem creditoris, licet absque illius mandato, liberatur debitor.
22 may 1542: Maister Johne Chesholme persewit the commontie of the toun of Edinburgh as assigney to the kingis majestie of iiiic markes restand awand of the soume of im markis for the quhilk the toun gaiff thair obligatione to pay the samyn agane to the kingis majestie. Comperit the procuratour for the toun and allegit peremptorlie that thai had payit the samyn iiiic markis to James Colvin comptroller to the kingis majestie, in sa far as thai <had> gevin him wyne in payment and satisfactione of the same, the quhilk wyne was wentit to the kingis majesties proffeit and utilitie, et sic bona fides non patitur ut id bis exigatur, argumento l. Debitores, ff. de verborum obliga., et ibidem doctores195. It was ansuerit in the contrair of the law l. Qui hominem, § Et si nullo196, ubi, si debitor solverit absque mandato et is qui recipit, potestatem recipiendi non habet, non liberatur. For nather had the said James Colvill command to ressave the said wyne nor yit it appertenit nocht to his office of comptrollarie, bot the concell with the kingis debtes utherwayes nor appertenit to his propertie. The lordis pronuncit be interloquitour that the exceptione was relevant, and albeit the payment was maid sine mandato et ei qui non habet potestatem recipiendi, yit forsamekill as it was convertit in rem creditoris, liberatur debitor.
195Commentaries on D. 46.3.28 are meant [to the point]. There is no lex "Debitores" in D. 45.1.
196D. [to the point].

239. Ane kirkmanis air gettis na airschipe bot gif he be air to him of landis, albeit the kirkman be in dignitate ecclesiastica constitutus.
The 23 of februar <1542>: In ane caus of airschipe, movit be ane father brother of Mr James Kincraig umquhile dean of Abirdene and provest of the Kirkheuche of Sanctandrois, aganes Mr Johne Atoun and his colligis executouris to the said Mr James, the lordis definitive decretit: the pretendit air aucht na airschipe gudis, becaus of the practik of Scotland na kirkmanis (licet in dignitate ecclesiastica sit constitutus) air aucht airschipe gudis, bot gif the said air be servit air to him of certane landis or rentis. And the said schir James' air wes nocht his air of ony sic landis, quhilkis nane had the said James quhen he deceissit.

240. Exceptioun contra redemptioun of landis
The 23 of maii <1542>: Henrie Ramsay callit William Dempstertoun to heir and se the landis of N be decernit be decrete of the lordis laufullie redemit as use is. The said William ansuerit the samyn suld nocht be, becaus the heretabill possessor of the landis, viz. his sone, wes nocht warnit to the redemptioun of the landis; and that he wes bot lyfrentar of the samyn, and sua that he culd nocht renunce and ourgif thai landis' proprietie and possessioun thairof. And sen the heretabill fear wes nocht warnit, as said is, the landis suld nocht be decernit laufullie redemit. And offerit him to preve sufficientlie his allegeance and desyrit ane terme thairto. The lordis admittit this exceptioun relevant to preve, nochtwithstanding the uther pairteis contradictioun.

And the samyn wes practicat of befoir in ane caus of redemptioun of landis, movit betuix the laird of Polmais and Alexander Levingsoun of Drumypais.

241. Off tua varrandis to be callit togeader, albeit the ane be nocht haldin nor oblist to varrand bot in subsidium alterius.
The said day <23 maii 1542>: The laird of Inneis callit the erle of Errollis (that last deceissit) dochter, beand within thre yeir auld, as air of lyne to him of certane blanche landis, and the laird of Logy, now erle of Erroll, air of tailyie to the said umquhile erle that last deceissit, to warrand him the gift of the mariage of the airis of Barndell, to the quhilk the said erles predicessouris maid the said lairdis father assignay for certane sowmes of money. The erle of Errollis procuratour allegit that he suld nocht be callit unto the tyme the air of lyne wer callit and discussit, becaus of the practik the air of the tailyie sould nocht be distreinyeit for his predicessouris dettis or obligatiounis, bot incace the air of lyne wer nocht solvendo, et sic quod ipse non tenetur nisi in subsidium et de iure. Ubi quis tenetur in subsidium, conveniri non potest nisi discusso principali debitore. Et actio directa contra principalem debitorem nec concurrat, nec competit sine illa priori, simul et semel in eodem libello: § Sciend., Insti. de satisda. tu.197, l. Decem, ubi Alexander et alii, ff. de verborum oblig.198, ubi promittens in defectum seu subsidium alterius convenire nequit nisi illo prius discusso. Nochttheless the lordis be thair interlocutour decernit him to ansuer in this cais of warrandice this instant tyme, becaus of the practik actor varrantum suum, nisi in initio litis aut saltem ante litem contestatam eum vocaverit (et sic quidem causae istae in varrantum, licet executio warranti contra eum fieri non posset nisi discusso prius herede lineali), persequi nequevit, ut supra dictum est, tamen, quoniam in alia parte litis in varrantum vocari de iure regni non potest, ideo eum debere nunc respondere in hac causa varranti.
197Inst. 1.24.2 [to the point].
198Commentaries by Alexander Tartagnus and other authors on D. 45.1.116 [to the point].

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 565. The air of lyne aucht to be first persewit and discussit.
24 may 1542: The laird of Innes persewit the dochter of the earle of Arroll that last decessit as narrest air of lyne to him, and also the laird of Logie earle of Arroll and air of tailyie, to warrand him the fit of the mareage of the aires of Ballandall, to the quhilk the said earles predicessour maid the said lairdis father assigney for gryt soumes of money debursit for the same. Compeirit the earles procuratour and alledgit that he aucht nocht to warrand nor be persewit quhill the air of lyne war first discussit, becaus of the practik that the air of tailyie suld nocht be distrenyeit for his predicessouris debtis nor obligationes bot incaice the air of lyne be nor solvendo, quod non tenetur heres tailyie nisi in subsidium. It was ansuerit that he <(= the laird of Innes)> behuifit in initio litis tak him to call his warrandice, utherwayis he wald nocht be hard. The lordis pronuncit be interloquitour that he sould ansuer now to the warrandice and in executione the air of lyne aucht to be first discussit.

242. Privilege of tabill grantit cessionario, quod cedenti non fuisset concessum.
The said day <23 maii 1542>: David Wallace, cessionar and assignay to Marioun Barclay his mother199 in and to ane dewtie aucht to his mother be Andro and James Hammyltones, aganes the said Andro and James gat his summondis put in the puir folkis tabill. Mr Thomas Marioribankis procuratour to Andro and James allegit, the said David suld nocht haiff that privilege, becaus the assignatioun wes fraudfullie maid to get that tabill be reasone of the said Davidis puirtaithe, albeit the said Marioun wes ane riche woman and culd nocht get that privilege. And sua, the samyn assignatioun beand maid be this conclusioun, the said David suld nocht haiff that privilege200. The lordis be interlocutour decernit the said David to haiff that privilege, nochtwithstanding the foirsaid allegeance, becaus the tendernes of blude betuix the said David and Marioun tollebat suspitionem fraudis - the quhilk caus wes nocht relevant, and that the samyn inducit evir fraude.
199Parallel problem in nr. 87.
200X 1.42.2.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 563. Ane persone may haiff the benefit of the puir manes tabill as cessioner to ane uther.
<25-25 may 1542> Thair was ane Marion Barcley that maid David Wallace hir sone cessioner and assigney to certane debtis auchtand to hir be Andro and Johne Hamiltones. The Wallace, becaus he was, as he alledgit, ane puir man, obtenit the gift of the puir mans tabill and was <admittit> into the same. It was objectit aganis the ordour that, albeit he was puir, yit his mother was rich, and sua it appeirit ane simulat assignatione and collusione betuix the mother and the sone. And the thing <quhilk> wald nocht haiff bein grantit to the cedent, could nocht be grantit cessionario201. The lordis fand be interloquitour that he mycht bruik the samyn benefit as cessioner and assigney to his mother.
201X 1.42.2.

243. Exceptio reductionis of nyntene yeiris tak
The 25 of maii <1542>: The lordis of Counsall absolvit the laird of Balcleuche fra the summondis intentit contrair him be the provest of the Quenis College, anent the reductioun of his xix yeir tak of the kirk of Lempellat, set to him be the said provest' predicessour Mr Robert Erskin, becaus the ressones of the summondis wes nocht relevant nor sufficient for to reduce the tak, viz. that the said tak wes set within the half of the just awaill of the kirkis fructis, quhilk caus of the practik of Scotland hes na place, ut de iure communi, secundum dicta in l. Rem ma., C. rescin. vendi.202.

And laitlie in the reductioun of nyntene yeir tak of certane landis and teindis of Pitlethie of the pryour of Sanctandrois, movit be the kingis sone, commendatour to the priour, contra schir William Ramsay takisman thairof, the samyn resone wes repellit be the lordis, for in all takis and fewis of landis, temporall or ecclesiasticall, it is requyrit alanerlie to the effect that the alienatioun or tak be of strenth that the auld rentall thairof be nocht diminissit, how litill that evir in be eikit, and albeit the landis or teindis be worth ten tymes mair nor thai gif203.

Secoundlie the lordis repellit the reasone of the said provest, allegeand that his predicessouris mycht nocht set xix yeiris, etiam cum consensu capituli, syne the propirtie of his provestrie pertinand thairto and naways to the prebendar and chaptour, becaus de consuetudine regni prelatus quicunque secularis vel religious cum consensu capituli assedare potest proprietatem sue dignitatis et prelature pro tanto spatio etiam irrevocabiliter quoad suos successores, dummodo aliud <ius> canonicum non resistat.
202Discussion about C. 4.44.2. (laesio enormis) - see parallel cases nr. 210 + 213 and 485.
203Against X 1.41.1.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 562. Ane tak set for nevir so small dewtie sua it be conforme to the old rentall will nocht reduce.
25 may 1542: The provest of the Trinitie colledge besyd Edinburgh persewit the laird of Balcleuch for the reductione of ane nyntein yeir tak set to him of all the teindis of the K. pertening to the kirk of Tempillaw. The ressone of the summondis was that the tak was set infra demedium justi pretii and within the half of the just awaill of the fruittis of the benefice, argumento l. 2, C. de rescind. vendi., et ibidem doctores204. The lordis repellit the ressone of the summondis and fand of thair practik and consuetude of Scotland that, how litill that ewer the dewtie of the tak be, sua it be no less nor the dewtie of the old rentall, it will nocht reduce, albeit the dewtie of the landis or teindis be ten tymes mair nor the dewtie of the takes.
204Commentaries on C. 4.44.2 (legal problem of "laesio enormis"). Compare X 1.41.1.

244. Off escheitis of slauchter within Edinburgh, and quhat gif the foirfaltouris guidis be escheit becaus he passis to the horne for non comperance.
The said day <25 maii 1542>: In ane caus of escheit of Hob Hormestoun donatour to the king aganis the provest and communitie of Edinburgh, the lordis decernit that the man and forsamekill as he de cuius escheta agebatur commitit the slauchter within Edinburgh and the toun schew previlegium regis allegeand all sic escheitis to pertene to thame, the faltour nevirtheless wes fugitive and put to the horne, and be ressone he comperit nocht to underly the law for that cryme, sua becaus he past to the horne all his guidis wer escheit, the lordis decernit the escheit to pertene to the king and his donatouris, becaus it fell that the man past to the horne and nocht be ressone he committit that slauchter. And sua the tounis previlege wes found be the lordis nocht to be extendit in this cace, for in it thair is na escheit grantit to the toun bot de delinquentibus in dicto burgo et captis ibidem et convictis. Et sic cum cadit escheta ratione criminis commissi infra burgum, non autem quando cadit becaus ane faltour intra burgum past to the horne for nocht underlying of the law for the cryme be him commitit within the toun.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 560. Ane man that committis slachter in Edinburgh and is fugitive and pas to the horne, his escheitt pertenis to the king and nocht to the toun.
14 junii 1542: Hob Ormestoun obtenit the gift of ane escheitt of ane man that committit slachter in the toun of Edinburgh and was past thairfoir to the horne and was fugitive fra the law. The toun of Edinburgh comperit for thair entres and alledgit: the escheit appertenit unto thame. And producit ane priviledge grantit unto thame be the kingis predicessouris that the escheittis of thame that committis slauchter within the toun of Edinburgh sould appertein to thame. To this was ansuerit that, nochtwithstanding thair priviledge, the escheittis could nocht appertein to thame, becaus the man that had committit the cryme had fled furth of the toun and was fugitive fra the law and put to the horne, and sua (he beand the kingis rebell) his escheitt appertenit to the king. And the toun of Edinburgh could clame na richt be thair priviledge except he had bein tane red hand within the toun and thairefter convict and nocht put to the horne. The lordis decernit the escheit to appertein to the king and his donatour and nocht to the toun, nochtwithstanding thair priviledge.

245. Obligatus ad unum, obligatus est ad omne id per quod ad illud est perveniendum.
The said day <25 maii 1542>: In ane caus of the laird of Astoun aganes the laird of Petslego, the lordis decernit the said laird of Petslego to entir to certane landis and thaireftir to procutoreis(?) to resigne the samyn in favouris of the said actor Astoun in the superioris handis, becaus the said laird of Petslegois father band him to resigne the saidis landis in maner foirsaid. And sua his father wes oblist thairto. And or his sone mycht do the same, he behovit to entir his selff, albeit his sone ex equo wes nocht oblist thairto - sed "obligatus ad unum, obligatus ad omne id per quod ad illud pervenitur"205.
205This doctrine mirrors the other one: "Aliquo prohibito, omne id prohibetur per quod pervenitur ad illud", 6. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 39.

246. Off preving of consuetude of tenentis rychtis in bruiking of landis.
The 6 of junii anno millesimo quingentesimo xlii: Quidam (ut recordor) Thomas Keir in Saltoun vald haiff provin that of the consuetude of the baronie of Saltoun the laird man nocht put out the barnis of thame that ar thair takismen during the yeiris of thair takis and that of the said consuetude the tenentis and thair barnes may nocht be removit, thai payand ilk fyve yeiris thair gressome. The lordis decernit be interlocutour this consuetude aucht to be provin be writ and nocht be witnes in temporall mennis caussis, albeit in kirklandis in consuetudis preving de practica admittantur testes, as wes laitlie done in causa cuiusdam mulieris contra abbatem de Kilvinning. Memorandum that in this caus Johne Fynlasone wes actor contra dominum Keir.

247. Off reductioun of letters in the four formes nocht rasit conforme to ordinaris in causa beneficiali
The 14 day of the samyn moneth <jun. 1542>: The lordis decernit the kingis letters in all the four formes rasit be Mr Thomas Huchesone contra tenentes ecclesiasticarum terrarum capelle Sancti Niniani dicto Mr Thomae pertinentium to haiff bene ewill rasit and nocht conforme to the ordinar letter, in safar as the saidis kingis letters contenit the fourt forme, viz. the pane of horning, and becaus the ordinar letters, quhairupone the saidis kingis letters in all the four formes wes rasit, wes bot monitoriall and contenit nocht the pane of cursing. And sua of the practik horning aucht nocht to be gevin in this case bot letters of cursing being first rasit, quhilkis war nocht than rasit, as said is.

248. The first thre formes may be execute befoir cursing, bot cursing may proeceid the fourt forme or it be execut.
<CONTINUED> And thairfoir the lordis decernit the said Mr Thomas' kingis letters in the four formes to haiff bene inordourlie rasit and procedit ab initio quoad quartam formam eiusdem, and reducit thame thairin for the foirsaid caus, becaus thai wer nocht conforme to the ordinar letters in that poynt, nochtwithstanding that eftir the dait of the ordinar and kingis letters the said Mr Thomas obtenit cursing and schew the samyn dewlie execute, and sua allegit that or the fourt forme wer iustlie execute, neid it wer that cursing precedit, sed quod non requireretur necessarie ante levationem quarte formae. And sua the first thre formes may be execut upone simple monitioun of the ordinar execute, bot horning may nocht be rasit quhill the cursing be first rasit and may nocht be execute nisi prius executa excommunicatione.

249. Off casting of summondis tabillit in the puir folkis tabill be fals narratioun of pairtie.
The said day <14 jun. 1542>: In the caus of Thomas Fergusone contra quendam A, the lordis be interlocutour decernit, the said actoris aucht nocht to cum in the ordour of the puir folkis tabill as the summondis come in, becaus albeit thai had obtenit the previlege of the pure folkis tabill, becaus he allegit that he wes ane puir man et primo aspectu miserabilis, quhilk movit the lordis to grant him the said privilege, nochtwithstanding quhene the summondis come in, it wes obiectit that he wes ane riche man haifand mair nor xl lib. in frie guidis. And thairfoir his summondis as thai come in wes cassin, quia "dolus suus nemini debet prodesse"206.
206General maxim (and part of canon law's doctrine of "restitutio"), reflected for instance in X 5.41.5 and X 2.14.2, and as well recognized by the commentators of Roman law - although Franciscus Accursius amused himself, in a gloss to D. 50.1.36, listing types of cases in which crooks retained advantages from their evil deeds (D.; D. 44.4.11; D. 46.2.19, and so on).

250. Off spuilyie libellit upone act of adiornall to contene possessioun and violent eiectioun albeit the act of adiornall libellit contenit the samyn.
The said day <14 jun. 1542>: In ane caus of spuilyie intentit be A aganes B upone ane act of adiornall, the lordis decernit the summondis nocht relevant becaus the actour libellit nocht in speciall that at the allegit tyme of spuilyie his <persoun> wes in possessioun and than violentlie thairfra eiectit per reum, albeit he foundit the caus and ressone of his summondis upone ane act foirsaid contenand in speciall quhair pars recepit se ad compositionem regis pro violenta eiectione actoris de sua possessione terrarum libellatarum, ipso actore existente in possessione earundem et violenter inde eiecto per reum. For albeit the act of adiornall preif contenta in eo, et pars rea confessa in eo fuerit possessionem adversarii et violentam eiectionem per se factam, tamen quia hoc non libellatur modum probationis libelli, et libellus ipse debet expresse contineri violentam eiectionem, alias non est relevans. And sua the saidis summondis wes cassin.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 561. He that lybellis spuilyie sould lybell possessione, nochtwithstanding the act of adjornall.
14 junii 1542: Thair was ane spuilyie lybellit be A. aganis B. upon ane act of adjornall and thair was no possessione lybellit the tyme of the committing of the said spuilyie, bot onlie the confessione of ane pairtie contenit in the act of adjornall quhair he tuik him to compositione for the violent ejectioun lybellit. It was alledgit the lybell nocht to be relevant, except it had spokin that the persewar was in possessione the tyme lybellit. The quhilk alledgance the lordis fand relevant, nochtwithstanding of the act, and sua cuist the lybell.

251. Off witnes repellit be cursing to be nevirtheless summond albeit thai war ellis summond in the last forme, viz. with certificatioun.
The said day <14 jun. 1542>: In ane caus of A aganes N, the lordis admittit the pairtie to haif ane new terme for summoning of certane witnessis agane, albeit this wes the last charge upone thaim, becaus thai comperit and wes repellit a testimonio be cursing. And sua the caus quhy thai war repellit culd nocht be imput to the producear. Thairfoir he aucht nocht to tyne thaim.

252. Exceptio notorie nullitatis sententie non impedit dationem literarum regiarum in quatuor formis super eadem.
The 15 day of junii foirsaid <1542>: In causa cuiusdam tenentis terrarum ecclesiasticarum capellanie sancti Niniane contra Magistrum Thomam Hutchesone capellanum eiusdem, the lordis decernit letters in the four formes upone ane rolment of the schireff of N gevin aganes the said Mr Thomas, nochtwithstanding the said Mr Thomas allegit that the samyn suld nocht be done becaus he is ane preist and that rolment gevin contra him in the law is null in the selff.

253. Nullitas per viam exceptionis non impedit executionem sententiae iudicialis.
<CONTINUED> The lordis motive wes: becaus of the practik, nullitie in this caus contra sententiam judicis cuiuscunque may nocht be proponit per viam exceptionis, sed agendum est de eo per viam actionis ad reductionem sententie. And sua, quantumcunque nulla in se, de practica semper habet executionem, donec stat non retractata et declarata nulla.

254. Off libellis civill and prophane, et quod fides media facit causam non-prophanam. Et ratio est quia promittens "sub fide sua" censetur jurare, ut not. Alexand., Jas. et alii in l. Ait praetor § fin. cum l. sequ., ff. de iure iuran.207et Pan. et alii in capi. Ad aures, Extra quod metus causa208. Ratione autem juramenti, licet causa alias sit prophana, potest laicus venire coram iudice ecclesiastico, cap. fi., Extra de fo. co., in vi.209
The said day <15 jun. 1542>: The lordis decernit ane libell of ane actioun movit in the consistorie of Abirdene be Marioun Barclay aganes Waltar Blakhall of Bar' at the said Walteris instance producit befoir the lordis to be sene gif it wes civill and prophane, becaus the samyn wes callit ratione fidei interposite, et contractus fide media valuerat, super cuius observatione actio contra dictum Willielmum(!) intentebatur, albeit all the thingis contenit in the libell wes prophane, assedatioun of certane landis and teindschevis. And sua the lordis decernit the libell and caus to be remittit agane to the consistorie foirsaid, quia ratione fidei interposite causam iudicarunt non-prophanam.
207Commentaries by Alexander Tartagnus, Jason de Mayno and others to D. and lex 5.
208Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) commentary to X. 1.40.3, and other commentators.
2096. 2.2.2 [to the point]. See also X 2.1.13, based on the gospel of Mathew, 18.15. Same topic in nr. 290.

255. Gif ane tenent or takisman may warne, eiect and remove his subtenent without his lordis precept or be his awin precept alanerlie.
The samyn day <15 jun. 1542>: In ane caus movit be ane Annabill Mais befoir the lordis, Johne Sandelans contra Gavinum Carmichall anent all thingis that ather of the saidis pairteis had to say aganes uther, the said Johne allegit that he wes violentlie put furth be the said Gavin of his maling of N. The said Gavin allegit that he wes ordourlie removit thairfra be the said Gawinis precept, quha wes takisman of the landis to the Master of Eglingtoun and his ladie, and he wes in possessioune thairof, and the said Johne payit him the maillis thairof for certane yeiris bypast. The lordis decernit that, becaus the said Gawin wes principall takisman of thai landis and in possessioun thairof, that he mycht warne, remove and eiect ordourlie as use is the said Johne his subtenent, albeit ane tenent or takisman may nocht do the samyn or he get intres and possessioun of his maling and takis. And sua the said Gavin wes assolyeit fra the allegit violence and wrangus eiectioun of the said Johne furth of his maling foirsaid.

256. Off ordour of proceding, quhair ane man be the kingis gift takis uther mennis gere.
The 16 of the said moneth <jun. 1542>: In causa Catharine Douglas contra Hob Ormestoun, the said Hob obtenit the escheit of Mathew Windigattis, sone to the said Katharine, be reasone that the said Mathew wes put to the kingis horne for non underlying of the law for the slauchter of N. Robesone. And be vertew of the said gift the said Hob causit ane officiar, be vertew of the kingis letters be delyverance of the lordis upone, intromettit with ane myln and hous thairof and insycht guidis beand thairin as pertening to the said Mathew, and put the said Catharine thairfra. Quhairupone scho menit hir to the lordis and causit warne the said Hob to compeir: to heir it be decernit be the lordis, the said Hobis gift nocht to extend to the myln houssis and geir abonwritten, quhilk (the said Katharine allegit) pertenit to hir be ressone of tak, and the geir thairin hir awin propir guidis and scho in possessioun thairof, and hir foirsaid sone wes bot hir servand alanerlie. Thairfoir the said Hob to be decernit to restoir to hir the premissis.

257. Off probatioun gevin to ather of the pairteis.
<16 jun. 1542> The lordis decernit be interlocutour that this caus and actioun, as it wes intentit, mycht cum in without ordour or dyet of tabill be ane simple supplicatioun, albeit the said Hob and his procuratouris allegit the contrar. And als the lordis be interlocutour decernit the probatioun of his allegeance to hir, and nocht admittit to the other pairteis probatioun that the premissis wes in the said Mathewis possessioun <at> the tyme of his escheit and haldin and repute his propir guidis210.
210For the distribution of the burden of proof in cases of this type see nrs. 373-375, 406-407a.

258. Off preving of pretendit instrumentis alibi, et quomodo hoc alibi sit probandum.
The auchten mensis eiusdem <= 18 jun. 1542>: In ane caus movit be James Hering of Glasklyne contra William Scot commorantem in Mon<t>ros, in termino assignato Magistro Henrico Lawder ad improbandum instrumentum quoddam publicum, productum per dictum Willielmum, the said Mr Henry allegit that the said pretendit instrument wes fals and fainyeit, becaus thair wes nevir sic ane notar callit N Baxter, and the samyn Baxter wes nocht, nor nevir wes knawin notar nor in quasi possessione notariatus. And sua the allegit instrument suld haiff na fayth, bot gif the said William culd preve that the said Baxter wes vere notarius, aut saltem quasi in possessione notariatus: sic habitus, tentus et reputatus. And desyrit the probatioun of this to be transferrit in the said William, et eo magis becaus agebatur hic de tempore memorialitatis, viz. 28 annorum, and the said Mr Henry culd get na wit that evir thair wes sic ane notar, and als becaus thair wes suspitio falsitatis contra dictum instrumentum, for it contenit that Mr Thomas Diksone promittit varrandice of certane landis apprysit to the said Mr Thomas, quha causit assigne the samyn to the said William, fra quhome he gat thair ane certane sowme of money. And thair wes producit ane indentour, maid anent the said mater betuix the said Mr Thomas and William, in the quhilk wes na varrandice contenit, bot that the said Mr Thomas, incace the apprysing wer reducit and the landis evictit fra the said William, that in that cace the said Mr Thomas suld refound agane to the said William his said money. And betuix the daitis of the indentour and instrument thair wes rycht schort tyme. And sua the instrument apperit fals and contenit mair than the indentour, et hoc sine ulla causa. And als in the said caus the said Mr Henrie offerit to impreve the said instrument, in sa far as he sould preve that the day contenit in the same, maid at Monros, the said Mr Thomas wes all that day in Edinburgh. And the lordis be interlocutour decernit the xxix day of the samyn moneth to the said alibi allegit to be provin. Et quod instrumentum publicum potest reprobari per testes descriptos in eodem, vide Pan., Feli. et alios in cap. Cum Joannes, Extra de instrument.211, legistas in l. In exercendis, C. de fide instrumentorum212, et in § Item verbo., Insti. de stipulationibus213.
211Commentaries by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis)and Felinus Sandeus and others to X 2.22.10.
212Commentators to C. 4.21.15.
213Instit. 3.19.12 [to the point].

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 559. Alibi admittit to probatione.
<22 jun. 1542> Thair was ane instrument tane to be improvine be ane schir James Hering and the kingis advocat aganis ane William Scot. They offerit to prove that ane Mr Thomas Dicksone, quha was contenit in the instrument, was alibi. And quhair the instrument buir that he was in S. at the taking of the instrument, they offerit thame to prove that he was in Edinburgh et sic alibi. The quhilk the lordis admittit and fand relevant.

259. Quod appellatio interposita ultra decem dies non facit suspendi literas regias latas super literis monitorialibus ordinarii.
The xix of junii <1542>: In ane caus of Thomas Vas contra Gawand Dundas, anent the letters in the four formes rasit be the said Thomas upone his ordinar letters upone confirmatioun of the paroche klerkschipe of Kirklistoun, gevin him be lord of Sanctandrois iure devoluto, quhilk the said Gawand askit to be suspendit, becaus he had appeillit in dew tyme fra the bischopis ordinar letters monitoriales grantit to the said Thomas. And becaus the lordis understude be the dait of the executioun of the ordinar letters and the dait of the said Gawandis appellatioun, producit befoir the lordis, that the said appellatioun wes nocht maid and interponit fra the saidis ordinar letters nor executioun thairof within ten dayis, as accordis of the law and practik, the lordis of Counsall decernit the said Thomas' letters in the four formes nocht to be suspendit, propter notorietatem desertionis appellationis allegate, debito tempore a dictis literis ordinarii non interposite.

260. Quod sententia dominorum Consilii lata ex una causa non obstat de novo agenti ex alia causa.
<CONTINUED> And als in the said caus the said Thomas producit ane decrete of the lordis of Counsall, decerning the said Thomas' letters to be ordourlie procedit. And the decrete standand (the said Thomas allegit), the said Gawand mycht nocht de novo agere ad suspensionem earundem literarum suarum. Nochttheless the lordis be interlocutour decernit to be procedit upone the secund summondis of the saidis Gawanis, becaus agebatur nunc ad suspensionem literarum predictarum ex nova causa et alia quam ex qua prius agebatur quum decretum fuit contra eum latum. Et sic exceptio rei judicate non debeat ei (ex diversa penitus causa agenti) obstare.

261. Tertius comparens pro suo interesse, an impediat executionem sententiae vicecomitis et literas regias in quatuor formis (sententie conformes) petitas contra eum, in quem sententia est data: Non admittitur.
The said day <19 jun. 1542>: A Vallace desyrit the kingis letters, conforme to ane rolment gevin for him aganes ane Robert Guithray, to desist and ceis etc. To stop the gevin of the said letters comperit James Hammyltoun, desyring him to be admittit for his intres, becaus the said Robert wes his subtenent of thai landis, for violent occupatioun of the quhilkis and to desist thairfra the said Robert wes decernit be that rolment. And said becaus he wes takisman of thai landis and in possessioun thairof be his tenentis, and he nevir callit to the said rolment gevin aganes his subtenent Robert foirsaid, thairfoir that the sentence sould nocht preiudge naways, and sua that upone his subtenent suld nocht be gevin letters in the four formes conforme to that rolment, for sua suld he be hurt and vant his tenent, aganes iustice. The lordis be interlocutour decernit letters conforme to the said rolment, nochtwithstanding the said James' allegeance, becaus albeit the sentence culd nocht preiuge the said James, yit he for his intres culd nocht stope the executioun of the rolment aganes the said Robert. Et quia aliter sententia iudicis sepe executionem non haberet, sententia ipsa stante, quhilk of the practik is nocht usit to be. De iure, an tertius comparens pro suo interesse possit et debeat impedire executionem sententie contra alium late, vide Feli., Pan. et alios in cap. Veniens, extra de testi.214, et in cap. Cum super, Extra de re iudi.215, et Bar. et alios in l. Admonen. § Si super rebus, ff. de re iudi.216
214Commentaries by Felinus Sandeus and Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) to X 2.20.10, and by other authors.
215The same commentators, to X 2.27.17.
216Commentaries by Bartolus de Saxoferrato and others on D. 12.2.31. The quote "si super rebus" is perhaps garbled from the preceding quotation, X 2.27.17 "Cum super".

262. Quhat proffeittis aucht the superior, that will nocht entir in defraude of his tenent, to his tenent.
The xx day of junii <1542>: The lordis decernit that Niniane Bannantyne of the Camnis aucht nocht to haif bot the usit males, proffeitis and deweteis of the landis that he held of the laird of Corsby, quha lay out of the superioritie of the landis in defraud of the said Niniane, his vassall. And sua the said superiour aucht to pay to the said vassall the saidis fructis sen he wes requyrit be the said N to entir to his superioritie. And that conforme to the act of parliament maid aganes superiouris in defraud of thair tenentis lyand out of thair superioritie.

263. Off clerkis nocht to be convenit for reductioun of takis or rentallis of landis befoir ane temporall judge.
The said day <20 jun. 1542>: Johne Baillie callit befoir the lordis of Counsall Mr Johne Spittill, commissar <of> Glasgow, to hear and sie his rentall, that is rentallit in certane landis of the lord Prowand halding of the archebischope of Glasgow, to be reducit. The said commissar exceptit that he wes ane kirkman and the lordis wes na competent judges to him, and sua askit to be remittit to his ordinar. Quhilk exceptioun the lordis be interlocutour admittit and remittit him to his ordinar, nochtwithstanding that Mr Thomas Marioribankis, procuratour for the said Johne, allegit that of the practik of Scotland thair wes na competent judge in reductioun of fewis, 19 yeiris takis or rentallis bot the lordis of Counsall alanerlie. Quhilk allegeance he culd nocht preve.

264. Reductioun of apprysing.
The said day <20 jun. 1542>: In the caus of the lord Ogilvie contra schir Johne Campbell of Lundie, thair wes certane landis of the said lordis, as pledge and sovirtie for the laird of Doning, comprysit to ane woman callit N. And thai landis being apprysit to hir, scho causit assigne thame for the money to the said schir Johne, quha be ressone thairof obtenit infeftment thairof be the erle of Crawfurde, superiour of the same. Thaireftir the said lord gat the lordis of Counsallis decrete, upone the quhilkis thai landis wes apprysit, reducit, - the said schir Johne nocht callit thairto. And thaireftir the said lord callit the said womanis airis, and that for his entres: to heir that apprysing to be reducit, becaus the decrete, upone the quhilk it passit, wes reducit now.

265. Off warrand in reductioun of proces of apprysing.
<CONTINUED> The said Johne schew how he had thai landis titulo oneroso, et petiit diem ad vocandum varrantum suum. The lordis be interlocutour decernit that he aucht nocht now to haiff ony varrand, becaus thair culd na body varrand sic ane proces and thair wes nathing askit heir for him that he had titulo oneroso, for thair wes na questioune of the landis nor reductioun of his infeftment of thai landis, bot alanerlie of the proces of apprysing.

266. Pendentia summonitionis reductionis alicuius sententiae eiusdem executionem non impedit.
Secoundlie he askit his proces of reductioun of apprysing to be deferrit unto his summondis, ellis tabulat, or the reductioun of the decrete gevin for the lord Ogilvy, reduceand the decrete upone the quhilk the said apprysing wes past, wer first callit. And that becaus the said decrete reductive concernit the said schir Johne and wes gevin he nocht being callit thairto, or at the leist <his calling> had pro deleto, he than beand in the kingis speciall service, sua that he mycht nocht compeir than for his entres, and sua legitima absentia. Allegit that thir summondis <wes> dependand, as said is, for restoring of him in integrum aganes the said decrete reductive, and als retreiting of the samyn aucht to be first decydit or the said decrete reductive wer execute, and be wertew thairof ony proces led for reductioun of the apprysing foirsaid. And to the effect foirsaid producit our soverane lordis letters under his signet. The lordis be interlocutour decernit that the allegeance foirsaid wes nocht relevant, becaus that of the practik petitio restitutionis in integrum vel actio pro reductione alterius decreti intentata non impedit executionem eiusdem decreti,

267. The kingis privat letters aucht nocht to stope iustice nor to be in that caus obeyit be the lordis of Counsall
<CONTINUED> and als becaus our soverane lordis previe letters aucht nocht to be obeyit for stopping or hindering of iustice conforme to the act maid thairupone.
And als in the samyn caus the lordis fand that nether the act of parliament spekand of reductioun of inordinar pleis to be callit within thre yeiris nor yit the act of apprisit landis to be redemit within vii yeiris culd haiff place in this cace and stop the reductioun of this apprysing, quia acta loquuntur in diversis casibus, ut ex eorum inspectione licet cognoscere.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 557. Decreitis of apprysing aucht nocht to be warrandit.
20 junii 1542: Thair was certane landis of my lord Ogilvies comprysit be ane woman, unto quhom the said lord becam cawtione for gryt soumes of money for the laird of K. The quhilk being apprysit, the said woman assignit thame in solutum to schir John Campbell of Lundie, quha thairefter obtenit infeftment of the samyn fra the earle of Craufurd superiour thairoff. Thairefter my lord Ogilvie obtenit ane decreit quhairupone the comprysing following reducit, and thairefter summondit the said woman and the said schir Johne: to heir and sie the proces of apprysing (with all that followit thairupone) to be reducit. Compeirit the said schir Johne Campbell and alledgit that he had the landis titulo oneroso, and desyrit ane day to call his warrand. It was ansuerit that he aucht to haiff no day, for the thing that was socht was the reductione of ane decreit and proces off apprysing and off the law no decreittis nor sentences of the law aucht to be warrandit that per consequentiam it wald tak away his infeftment off the landis the quhilkis he had titulo oneroso. The lordis pronuncit be interloquitor that thai wald give no day to call the warrand.

268. That ladeis teirceis, fallin befoir foirfaltour of the superiour, tynis nocht thair terce.
The xxii of junii <1542>: Margaret Jardane, relict of umquhile Johne Glaidstaines of that ilk, askit the lord Somerwell to be compellit to pay to hir the males of hir terce landis, rasit be him sen the deceis of umquhile schir James Hamyltoun, superiour of the landis of Libertoun, quha wes for trasone iustefeit. The said lord allegit that he had gottin be the kingis gift the saidis landis of Libertoun, propirtie and tenendrie, and sua that the said terce fell in foirfaltour als weill as the laif of the landis. The lordis be sentence decernit that becaus the said Margaretis terce fell befoir the said schir James superiouris foirfaulting, that the samyn terce culd nocht be apprehendit thairin, and sua that for the said Margaretis lyfetyme scho suld bruik hir said teirce without ony compositioune of the said lord, donatour to the king to the landis foirsaidis that come in his graice handis be resone of the said schir James foirfaltour.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 558. Ladies terces cumis nocht under forfaltour.
22 junii 1542: Thair was ane Margaret Jardane, the spous of umquhill John Gladstones of that ilk. Persewit the lord Somervell for profeittis and deweties of hir landis pertening to hir be terce and tane up be hir sen the deceis of umquhill schir James Hamiltone superiour of Libertoun and of hir terce landis. It was ansuerit be the said lord that scho aucht no profeitis nor meallis of the landis: Becaus of foirfaltour of the said schir James, he had gottin the gift of the landis of Libertoun to him baith of propertie and tenandrie. And sua hir terce landis became under foirfaltour. To this was ansuerit that scho was servit in hir terce befoir the tyme of the said foirfaltour and sua scho could nocht be comprehendit thairintill nor aucht to pay na compositioun to the kingis donatour. The quhilk alledgance the lordis admittit and fand relevant.

269. Off assythment for slauchter to be maid to the barnis, alsueill unlawfull and laufull, bot nocht equalie.
The 24 of junii <1542>: The lordis decernit assythment for the slauchter of David Forus of Hadingtoun, committit be the laird of Clerkintoun, alsweill to the said Davidis bastardis as to his laufull bairnes, bot <nocht> equall. For ilk laufull dochter gat iic xxv merkis, the bastard dochter bot xl libs. The eldest laufull sone and air to the said David gat iicmerkis, the secound sone ane c. libs., the bastard sone xl merkis. The assythment of the haill wes ixcmerkis, becaus the said David Forus wes ane rycht honest substantius man and als the said laird wes ane riche man.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 553. The bastard bairn gettis his pairt of the assythment, bot nocht alyke in quantitie with the full gottin.
The samyn tyme <jul. 1542>: Anent the assythment of the slachter of ane David Forres burgess of Hadingtoun committit be the laird of Clarkingtoune, the lordis fand that the bastard bairne aucht and sould haiff assythment als weill as the laufull gottin, bot nocht alyik in degrue and quantitie. And in this caice ilk laufull dochter gatt the soume of iicmarkis, and ilk bastard bot xl li.

270. Off the kingis letters past upone ordinar letters to be suspendit becaus of uther kingis letters (obtenit of befoir) yit standand and nocht reducit.
The 24 of junii <1542>: Mr James Murray obtenit collatioun ordinar of the vicarage of Carnbie and thair ordinar letters thairupone, and conforme thairto the kingis letters in the four formes upone the parochenaris. Thaireftir Mr William Blair gat the said Mr James' collatioun and ordinar letters following thairupone reducit and retreitit be the officiall of Sanctandrois, iuge in that cace, and gat ane collatioun of the said vicarage fra my lord of Sanctandrois, - fra the quhilkis officialls sentence the said Mr James appeillit ad curiam Romanam - and the ordinar letters thairupone to obey the said Mr William and conforme thairto the kingis letters in the four formes, the said Mr James appelatioun beand dependand. And than the said Mr James callit him to heir his said kingis <letters in the four formes decernit reducit or suspendit becaus thai wes inordourlie rasit the said Mr James' utheris> letters standand and nocht reducit, and sic per subreptionem et obreptionem tacita veritate, viz. that the said Mr James wes under his appellatioun, and nocht makand mentioun that the said Mr <James'> utheris letters in the four formes wes yit standand. The said Mr William allegit that the saidis kingis letters wer weill gevin, conforme to the ordinar letters past thairupone his collatioun, and thairfoir aucht nocht to be reducit nor suspendit. The lordis be decrete decernit the said Mr William' letters to be ewill procedit becaus thai wer obtenit the said Mr James' utheris letters standand and nocht reducit, and thairfoir suspendit the samyn simpliciter. And fand that the said Mr James' letters wer nocht suspendit be the sentence reductive of his collatioun, becaus he had appeillit thairfra, and the appellatioun yit dependand.

271. De probatione falsi.
The said day <24 jun. 1542>: The lordis decernit ane notar publict callit N Scheves to be absolvit a falso intentato contra eum, quia per instrumentum suum constabat de sententia cuiusdam vicecomitis lata uno die et de continewatione eiusdem curie et cause facte illo die per eum vicecomitem, et hoc per actum quoddam curie, factum eodem die, per eundem notarium scriptum et signatum. Hec duo, licet contraria videantur, quod tamen potuit eodem die intervenire successive. Ideo domini Consilii a falso absolverunt eundem.

272. In doubill poinding the tenent suld obey him that is in possessioun with ane titill, albeit ane uther haiff als gude titill. And heir thair is na disputatioun quhilk of thair titillis is best.
The 27 of junii <1542>: The lordis decernit certane tenentis of the baronie of Libertone to ansuer of the males to William Snype, conforme to ane rolment of the schireff of N gevin aganes thame for the said William be the said schireff. It wes understand be the lordis that the said William had bene in possessioun of uptaking of the males and had gud titill to uptak the same, nochtwithstanding the lord Somerwell schew how thai landis wes haldin of schir James Hammyltoun and be him of the said lord, and be the saidis schir James' foirfaltour in his handis as superiouris handis thairof, and wes in his handis be that ressone ay and quhill the king presentit ane tenent to him in the said schir James' place, and sua durand that tyme the tenentis suld obey him. And als thaireftir the said lord obtenit the kingis gift of the samyn landis that schir James held of him, and sua tenendrie consolidat with his superioritie in his persone be new infeftment thairupone obtenit be him fra the king, and sua sen that tyme the tenentis suld ansuer to him of thair maillis. Quhilkis lordis allegeance the lordis of Counsall repellit, becaus the uthir man wes in possessioun cum titulo, as the rolment of court buir, and sua the tenentis aucht to obey him ay and quhill he wer lawfullie callit and ordourlie put thairfra, quia in caussis of doubill poinding, of the practik, the lordis consideris alanerlie quhilkis of the pretendaris <wes> in possessioun realie cum titulo, and disputis nocht quhilk of thair titillis is iustest, nor yit upone the ground rycht and propirtie of the landis. Sententia preiudicat iis inter quos non est lata: ut sententia predicta sic obstitit dicto domino Somerwell, qui non interfuit - contra rubricam "Res inter alias actas", C.217.
217Rubric C. 7.60 in its medieval wording "Res inter alios actas vel iudicatas aliis non nocere". The principle is also stated in D. 12.2.10, D. 20.4.16 in fine, D. 44.2.1 and in other texts.

273. Off proffeitis to be askit at thame quhais retouris ar reducit.
The 27 of junii <1542>: The laird of Inneis callit William Gardnar of Elgin for the proffeitis, maillis and deweteis of certane landis pertening to the said laird in heretage, of quhilkis the said William ves retourit and sasit and thairthrow uptuik the proffetis foirsaidis. The said William allegit that, becaus he wes servit and enterit thairto, albeit his retour wes now reducit, yit he aucht nocht to refound agane to the said laird bot the bair males of thai landis conforme to his retour, siclyk as use is quhair the landis had bene in non-entres. The lordis decernit the said lairdis petitioun iust, for he clamit alanerlie the proffeitis intromettit with be the said William, and nocht quhilkis he mycht haiff gottin. And sen the said Williames retour wes reducit, it wer nocht resonabill that he sould haiff ony proffeit thairof sine titulo.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 556. Giff any manis retour beis reducit he payis and refondis the haill profeittis of the landis contenit within the same.
24 junii 1543: The laird of Innes, haiffand reducit ane retour and seasing of ane William Gardiner in Elgin of Murrey of certane landis quhilk pertenit heretablie to the said laird, persewit the said William for the proffeitis, maillis and dewties of the saidis landis. William ansuerit and allegit that, he being once servit and retourit and seasit in the landis, albeit the retour thairefter reducit with all that followit thairupone, yit he aucht to pay no moir to the said laird bot the meallis and dewties quhilk war retourit in the service of the retour and thairin contenit, sic as hes bein in use quhen landis hes bein in non-entres. The lordis decernit the said William, becaus his retour was reducit, to pay the profeittis of the landis et fructus perceptos, sed non qui percipi potuerunt218, and fand it nocht sufficient to pay onlie the retourit maillis, bot also the profeit that had bein gottin of the saidis landis.
218See C. 7.51.2.

274. Off protestationis contra terminos ad probandum and thaireftir contra eandem summonitionem. Et quod secunda tollit priorem.
The 11 of julii <1542>: In causa Isobelle (ut recordor) Scrimgeour contra Joannem Ogilvie de Dunsyd, the said woman had hir summondis of spuilyie callit aganes him be the tabill and ane terme set to hir to preve, and that day scho comperit nocht, nor yit maid ony probatioun. The morne eftir the said Ogilvy protestit quod <Scrimgeour> cederet ei pro termino. And thaireftir agane the said Ogilvy comperit about thre or four monethis, and that samyn summondis being callit agane be the tabill, he protestit agane as use is. Now the woman intentit ane new summondis contra him upone the samyn that hir uther summondis wer of. He sayis he suld haiff his expensis of tua protestatiounis wer of. He sayis he suld haiff his expensis of tua protestatiounis foirsaidis or he answer to hir. Scho sayis for the first protestatioun he aucht nocht to have, becaus he is gane fra it followand the summondis laitlie callit and protestand contra it. Et sic tacite videtur renunciasse protestationi prius facte contra actum probationis. Et ab ullo processu recessit per hunc actum contra eum, quia ultimi actus semper dirogant prioribus, cum simull stare nequevunt, ut in hoc casu of thir tua protestationis, quia protestatio contra actum requirit absolutoriam finem, protestatio vero secunda contra summonitionem perimit non actionem et causam, sed instantiam tantum, ut reus nisi de novo citatus et expensis sibi refusis respondere non teneatur. Et sic altera protestatio, viz. secunda, ostendit reum velle adhuc litigare et perimit priorem, quia liti finem imponere debebat. The lordis of Counsall decernit reum videri recessisse a priori protestatione per secundam, et illa priore non obstante, licet absolutoriam sententiam eius pretextu reus <petere> poterat, per ipsum responderi debere in causa, eo quia procedendo super summonitionem per secundam protestationem videtur recessisse a priori processu.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 554. In redemptione of landis, giff the pairtie in quhais handis the silver is ordanit to be consignit, refuissis the same, the redeimar of the landis may keip it still in his handis.
3 julii 1542: Into the tyme of redemptione of landis betuix James Scrimgeour and John Kinnard, the said Johne alledgit the landis nocht laufullie redemit becaus the said James held still in his handis the money contenit in the reversione, nather consignit nor yit deponit the samyn in any uther manes handis conforme to the use observit in redemptione of landis. To this was ansuerit that he had fulfillit the contentis of the reversione, in sa far as he had offerit the silver reallie and with effect to the constabill of Dundie, as the reversione buir incaice of the refusall of ressawing of it to consigne the samyn into his handis, and becaus the constabill refuisit to ressave the same, he keipit it still in his awin handis, the quhilk he mycht do219. The lordis fand be interloquitour that he mycht keip the samyn in his awin handis, and sua fand the landis laufullie redemitt.
219Because this was a case of "mora creditoris".

275. Peremtoria non probata reus omnino condamnatur.
The 12 of julii <1542>: In causa Jacobi Keir contra Willielmum Jacobum Keiris, quia reus exceptionem peremptoriam per eum expositam non probavit, ideo tota petitio actoris habita est pro probata. Et hoc de practica dominorum Consilii. Et sic actor non tenetur <veritatem> alterius, quorumcunque libellatorum per ipsum, probare.

276. Tertius comparens pro suo interesse, ad quid admittitur, productione prima jam facta <per> actorem.
Eodem die <12 jul. 1542>: In causa domini de Glenkinde contra certos tenentes domini de Erskin pro astrictione eorum <in> multuris, witnes wes producit pro secunda productione per ipsum actorem, reis contumacibus. In hoc secundo termino ad probandum comperit the said laird and wes admittit pro suo interesse in statu in quo causa tunc erat. Mr Hew Rig allegit that, becaus witnessis wer ellis producit in this caus, that as reus principalis non deberet admitti ad peremptoriam, ita nec tertius nunc pro suo interesse comparens. The lordis be interlocutour decernit that iste dominus Erskin comparens pro suo interesse deberet admitti adhuc ad peremptorias, et ideo decreverunt ei copiam summonitionis principalis, et terminum ad peremptorias proponendas statuerunt ei.

277. Quod titulus et possessio excusant ab iniusta intromissione.
The 13 day of julii <1542>: Jonet Stradaquhy had certane landis of the laird of Moncreif haldin of the erle of Anguis, quhilk be his foirfaltour become in kingis handis and wes disponit be his graice to the erle of Argyle in the kingis less aige and gevin to the said Jonet agane be the said erle. And thaireftir wer gevin to the said lairdis men in lyfrent and him in fie, and yit be the kingis generall revocatioun become agane in the kingis handis. And the said laird wes in possessioun thairof be vertew of his infeftment. Now the said Jonet callit the said laird for the wrangus, violent uptaking fra hir of the males and deweteis of thai landis pertening to hir, be reasone scho wes thairin infeft. And libellit na possessioun. The laird allegit that he did na wrang thairintill, becaus he wes in possessioun cum titulo. And schew chartour and seasing. The lordis decernit the said Jonettis libell irrelevant, becaus scho libellit na possessioun, and als that ane man beand in possessioune cum <titulo> colorato, sa lang as his titill is unreducit, committis na wrang to tak up the males and deweteis of thai landis.

278. Titulus et possessio debet libellari in causa iniuste intromissionis cum fructibus et divoriis terrarum.
The 14 day of julii <1542>: The lordis absolvit ut libellatur the laird of Calder fra ane summondis of wrangus intrometting with the males and deweteis of the landis of Mois, rasit at the laird of Inneis' instance, becaus that the said Inneis libellit nocht that he wes in possessioun of the landis afoir the terme libellit, albeit he schew heretabill infeftment thairof. And the laird of Calder schew his infeftment and that he wes in possessioune be vertew thairof. And sua, he beand in possessioun cum titulo, intromettit iustlie ay and quhill the titill wes reducit.

279. Quod actum adiornalis, protestatione facta in contrarium, non probat in causa civili.
The 15 of julii <1542>: The lordis absolvit simpliciter the laird of Siefeild220 fra the wrangus and violent occupatioun of the ane half of the vicar of Kingornes kirkland and the waist of the uther half contenit in the said vicaris summondis, rasit aganes the said laird upone the act of adiornall, in the quhilk wes contenit how the said laird, being indytit, come in the kingis will and fand cautioun for satisfactioun of pairtie, becaus the said laird in the iusticeair protestit that he mycht haiff all his defensis in civill iudgement, gif ony man eftirwart had persewit him for thai crymes. And becaus the confessioun in sic iusticeairis ar communlie maid ex iusto metu and the said vicar culd nocht preve his allegeance befoir the lordis utherwyis, albeit he producit divers witnessis to that effect befoir the lordis, thairfoir the lordis gave absolvitour.
220Same case in 128-130 and (in a later stage of procedure) in nr. 150.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 549. Confessione maid befoir the justice in the criminall caus prejudgis nocht the pairtie in civill causses, thai protestand for the same.
16 julii 1543: The laird of Seafeild was persewit for the wrangous and violent occupatione of the ane halff of the kirk landis for the vicarage of Kirkcaldie and for the leiving of the uther pairt waist. And the said laird, being indyttit in ane justice court, becum in the kingis will and stand cautione for the satisfaction of the pairt, as was at lenth contenit in the act of adjurnall past thairupone. It was answerit be the laird that, albeit he confest the deid and he becum in the kingis will, yit he protestit that he sould gang fra nane of his defences in the civill judgement. And sua the said confessioun, except uther probatione sufficient war led and producit, could nocht prejudge him, becaus that the confessione that is maid in the justice court or airis est quasi extorta ex justo metu. The lordis thairfoir assolyeit the said laird fra the spuilyie in respect of his protestatioun.

280. De probatione quam facit actum adiornalis et protestatione contra illud.
The said day <15 jul. 1542>: The lordis in lykwyis absolvit ane Wilsone fra ane summondis rasit upone ane act of adjornall be Mr. Andro Blakstok and Mr James Maitland, assignay to N. Ammilget principall in the said act, becaus reus ostendit quod erat protestatus in curia iusticiarii pro omnibus suis defensionibus in causa civili, si forte contigerit agi contra ipsum ad res in dicto acto contentas per conquerentem. And becaus the said Wilsone denyit ane pairt of the guidis, viz. iii oxin, confessit be him in the said act, and Mr Andro culd nocht preve the samyn spuilyeit be him as the act contentit, and als Mr Hew Rig prewit the just apprysing of ane uther pairt of thai gudis, allegit spuilyeit fra the said Ammilgat as the said Wilsone confessit in the said act, the lordis absolvit the said Wilsone, eo quod confessio ea videbatur facta metu mortis in causa criminali. Et ideo quia reus in causa non perferabat(?), ideo non probatur plane.

281. Off geving of warrand quhair the king is persewar
The said day <15 jul. 1542>: Ane Patrik Home wes callit at the kingis instance to heir his infeftment of the landis of Barde reducit. He desyrit ane day to call his varrand, becaus he had thame titulo oneroso, viz. sauld to him. The kingis advocat allegit: "Na varrand suld be grantit aganes the king"221. The lordis be interlocutour decernit him ane day to call his varrand, viz. the airis of him quhomefra he coft thai landis. And the lordis fand, the practik wes nocht in the contrair. Bot of the practik the kingis varrandis na man, and sua he can nocht be callit in varrand. Sed contra ipsum agentem bene datur reo terminus ad vocandum alium in varrantum suum.
221Principle as quoted in nr. 326.

282. Off horning in the fourt forme, na horning precedand.
The said xv day <jul. 1542>: Talis causa erat: Mr Adame Mwir obtenit collatioun and ordinar letters of the vicarage of Kyndumme and the letters in the four formes thairupone. Mr Alexander Kyd gat that collatioun and ordinar letters reducit, becaus he wes of befoir provydit in curia Romana of that vicarage, per resignationem magistri Jacobi Lyndsay and <obtenit> thairupone letters in the four formes. Mr Adame appeillit fra the said sentence retractive of his collatioun. And the lordis decernit the said Mr Adames letters in the four formes to haiff effect and to stand, becaus he wes under his appellatioun, and thairfoir suspendit the said Mr Alexanderis letters.
Thairfoir the parochinaris callit thame bayth to produce thair letters in the four formes and thair rychtis quairby ather of thame intendit to compell thame to mak payment of the fructis of the vicarage, and that the lordis mycht to decerne to quhilk of thame thai mycht answer. And than the lordis decernit thame to obey and pay thair dewteis to the said Mr Adame, quia erat sub appellatione sua.
And than callit the parochenaris the said Mr Adame to produce his said kingis letters and to heir the said fourte forme thairin contenit suspendit, becaus thair wes na cursing yit rasit upone thame. And sua the horning aucht nocht, nor suld nocht haiff bene gevin and aucht to be suspendit. And be the saidis parochinaris procuratour Mr James McGill wes allegit that the samyn sould be done, becaus, cursing nocht being gevin be the ordinar, the fourt forme can nocht be gevin of the practik and aucht to be reducit in that cace, as wes laitlie practicat in ane caus of the paroche clerkschip of Kirklistoun, quhilk four formes wes decernit to be ewill gevin upone sempill monitoriallis and na cursing rasit, and als, albeit the parochinaris wer ellis (as said is) decernit to obey the said Mr Adame, de qua sententia exceperunt procuratores magistri Adami rei, yit McGill allegit that sententia suld nocht obstare actoribus in hoc casu, eo quia lata fuit ex alia causa, non ex ea ex qua nunc agitur. Et ideo exceptio rei iudicate non debet obstare, as wes in simili causa nuper practicatum, xix junii anno etc <1542> in causa clericatus parochialis de Kirklistoun inter Thomam Vas et Gavinum Dundas. Nochttheless the lordis decernit the parochenaris to obey the said Mr Adame, and als the letters in all the four formes ordourlie procedit in respect of the first sentence, as yit standand unreducit, gevin that the parochenaris suld answer to him and nocht to Mr Alexander. Attamen ex allegatis causis in contrarium per magistrum Jacobum McGill, videbatur mihi dubie that the fourt forme of horning suld haiff bene reducit and decernit ewill rasit, for the caus foirsaid.

Independent practick, taken from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 552. The thrid persone admittit for his entres efter probatione be led and deducit.
16 julii 1542: The laird of Glenbervie persewit certane tenentis of my lord Earskines for thair thirle multures. Witnessis being producit pro secunda productione per ipsum actorem, reis semper absentibus et contumacibus, compeirit my lord Earskin and desyrit to be admittit for his entres in statu et casu in quo nunc erat. And the uther pairtie alledgit that, becaus thair was witnessis els ressavit in the caus and probatione deducit, the defender wald nocht be hard thaireftir to propone any peremptour defence or alledgance. Sua in lyik maner the thrid persone aucht nocht to be hard for his entres to propone any <dilatour> or peremptour, in respect of the probatione alreddie deducit. The lordis yit admittit the said lord for his entres and sett ane terme to him to propone his peremptour exceptiones222.
222This was generous! See the much stricter rule in nr. 115, with note.

283. Off repelling of witnessis ratione tertii persone.
The tent day of julii <1542>: Hew Douglas aganes the kingis advocat allegit that he wes in possessioun of certane landis and scheip gevin to him be the laird of Dunlanrik. And he being at the horne now, to seclude the escheit of the said scheip and to preve his possessioun lang of befoir the said laird past to the horne, producit witnessis. And becaus the lordis understude that in this cace the laird mycht tyne and win incace he war relaxit fra the horne, thairfoir the lordis repellit him as suspect to beir witnes in this cace, and thame that war familiar servandis, tender, houshald or tenentis nocht heretabill to the said laird, the tyme he past to the horne, and within gre discendand to him, becaus the lordis knew be apperance evident, thai vald be evir partiall in this caus for affectioun thai had toward the said laird, cuius status adhuc erat in pendenti.

284. Off kirkmen callit befoir temporall judges.
The 21 of julii <1542>: The commendatour of the priorie of Sanctandrois callit the bischope of Dunkeld befoir the lordis of Counsall, to heir and sie ane xix yeir tak of certane landis of the said priorie, set to the said bischope, be reducit. He exceptit be Mr James Macgill his procuratour that he aucht nocht to answer befoir the temporall judges, becaus he wes ane kirkman. It wes replyit that in reductioun of xix yeiris takis the lordis war alanerlie juges to all men, bayth spirituall and temporall, and that na uther spirituall or temporall may cognosce in sic caussis bot the lordis alanerlie, of the practik and use of Scotland. And to verafie the practik, thair wes producit ane act of the saidis lordis of Counsall upone ane yeir syne of thairby, in the quhilk wes contenit that the lordis of Counsall put inhibitioun to the officiall of Sanctandrois that he suld nocht cognosce upone the reductioun of xix yeiris takis, for reductioun of the quhilk thair wes ane preist and ane uthir secular man, quhilkis baith wes in the tak, callit befoir the said officiall. And that becaus the lordis understude, of the consuetude of this realme thair wes na competent judges to cognosce upone the reductioun of sic takis bot the lordis of sessioun alanerlie. And sua, becaus the said act and decrete of the lordis buir that it wes the consuetude of this realme, the said commendataris procuratouris <allegit> that the lordis aucht to proceid upone this mater aganis the said bischope.

285. Verba narrativa sententie non probant contra ecclesiasticas personas, et per eadem non probatur consuetudo.
<CONTINUED> Nochttheles the lordis of Counsall thocht that illa verba narrativa decreti prefati non probabant practicam contra ecclesiasticas personas. And thairfoir, conforme to the commoun law, thai by thair decrete and sentence remittit the said bischope to his ordinar juge ecclesiasticall, becaus thai culd nocht understand the consuetude allegit in the contrair to be trew in the selff, nor yit thair wes ony sic practik or consuetude in sic caussis aganes kirkmen.

286. Off redeming of apprysit landis and expensis paying, mad upone the infeftment upone the apprysing.
The 24 of julii anno eodem <1542>, casus erat talis: Thair wes certane landis apprysit fra the laird of Touche to N., quha in the tyme of the apprysing causit to assigne thame to the laird of Keir for the sowme aucht to the said N. The quhilk laird Keir gat infeftment thairof fra the erle of Huntlie, immediatlie superiour of thame to the said laird Towche. And thaireftir the said laird Keir sauld thame to William Carnicros, to be haldin of the said laird Keir. The laird Towche maid Adame Hoppringall assignay to redeme thame within sewin yeiris, as the act of parliament beris. And the said Adame maid warning to the said William to resave his money, and consignit it as use is and libellit the same. Mr Thomas Marioribankis allegit that the summondis wer nocht relevant, becaus the said Adame libellit nocht that he had consignit nor yit offerit the expensis maid upone the infeftment gaitting upone the apprysing, and that the act of parliament beris that the sowme principall and expensis sould be offerit within vii yeiris. The uthir pairtie replyit that he aucht nocht to offer sic expensis to the said William, becaus he maid nane upone the infeftment obtenit upone the apprysing. And sua he had na actioun to ask expensis. And sua in respect of him the uther pairtie aucht nocht to haiff offerit ony sic expensis. The lordis be interlocutour for the caus foirsaid decernit the summondis relevant, and that, in respect of this pairtie to quhome the landis wes nocht apprysit, the uther pairtie aucht nocht to pay the expensis maid upone the infeftment. And this caus the act speikis nocht. And sua the act comprehendis bot thame that maid the expensis upone the apprysit landis, the samyn being redemit be the said persones.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 550.The expensis upone comprysit landis bot onlie givin to thame that majis the samyn and obteinis the infeftment upone the comprysing.
24 julii <1542 or 1543>: Thair was certane landis apprysit be A.B. fra the laird of Touch. Quhilk A.B. thairefter assignit the said landis to the laird of Keir for payment of certane soumes auchtand be him to Keir. The laird of Keir obtenit infeftment fra the earle of Huntlie, immediat superiour thairoff. Thairefter the laird of Keir disponit thaim to William Cairnecros haldin of himselff. Within vii yeir ane Hoppringill in the name of the laird of Touch warnit and socht the landis to be reducit and offerit the money for the quhilk thai war comprysit and numerat and consignit the same. It was allegit aganes the summondis that thai war nocht relevant becaus he had nocht lybellit that he had offerit the expensis maid upon the infeftment obtenit upon the comprysing, and that conforme to the act of parliament the principall soume with the expensis sould be offerit. It was answerit that the said William maid na expensis upone the infeftment in obteining the comprysing and sua had na actione to desyr the expensis. The quhilk the lordis fand relevant and sua fand be interloquitour that the pairtie onlie that maid the expensis (upone the infeftment obtenit upone the comprysing) had actione to seik the expensis.

287. Exceptio generalitatis impedit executionem sententie quantumvis generalis, de qua generalitate ante non fuit obiecta.
The said day <24 jul. 1542>, casus erat talis: William Ramsay induellar in Breichine obtenit ane rolment of court, decernand the laird of Arnot to desist and ceis fra x merkis worth of his landis of Arrot lyand at the sone, and upone this rolment obtenit letters in the four formes aganes the said laird, quha callit thame to be suspendit, becaus the decrete and rolment wes generall and tellit nocht quhat ten merk land it spak. And thair wes(?) l. merk land lyand in the place specifeit in the rolment. And sua said he that the saidis letters sould ceis ay and quhill it war declarit quhilk war the x merk landis. The lordis decernit the saidis letters to ceis and to be suspendit usque ad liquidationem terrarum earundem.

288. Quod instrumentum publicum sine loco non valeat.
The said day <24 jul. 1542>: The lordis decernit ane publict instrument producit be Eduard Stewart aganes Johne Merschell to mak na fayth, becaus it buir nocht in quhat toun the samyn wes tane, albeit it said "acta" etc. "in domo Joannis Paislay", and becaus it tellis nocht quhair the said hous is, thairfoir that defectu loci non probat. De hoc vide in script. in cap. Abbate, de re iudi.223, Pan. in cap. 1o, de fide instrumentorum, extra224.
223Commentaries to 6. 2.14.3 [to the point].
224Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.22.1.

289. Probabilis causa litigandi excusat ab expensis litis.
The 23 novembris anno 1542: The lordis decernit Robert than bischope of Ros to pay na expensis of play befoir the lordis, quhilk wes intentit be Robert Bruce younger anent the reductioun of ane rolment of the bailleis of the Cannongait gevin for the said bischope, than abbote of Halirudehous aganes Robert Bruce, eldar, the said rolment beand reducit be the lordis. Ratio erat becaus the said bischope had probabilem causam litigandi in ista secunda instantia225 and the caus that came befoir the lordis wes verray doutsome and the first sentence gevin for him thairupone, viz. that the lowsing of the arreistment sould be provin per scripta, as the said bailleis decernit, albeit the lordis decernit in that caus it mycht be etiam per testes226, quhilk thing de practica regni ante erat valde dubitatum. Sed vide Pan. in cap. Finem litib., Extra de dolo et contumacia227.
225This point was controversial in Ius Commune, as explained at nr. 33. See the contrasting decision there!
226The same parties litigate in nr. 194. Similar legal problem in nrs. 24, 194, 425.
227Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X. 2.14.5.

290. That fayth of bodie drawis nocht all civill materis to the consistorie.
The said day <29 nov. 1542>: The lordis decernit ane libell gevin in befoir the officiall of Lowthiane for delyvering of ane reversioun be vertew of ane promis and obligatioun, maid be N. to N. and fayth of bodie interponit thairupone, it being civill and prophane becaus it concernit heretage and sua aucht of the consuetude of the realme to be decidit alanerlie befoir the lordis of Counsall. And thairfoir thai inhibit the officiall, nochtwithstanding fidei interventione, ratione cuius it wes allegit that it mycht be callit in the consistorie, per cap. fi., de fo. co., in vio228. To the quhilk it wes ansuerit that of the consuetude sic materis pertendis alanerlie to the lordis. And na uther judge may mell thairwith. In simili dicitur of redemptioun of landis.
2286. 2.2.2 [to the point]; same topic in nr. 254, with note.

291. Off proving of payment of auld coft geir.
The said day <29 nov. 1542>: The lordis decernit ane petitioun of Joannes Mak anent certane leid, allegit bocht be the abbote of Cambuskenneth fra him and his brother and na payment thairfoir maid to thame be the space of xvi yeiris, to the said Johnis preiff, nochtwithstanding the abbote allegit that of sa lang he aucht nocht to ansuer for ony merchandice coft, nor yit praif payment thairof, becaus it wer ane preiudiciall thing gif everie man wer compellit to pruif payment of all merchandyce quhilk thai had coft sa lang syne. Quhilk allegeance wes repellit, quia de iure regni actioni personali non prescribitur nisi quadraginta(?) annis.

292. De exceptione falsitatis non admittenda in secunda instantia contra producta in prima instantia et tacite tunc approbata et saltem non redargita de falso.
The last day of julii anno 1542: The laird of Lawreistoun (ut recordor) aganes David Wood, comptrollar to the king, than intentit ane actioun for reducing of ane decrete of the lordis of Counsall anent certane landis gevin for the said David aganes the said lairdis father be vertew of ane obligatioun in writ producit than be the said David. For reductioun of the decrete the said laird libellit that it wes gevin be vertew of that obligatioun, quhilk he now allegit wes fals, and askit the samyn to be producit for impreving thairof. The lordis decretit be interlocutour that this caus wes nocht relevant now nor to be admittit, quia pater eius in prima instantia non excipiendo de falsitate, imo proponendo aliam exceptionem quae presupponebat obligationem illam veram, tacite visus est illam approbare. Et quod, si ille viveret, non esset iam audiendus ad improbandum quod semel pater eius approbavit, ut predicitur. Ideo nec esse admittendum istum dominum Lawreistoun heredem aut saltem successorem ad hoc allegandum, for he now being in the place and rycht alanerlie of the uther man de iure exceptio falsitatis post sententiam <non> possit opponi.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 547. It that was approvit be the father in the first instance may nocht be improvin be the sone in the secund instance.
Ultimo julii 1542: The laird of Laurestoun persewit David Vode comptroler for the reductioun off ane decreit gevin at the instance of the said David aganis his father, be vertew of ane obligatione maid be the said lairdis father to the said David. The ressone of the summondis was that the decreit was gevin be vertew of the said obligatione quhilk was fals and fenyeit in the selff229, and he offerit to improve the same. It was answerit that he aucht nocht now to be hard for to quarrell the said obligatione, be resson of: his father (quha was the maker thairoff) had in ane maner ratifiet the same, becaus it being producit, he allegit na thing aganes the treuth thairoff, bot proponit sum uther defence, et sic videbatur tacite approbasse, and giff now the sone wald quarrell the deid of his father quhilk war inhonest, videbatur revelare turpitudinem paternam, et sic non audiendus. To this was answerit quod jam agitur in secunda instancia, in qua fraus semper est audienda etiam post latam sententiam: extra de exceptione230, to propone that quhilk was ather throw slewfulnes or of ignorance pretermittit be his father. The lordis pronuncit that the sone could nocht be hard now in the secund instance to improve the thing that was ratifiet in the first instance be the father, and sua wald nocht reduce upone that heid.
229See note to nr. 55.
230X 2.25 [not specifically to the point].

293. Peremptoria proposita et non probata relevat actorem ab onere probandi ullam partem libelli sui - cum limitatione: de qua hoc.
The 6 day of december anno 1542: Thair wes ane summondis rasit be Mr Jone Hay of Feinyeine aganes Robert Diksone, of reductioun of the said Robertis infeftment of certane landis haldin be him of the said Mr Johne, becaus the said infeftment wes gevin with conditioun that it suld be null in the selff quhen the said Robert resavit nocht the said Mr Johne in the toure of the saidis landis quhen he desyrit to be thairin upone his awin expensis, and that the said Mr Johne requyrit the said Robert for entrie in the place conforme to his conditioun and obligatioun maid thairupone and the said Robert refusit to resave him, and sua askit his infeftment to be reducit. The said Robert allegit that the instrument producit in writ be the said Mr Johne wes fals, in probatioun of the quhilk exceptioun he failyeit. The lordis decretit the infeftment to be reducit for the caus foirsaid and libellit, albeit the said Mr Johne previt nocht the requisitioun allegit in his summondis, for of the practik, peremptoria exceptione contra aliquam partem libelli proposita simpliciter, videtur reus reliqua contenta in illo confiteri, nisi expresse protestetur de contrario.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 546. Ane peremptor exceptione being ons proponit aganis the lybell or any pairt thairoff and the opponar succumbis thairintill, the uther pairtie misteris nocht prove the lybell.
<1542-1543?> Thair was ane Hay of Fenyie that persewit for the reductione of ane infeftment maid be ane Robert Dicksoun of certane landis haldin of Mr Johne Hay. The resson of the summondis was that he had nocht fulfillit ane conditione that was231 contenit within the infeftment, quhilk was to ressave the said Mr Johne in the tour of the landis quhen soewer he pleasit and maid laufull requisitione. The uther pairtie Dicksoun tuik to imprebe the instrument: quairintill he failyeit. The mater being at the adwysing befoir the lordis, it was alledgit be Dicksone his procuratour that, albeit he had failyeit in the improbatione, he aucht to prowe the ressone of the summondis quhilk buir oft and sindrie requisitiones. It was alledgit in the contrair that in respect he <(=Dicksoun)> had succumbit in improbatione of ane peremptour exceptione, he <(=Hay)> was releivit ab onere probandi libellum. The lordis fand be interloquitour that he misterit nocht to prove the ressone off the summondis, and sua reducit the said infeftment. Et quod peremptoria exceptione contra aliquam partem libelli proposita simpliciter videtur reus aliqua contenta in libello confiteri, nisi expresse profiteretur in contrarium232.
231MS wrongly adds "not".
232This turns a rule of Ius-Commune upside down: see note to nr. 414.

294. Quod acta judicialia per testes non probantur.
The 9 of december or thairby the yeir foirsaid <1542>: The lordis be interlocutour decernit that acta iudicialia mycht nocht of the practik probari bot per scripta. And thairfoir in ane caus movit be ane puir woman of Brechene aganes Jonet Maccall for accusing hir wranguslie of certane thift, of the quhilk scho wes maid quyt be ane assys, and thairfoir the said Jonet aucht to pay hir be act of parliament x li. for amendis, the lordis vald nocht admit the judge and baillie and certane utheris famous men, that wes upone the said vomanis assys, to preif that the said Jonet accusit hir.
<In canon law, the principle that procedural acts may only be proven by means of written court records was enacted in a decree by the Fourth Lateran Council, anno 1215.>

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 548. Actis judiciall may nocht be provin bot be wreit.
About the samyn tyme <jul. 1543>: Thair was ane puir woman that persewit ane Johne McGill for the wrangous accusatione and defamatione of hir, forasmeilkill as he had accusit hir off theift befoir the bailyie of the regalitie of Broughtone. And scho was acquyt be ane assys. And thairfoir he aucht to pay to hir the act of parliament, to wit the soume of x li. Scho, nocht haifand any wreit to prowe the said accusatione, bot wald haiff prowin the samyn be the judges, assyse and famous witnesses. The quhilk the lordis repellit, quia non creditur processus nisi quatenus constat actis iudicialibus233, and that all actes and wreitis judiciall may nocht be prowin bot be wreit.
233Procedural reform, brought about in canon law by the Fourth Lateran Council, 1215.

295. Off suspensioun of the kingis letters per appellationem a tertia sententia confirmatoria prime et infirmatoria secunde.
The 12 day of the moneth foirsaid <dec. 1542>, the cace wes this: James Ker of Mersyntoun wes condamnit to the woman callit Rutherfurd in ane thowsand merkis be the officiall of Lowthiane. This sentence wes reducit in causa appellationis be the officiall principall of Sanctandrois in Sanctandrois. The secund sentence wes reducit and the first confirmit be ane Magregor delegat of the pape, to quhome it wes appeillit fra the said sentence. Upone this Magregor sentence wes cursing rasit and letter of apprysing aganes the said James, albeit he had appeillit fra the last sentence. And the said James askit the said kingis letters to be suspendit, causante sua appellatioun, conforme to the law. The uther pairtie Mr Nicholl Rutherfurd, executor to the said woman, allegit that of the practik, quhair ane hes tua sentences for him, albeit the uther pairtie haiff ane in the contrair, executionem literarum regiarum levatarum, super executione levata super illis sententiis conformibus et altera earum, conforme to the act of parliament maid upone cursit folkis non debet appellatio ab ultima sententia confirmatoria prime interposita impedire. Et quod, ea non obstante, dicte litere regie dictam executionem <possunt> mandare, data cautione per appellatum appellanti de refundendo eidem quod virtute literarum predictarum captum fuerit, casu quo appellans obtinuerit. And this practik wes allegit be the lordis in causa Jamesone contra Jamesoun of Couper in the moneth of etc, as that sentence and decret of the lordis buir. The lordis of Counsall continewit this mater unto the 2 day of J., bot the practik is as aboue(?) allegit in the caus of David Jamesone aganes Alane Jamesone, as the lordis decrete in the buikis of Counsall beiris of the dait at Edinburgh the 13 Decembris anno 1541, as ye may sie.

296. Off delyvering of fortalice.
In the said moneth anno predicto <dec. 1542>: The lordis decernit in ane caus of Cunynghame contra alium quendam Cunynghame that, albeit the ane of thame had be gift of waird the landis and fortalice of N., and the waird being outrun the uther gat asedatioun of the saidis landis and tour of the heritour, and that the uther, being inclusit within terminis, that he, albeit he culd nocht be remowit fra the landis unto the nixt terme, nochttheles that he aucht and suld leve and delyver the hous and fortalice incontinent to the uther, becaus the practik is that houssis and fortalices suld be delyverit to thame that haiff rycht thairto upone vi. dayis warning bot ony delay or appellatioun of ony terme.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 545. The fortalice that fallis into ward with the land, the ward being rin furth, aucht to be delyverit upone vi. dayis warning.
<1542-1543?> Thair was one Cuninghame that had certane landis in tak and assedatione with tour and fortalice off the same. Thir samyn landis befell thairefter in ward, and uther Cunninghame getting the gift of the ward of the same. Efter the outrunning off the ward he that had the takes persewit the delyverance off the fortalice. It was answerit that he was inclusid within termes and aucht nocht to delyver the samyn without he had bein laufullie warnit. It was answerit that, in respect the hous was ane fortalic, thair misterit bot vi. dayis warning. The quhilk the lordis fand relevant.

297. That the absence of ane man out of the realme may nocht stop executioun.
The said moneth <dec. 1542>: The lordis decernit the letters of horning past upone ane decrete of the lordis of Counsall aganes the lord Oliphant at the laird Inneis' instance for payment of ane certane sowme to be put to executioun upone the said lord, nochtwithstanding he wes instantlie presoner in Ingland and tane at the raid of the Moss, quia absentia eius necessaria in causa presenti non deberet impedire executionem sententie iam ante late.

298. Suspensioun of cursing.
In the moneth of januar anno eodem <1543>: In causa cuiusdam mulieris N. Richardsone contra quendam N., the said woman askit the letters of cursing rasit at the said manis instance aganes N. upone cursing of 40 dayes to be suspendit and decernit nocht to be execute (upone certane cornis allegit of befoir assignit to hir). Mr George Leslie, procuratour for the man, said that thai cornis wes in the cursit manis possessioun haldin and reput his awin, and offerit him to preve the samyn conforme to the officiaris arreistment and apprysing. And that in sic cace the preve aucht to be gevin to him for quhome the apprysing wes maid, becaus of grit presumptioun that is for the officiar, and thairfoir that the said Richardsone suld nocht haiff to hir preiff the contrare. Nochttheles the lordis be interlocutour admittit the said vomanis allegeance to hir preiff.

299. Quod non probat instrumentum exemplatum per notarios vel iudices, omnibus <quorum> interest non vocatis solemniter.
The 18 day of februar anno quo supra <1543>: To preve the non-entres of the landis of Langschaw and myln of Mashaw within the baronie of Breidwode, Alexander Dowe, haifand the said non-intres of the king, producit ane copie of Mergaret Forestaris instrument, conjunctfear thairof, under tua notaris subscriptiounis comperit but ony auctoritie of juge or calling of pairtie thairto; als ane act of the lordis of Counsall in the quhilk the said instrument wes insert at James Stewart, laird of Cragyhallis instance, heritour of thai landis; askand the act of the lordis quhar the said Mergaret <obtinuit> in ane caus movit be hir aganes Helene Carcarse for the wrangus intrometting with the saidis landis pertening to the said Mergaret in conjunct fie; als ane decrete of the lordis gevin for the said Mergaret quhair the said Helene in the caus foirsaid be vertew of the said instrument and uther great presumptiounis <had bene condamnit, nochtwithstanding hir exceptioun> that the said landis wes ane tenendrie and thairfoir aucht nocht to be in non-intres. Nochttheles the lordis decretit the said copie bayth be notaris and the lairdis extract to mak na fayth nor probatioun contra dominum de Glentowe, reum in hac causa, ex eo quod dicte copie non erant transsumpte auctoritate iudicis et vocatis quorum intererat, and sua mycht nocht of the law mak fayth contra dominum reum in dictis notarii et dominorum Consilii actis(?), nec presentem nec legitime ad hoc vocatum ut de iure debuerat, ut notatur <in> dict. <authentica234> etc.
234Commentaries to Auth. "Si quis in aliquo documento" post C. 2.1.7, ex Nov. 119.3.

300. Off transferring of the instance in reginam.
The said day <18 feb. 1543>: The lordis decernit ane summondis rasit at the kingis instance to be instantlie bot ony delay transferrit in the quene, at the advocattis instance. Et ideo causa nomine regis mortui non poterat procedere.

301. Off advocatioun of caussis fra the schiref to the lordis for the gretnes of the caus and auld connexit with thair decrete.
In the said moneth <feb. 1542>: The lordis in ane actioun movit be the laird of Strachirde aganes the <ladie> Beridell his gudmother, at the said ladeis instance advocat fra the schiref of Perth, juge ordinar, to the lordis of Counsall, becaus it wes ane greit actioun of xx thowsand merkis, as the said schireffis precept buir. And of the practik the lordis usis to tak all sic gret materis to thame salffis, albeit that thai be nocht auld, as this mater wes bot tua or thrie yeir auld.

And als the saidis lordis, in ane caus movit be A. aganes B. upone spuilyie of certane cattell <quhilk> war tane and apprysit be the kingis letters past upone the lordis of Counsallis decrete, becaus the <said caus> war for the executioun of the said decrete, and that it aucht nocht that the effect nor strenth of the lordis decrete nor executioun thairof wer disput befoir the schiref, and becaus it war accessour to the said decrete, thairfoir the lordis advocat the caus fra the schiref to thame self.

302. Off calling for delyvering of religious places.
Eodem die et mense <18 feb. 1543>: In ane caus of spuilyie movit be freir Arnot (allegit minister of Scotlandwell) aganes N., anent the restoring of him to the place of Scotlandwell235, the lordis decernit that the delyverance of that religious place aucht nocht to cum in be ane bill or letters of vi dayis warning, as the delyvering of fortalices dois, bot suld byd dyet and tabill.
235Further stages of this case in nrs. 379, 398, 400.

303. Quod carta non subscripta non probat. Of publicatioun of the actis of parliament, et quo tempore ligent.
Eodem mense <feb. 1543>: In causa Home contra Home, the lordis decernit ane chartour producit be A. Hwme to mak na fayth, becaus it wes nocht subscryvit with the man that wes allegit to haiff maid it nor yit be ane notar, as the act of parliament236maid thairupone requyrit, albeit the manis seill wes appendit to it. And the said chartour wes maid eftir the said act-making in parliament. And lang eftir it wes prentit. And the lordis decernit that the first publicatioun in parliament wes sufficient to astrenyie the kingis liegis thairto, albeit it wes nocht than prentit bot lang eftir. And Mr Hew Rig allegit quod non obligabat nisi a tempore publicationis237, quhilk he allegit wes quhen the actis wer prentit. Quhilk allegeance the lordis repellit as said is.
236Statute ...
237About this topic (under the Ius Commune) see the article by Dolezalek, Scriptura non est de substantia legis, published in: Diritto comune e diritti locali nella storia dell'Europa. Atti del convegno di Varenna 1979. Milano: Giuffrè 1980, p.49-70. The leading doctrine was that the legislator may validly promulgate law by voice, without writing, if he deliberately wants to do so. Nevertheless ignorance of that law would be excused as long as no promulgation in writing had followed.

304. That the kingis gift and letters thairupone saiffis nocht ane man fra spuilyie, the gift beand reducit.
The 21 februar anno quo supra <1543>: Ane Douglas obtenit the eschete of bastardie of ane manis, and the kingis letters upone his gift to the schiref in that pairt to caus him to be ansuerit of the said manis gudis. And be vertew of thai letters ane officiar and he past and tuik up all the manis guidis and geir and insycht. The manis executour callit for spuilyie thairof and schew how the man wes rebellit to the king; and sua the escheit wes null. The lordis decernit and condamnit reum in spolio petito, et actori juramentum dandum de quantitate rerum, licet reus habuerat titulum colorativum intromettendi - yit he aucht nocht to haiff tane the gudis and geir at his awin hand, bot suld haiff callit the possessouris. And now his titill reducit: falsum fuisse ab initio.

305. Quod secundus titulus non salvat a spolio.
The 23 februarii anno quo supra <1543>: Andro Rynd gat ane gift of the commoun clerkschipe of Sanctjohnestoun and wes in possessioun of the office be vertew thairof. And thaireftir Mr Duncan Maii gat the kingis requeist to the provest, bailleis and communitie of the said toun to gif the said office to him as vacand be the deceis of him be quhais deceis the said Andro had gottin it ellis. And at the said requeist thay maid ane new gift to the said Duncane. And he be vertew thairof possidet the said office vii yeiris or thairby. Than the said Andro callit the said Mr Duncane for spuilyeing of him in the said office. He exceptit that in the outputting of him in the said office he did na wrang nor spuilyie, becaus he wes enterit thairto be his gift and the provest and bailleis auctoritie. The lordis nochtwithstanding decernit him spuilyie, becaus he enterit in the said Androis' office and put him furth thairof but ordour of law, he nevir being callit nor ordourlie destitute of the said office.

306. Quod exceptio falsi contra executionem summonitionis processum non impedit.
In Januar anno quo supra <1543>: The lordis be interlocutour decernit quod de eorum practica non auditur quis ad impediendum processum, volens executionem <propter> summonitionem actoris ipsius de falso impugnare. Et hoc in casua Isobell Machan et Mr Clement fratris eiusdem contra quendam virum Joannem Maxwell.

307. Quod executio officiarii per preceptum iniuste levatum a iudice partem non salvat a spolio.
The 26 februarii <1543>: Quidam (ut recordor) William Wauchope agebat super spolio quorundam bonorum contra Gavinum Borthuik. Qui excipit quod ipse virtute precepti vicecomitis gat thai oxin apprysit to him for ane sowme that he had obtenit aganes the said Wachope be ane decrete of the said schiref. Et excusari <a> spolio virtute precepti et auctoritatis judicialis debuerat, quamvis ei per dictum decretum debitum et iudicatum iam esset solutum. The lordis decernit and condamnit him in the spuilyie of the oxin, nochtwithstanding <thai> wer apprysit to him be ane officiar and precept, becaus he wes in culpa lata: resavit the precept wranguslie, nathing beand aucht to him.

308. That reductioun of auld infeftmentis pertenis to the lordis of sessioun.
The last of februar anno eodem <1543>: In causa Patricii Weymes contra dominum de Rires, the said lairdis procuratour allegit that the lordis of Counsall wer na judges competent to the reductioun of his infeftment vi. yeiris auld, becaus thairthrow vald cum in disputatioun of the rycht of his landis, quhilk ground rycht of auld aucht be act of parliament be decydit be ane breif of rycht befoir the justice, and nocht befoir the lordis of sessioun. The lordis of Counsall nochtwithstanding decernit thame competent judges in this mater, sic as thai wer thir divers yeiris in use of calling sic materis befoir thame and divers sic interlocutoris gevin, ut in causa domini de Sanquhair et in causa cuiusdam Pringill de Torsounis et aliis diversis, and als becaus the breif of rycht is (nor hes) nocht yit bene mony yeiris usit in this realme.
The case "Pringill de Toursounis" is reported in case note nr. 72: Hoppringill of Torsones v. Ker of Sesfurdis.
Case note nr. 308 was corrected and edited by Hector L. MacQueen, Jurisdiction in Heritage and the Lords of Council and Session after 1532, pp. 60-85 (63) in: David Sellar (ed.), Miscellany two, Edinburgh 1984 (The Stair Society, vol. 35). He emended the number of years in line 2, which the oldest manuscript gives as "vi.xx" (probably garbled from "vi.x" = sixty) to read "vi." = six, because he found evidence that Forbes' disputed title to land was but six years old. Otherwise, "sixty" would not have been improbable. Namely in a parallel case in notes 74 and 51 the same defender's Forbes of Reres title to land is said to be sixty years old.

309. That the confiscatioun makis na mair rycht to the king than pertenit to the convict man having takis to rin.
The 2 day of marche anno eodem <1543>: Peter Colquhen callit the executouris of umquhile Mr Adame Colquhen to delyver to him ane letter of tak of the land N., maid be the abbote and convent of Newbottill to A. Colquhoun, and B. Colquhoun eftir his deceis and C. Colquhoun eftir this B. deceis. Comperit tertius quidam for his intres, allegeand the said tak to pertene to him, becaus B. committit ane cryme, quhairfoir all his moveabill geir ves escheit to the king, and that umquhile Mr Adame had gottin fra the king that tak than pertening to the said B, and this thrid persone wes maid assignay to the escheit foirsaid to the said Mr Adame. The said Petir allegit that the said B. wes realie and naturallie deid and, becaus the tak culd nocht pertene to the said B. eftir his lyfetyme, the king be his escheit culd nocht pretend rycht thairto bot in the said B. lyfetyme, quia non potuit plus pertinere regi quam confiscato, ut est regula iuris238etc. And als allegit l. Statius Florus § Cornelii Felici, ff. de iure fisci239ubi videtur casus. Et secundum hec iura the lordis decernit the said tak to pertene to the said Petir and to be delyverit to him.
238"Nemo plus iuris in alium transferre potest quam ipse habet", 6. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 79; D. 50.17.54.
239D. [to the point].

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 544. That the eschete or confiscatione of ane manis geir makis na mair richt to the king nor appertenit to the convict.
<1542-1543?> Peter Colquhome persewit the executouris of Mr Adame Colquhome to delyver to him ane letter of tak of certane landis, maid be the abbot and convent of Newbotle to umquhill A<dame> Colquhome and efter his deceis to B. Colquhome, and efter the deceis of B. to C. Colquhome. Thair comperit ane thrid persone and alledgit the tak to apperteint to him and desyrit to be admittit for his entres. And for his entres alledgit that B., secund persoun in the tak, was convict of ane cryme. And being declarit guiltie of the same, his moveabill guidis became under escheit, and thairefter the said Mr Adame obtenit the gift of his escheit and maid the thrid persone assignay to the same. Thairfoir he aucht to be admittit for his entres and the said tak as escheit guidis to appertint to him. To this was answerit that, the said thrid person beand admittit for his entres, that the said B. was bot now laitlie departit ane naturall deid and induring his lyftyme came newer in possessione off the tak as secund persone, nor yit could the samyn appertein to him be ressone of A. befoir namit in the tak. Thairfoir, giff he beand on lyff, could pretend na rycht to the tak. Ergo the king or his donatour or thai that occupies that place can pretend na rycht to the same, quia non potuit plus juris pertinere regi quam fischato240. Et casus hic videtur decisus in l. Statius Florus § Cornelio Felici, ff. de jure fischi241. The lordis repellit the alledgance off the thrid person quha alledgit the kingis richt and decernit the said tak to appertein to the executour.
2406. 5.(13).79 and D. 50.17.54: Nemo plus iuris in alium transferre potest quam ipse habet.
241D. [to the point].

310. Exceptio spolii prioris super eadem re non repellit actorem de spoliatione agentem.
In the moneth foirsaid anno eodem <mar. 1543>: In causa spolii quorundam N. Douglas contra quendam Begge, the lordis be interlocutour decernit quod reus in actione spolii non erat de practica audiendus, volens de alio spolio priore etiam earundem rerum per eundem contra eum commisso excipere, ad repellendum actorem ab agendo. Quod etiam est iuri conforme, ut notatur per Pan. in cap. ul., § i(?) et iia, extra de ord. cogni.242
242Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.10.4 [to the point] and to the passage in X 2.10.2 immediately before modern § 1 [also to the point].

311. De nullitate contractus per minorem facti, lapso quinquennio post perfectam aetatem non auditur agere volens.
The iiii of merche anno eodem <1543>: Ane Johne Glencros annaleit certane landis within his less aige to the laird of Kirkpatrik sine decreto iudicis. Quhairfoir quidam N. Glencros heres Joannis callit the said laird to heir that alienatioun decernit to be reducit and declarit null of the law for the caus foirsaid, intra rub. et leg. C. de prediis et aliis rebus min. sine decr.243. The lordis, ex reductis coram iis in judicio understandand that the said Johne had nocht movit causam nullitatis infra quinquennium post perfectam suam aetatem xxi annorum, repellit the actour in this caus ab hac actione per l. fi., C. si maior factus244, que habet quod de nullitate contractus per minorem sine decreto iudicis facti, lapso post perfectam etatem illius minoris quinquennio, non auditur ipse postea agere de hoc volens. Immo videtur ex taciturnitate tanti temporis contractum ratificasse.
243Rubrica and leges in C. 5.71.
244+C. 5.74.3 [to the point].

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 542. Giff the minor persews nocht the reductione of that quhilk is done in his lesage efter the space of v yeiris efter his laufull age to xxi yeiris, he thaireftir he will nocht be hard.
<1542-1543?> Thair was one callit Glencors that persewit ane alienatione that his father had maid in his les age et minori aetate to be reducit, alledgand for him quod res minorum sine decreto judicis non sunt alienandae, C. de prediis minorum <non alienandis>245. It was answerit that the said alienatione aucht nocht to be retreitit quia hic minor tacuit per quinquennium post perfectam aetatem xxi annorum, ex quo anno ex consuetudine regni Scotiae censetur maior246. Et sic ex taciturnitate sua videtur ratificasse et approbasse predictam alienationem, C. l. ultima, si maior factus247. The lordis fand be interloquitour that the persewer be ressone of his taciturnity had na place now to seik the said reductione of the said alienation.
245C. 5.71.
246MS minor.
247C. 2.45.2 [to the point]. The five years result from C. 5.74.3.

312. De nullitate tituli sive evidentiarum aut contractus per modum exceptionis agens non <auditur> contra suum adversarium, de practica Scotiae.
The said day <4 mar. 1543>: Valtir Striviling callit James Striviling of the Keir to varrand him ane contract of the selling of certane victuall maid to him be the said James of certane landis be ressone of wairdis pertening to the said James, quha allegit he sould nocht varrand him, becaus he in tyme of making that contract erat Jacobus ipse minor, habens magistrum Abraham Creychtoun curatorem, sine cuius consensu et auctoritate dictum contractum fecerat, et ideo de iure erat nullus248. Unde de iure non tenebatur varrantizare eundem. The said Valtir allegit that the said James culd nocht nor suld nocht be hard ad impugnandum contractum ex causa nullitatis per viam exceptionis. Et ita interlocuti sunt domini Consilii. Of the practik thai admittit nevir nullitie of ony evident producit befoir thame per viam exceptionis249. And sua decernit the said James to varrand, contractu stante.
248C. 5.59.2-3.
249Based on the principle stated in nr. 16: According to the court's practice, in contrast to Ius Commune, a contract deed (= 'evident') remains binding even if the underlying contract is void - until the deed has been voided by judicial decree of "reduction". This decree must be applied for separately. It cannot be applied for "per viam exceptionis" against a summons grounded on the contract deed. Parallel nrs. 56 and 82.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 543.Ane evident cannocht be maid null be way of exceptione.
About the samyn tyme <1542-1543?>: Walter Stirling persewit James Stirling of the Keir to warrand him ane contract quhairintill the said James had sauld certane victuallis to him as fermis of certane landis quhilk fell in the said James handis be ressone the land wardit in his handis. It was answerit be the said James that the tyme of the making of the said contract he was minor annis, habens curatorem magistrum Abraham Crichton. Et absque illius consensu fecerat dictum contractum. Ideo de jure nullus, and thairfoir he aucht nocht to warrand the same. To this was answerit that he aucht nocht be hard to improve the said contract be way of nullitie be ane exceptione becaus of the practick of Scotland na evident can be tane away be nullitie be way of exceptione, bot will stand quhill it be reducit be way of actione. The lordis fand the said last alledgance relevant250 and sua ordanit the said laird of Keir to warrand the said contract.
250Reasons as in nr. 312; parallel nrs. 56 and 82.

313. Quhat probatioun makis the act of adjornall, ane protestatioun beand maid in the contrair.
<4 mar. 1543?> Quidam Mowit gate Johne Somerwell condamnit be the lord Arrane, schiref of N., in certane gudis and reiff. The Mowat foirsaid producit alanerlie coram vicecomite the act of adjornall quhairupone he condamnit the said Johne of the foirsaidis guidis, quhilkis the said Johne grantit he had reft in ane justice<air>, to preve thai guidis and raiff. Thaireftir the lordis of Counsall retreittit in secunda instantia that sentence, becaus the said Johne schew befoir the lordis the protestatioun maid be him in the said justiceair, quhair he denyit bayth the quantite and the pricis of the gudis that he grantit thairfoir for feir of his lyfe, quhilk protestatioun of the practik saevis confessum a quantitate et valore rerum per eum in acto adjornali confessatarum bot gif actor preve the samyn sufficientlie per alias probationes. Et ita in hoc casu actum adiornale non probat quantitatem et valorem. And becaus befoir the schiref the said protestatioun wes nocht schawin, the schiref did na wrang in sentencegeving, bot the samyn wes reducit ex hac protestatione noviter in hac secunda instantia producta. Et hoc actum fuit per dominos Consilii quinto Mercii anno 1541.

314. Of officiaris fee.
Nono die aprilis im vc xliii <= 1543> : The lordis in ane caus of N. indweller in Leith aganes Purves messinger decernit that the said officiar aucht nocht to haiff the haill fee for his office siclyk as and he had maid poinding, viz. xii d. of ilk pund, becaus the dettour maid payment of all det and the officiar na poinding. Bot for his passing to Leith for poinding the lordis modefeit to him for his panes ten s.

315. An minor placitare teneatur super reductione evidentiarum hereditariarum.
Vigesimo secundo aprilis anno 1543: The quenis advocat allegit that the lordis mycht nocht proceid contra reginam pupillam et minorem annis upone the retractatioune of the <resignatioun> of the landis of the erledome of Mortoun maid be the erle in the kingis handis, quia hic agitur de perdenda hereditate et minor non tenetur placitare de iure municipali regni Scotie nisi in quatuor casibus, ut habetur in "Regia Maiestate"251, of the quhilk this is nocht ane. And actour allegit tua caussis in the quhilk the lordis had decernit minorem non teneri respondere in causa retractationis infeodamenti hereditariarum terrarum. Nochttheless the lordis be interlocutour decernit the quenis advocat to ansuer, becaus it is provydit be ane act of the lordis of Counsall laitlie maid sen the deceis of the king that quhatsumevir complenis that thai war hurt in thair possessioun, landis, heretage, guidis or geir be the king and his servandis in and to his grace profeitt mediat vel immediat that it suld be lesum to thame to call the kingis advocat and comptrollar be ane simpill bill without delay of dyet or libell and to heir thame restorit agane to thair possessioun. And that becaus it wes havelie murmurit that the king oppressit sum of his liegis in sic sortis and in his lyfetyme and thai nocht complenit thairupone. And the lordis now for releve of thair conscience and saull devysit the same. And becaus that the foirsaid municipall law <wes> ovirrigorous just or unjust, gif the erle of Mortoun and his airis suld vant his heretage wranguslie, as wes allegit, tane fra him utpote per metum cadentem in constantem virum252, ay and quhill the quene cum to perfyte aige or quhill thair wer ane king or quene of sic aige - quhilk mycht be apperance of men <be> rycht lang. Et quia iniquum videbatur quod alieno scelere, viz. paterno, ditior et ditata maneret regina minor annis cum gravi admodum preiudicio conquerentis253, thairfoir the lordis decernit as said is.
251"Regiam maiestatem" ...
252D. 4.2.6 [definition of "metus" = non vani hominis, sed qui in constantissimum virum cadat], taken up in X X 1.40.4 et 6.
253Canon law doctrine of "restitutio", see note to nr. 101.

316. Ane tabill undiserte gif proces may be laid upone summondis in ane uther tabill followand.
Als in the said caus the samyn day the laird of Lochlevin exceptit that the erlis summondis mycht nocht cum in be that ordour, becaus it wes tabulat in ane tabill befoir the quhilk thair wes ane uther tabill nocht disertit and yit procedand. And sua, the first standand undisert, the lordis mycht nocht proceid upone na summondis in the secound tabill. The lordis decernit proces to the erle, becaus the first tabill wes all callit the day befoir the calling of the secound. And wes nocht disert, albeit thair come na man to persew ony summondis contenit in it, <alanerlie> becaus the lordis vald nocht do the samyn for it wes bot the begynning of the sessioun eftir Pasche and the kingis liges for cummar of weir traistit nocht that the lordis vald sit sa sone. And nochttheles the lordis thocht that the negligens of thame that war in the first tabill nocht prejudge thame of the secound tabill, becaus thai had nocht ado in the first, as said is. And than the said erle be the secound tabill desyrit proces and the lordis decernit the samyn for the caus foirsaid. And the said secound tabill wes put up upone the durris lang befoir the said summondis calling in the said erlis caus. He allegit he wes compellit to resigne his landis and lordschip of Mortoun in the kingis handis, compulsus regio metu qui poterat cadere in constantem virum254, and to preve that the king befoir had gret ee and ardent to his landis and devisit divers caussis to get thame to him selff and that he wes lawfulie befoir the resignatioun maid in the kingis handis in favouris of the laird of Lochlevin chargit be the king to waird in Invernes in the winter and that he wes seik in his persoun and mycht nocht gudelie sustene the said trawell and waird but danger of his lyf. And incontinent eftir he had maid resignatioun, viz. eodem die, he gat ane discherge of his waird and passing thairto. And a litill eftir the said resignatioun maid in favouris of the said laird of Lochlevin he resignit the samyn in the kingis handis to remane perpetuallie with his grace, and that he wes chargit to waird for na uther just caus and culd get na relaxatioun and discharge of the waird quhill he had maid that resignatioun, quhairthrow of thir presumptiounis he allegit that it wes sufficientlie provin that he did the samyn for dredour and feir of his lyfe. And sua the lordis gave sentence definitive and thaireftir retreitit baith the resignatiounis foirsaidis and reponit him in the samyn stait that he wes in befoir the making thairof.
254Again D. 4.2.6 quoted.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 541. Resignatioun maid be just fear of the prince aucht to be reducit.
<1542-1543?> The earle of Mortoun persewit for the reductione off the resignatione of his earldom, maid be him in the kingis handis ad perpetuam remanentiam and ane pairt thairof in favour of the lord Lochlevin, to be retreitit and reducit, becaus he did the samyn compulsus regio metu qui poterat cadere in constantem virum255. This he qualifiet be sindrie presumptiones and conjectures in sa far as the king had divers tymes socht the samyn of him to be done and at lenth (seing onnawayes he wald do the same) chargit him to ward in Innernes, a place far distant fra him, and he being seiklie and waik and could nocht sustein the samyn travell, sic (per metum carceris a rege illatum) coactit and compellit, maid the samyn resignatione.
To this was answeret that, the commandment of the earle to waird was no just fear.
To this was answerit that, gadderand all the circumstancies togidder, the feir was sufficientlie qualifiet, viz. the feir of presoun and the passing sua far to ane agit man and the taking away of him fra his leving. The lordis thairfoir retreittit the said resignatione, moved be the last et l. ultima, C. quae metus causa256, que ait omnes "venditiones, donationes, transactiones que per potentiam extorta sunt", debere infirmare.
255Words from D. 4.2.6, see note to nr. 315.
256C. 2.20.12 [to the point].

317. Clericus coram seculari iudice tenetur respondere in causa exhibitionis vel deliberationis evidentiarum aut literarum ab eo per quemcunque petitarum.
The 27 aprilis anno 1543: Quidam William Bannantyne (ut recordor) callit befoir the lordis tua clerkis of Halierudhous to delyver to him ane letter of tak of the landis of Slipperfeild (ut recordor), gevin to thame be him in keping. Thai declynit the judges, ratione clericatus. The lordis be interlocutour decernit thame selffis competent juges to all kirkmen callit be ony persone for producing or delyvering of evidentis, secundum practicam et consuetudinem Scotie.

318. Off summondis rasit at the kingis and parteis instance in the kingis tabill, the king remittand his actioun, to be callit be the samyn tabill.
Eodem die <27 apr. 1543>: Ane summondis of error wes intentit at the kingis instance and the erle Bothuell for his entres aganes certane personis, being upone ane inqueist that servit William Rutherfurde of certane landis of Langnewtoun. And the saidis summondis wes callit be the kingis tabill, and sua far soner nor it mycht haiff bene callit at the said erlis instance. The king dischargit his summondis and all his entres aganes the assyis for error and thairfoir the said William allegit that the said summondis at the erlis instance aucht nocht to haiff proces be that incuming and privilegit tabill of the kingis grace. The lordis be interlocutour decernit that the caus sould proceid at the erlis instance, nochtwithstanding the allegeance, et iudicio meo non bene, quia ex persona sua dictus comes non habebat privilegium illius tabule et regis instantie, quod, cum concernebat ipsum, renunciavit, quia ex persona regis eo invito comes non debuerat ullo privilegio gaudere.

319. Off reducing of inique declaratioun of the kingis quill quhen ane man hes referrit him in his grace will.
The 23 (aut eocirca) mensis eiusdem <apr. 1543>: The lord Hay of Yester askit the kingis declaratioun of his will, decernand him to haiff tint his schireffschip of Peblis pertening to him heretablie for his brotheris falt in the awaylatting of tua thevis, gevin in keping to him be the king, for the quhilk falt the said lord Hay come in the kingis will, to be reducit, with ane infeftment thairupone maid to the lord Fleming of the said schireffschip, becaus the king excesserat arbitrium boni viri in declarando suam voluntatem, quia gravius punierat dictum dominum quam de iure puniendus erat hoc delicto, becaus of na law, ressone nor consuetude aucht he to haiff tint his heretage thairfoir. And he askit sua the kingis will to be reducit ad arbitrium boni viri, quia quando quis refert se voluntati adversarii sui, ille non potest de iure inique arbitrari et contra rationem. Quod, si fecerit, reducitur eius declaratio et voluntas ad arbitrium boni viri, ut ex gloss. in leg. pen. ff. de arb.257, Jason <et> al. in l. Si sic, ff. de leg. 1o258, Benedict. in cap. Raynucius, in verb. "condidit", extra de testa.259. The lordis be sentence definitive propter iniquitatem predictam retractarunt declarationem predictam cum infeodamento inde secuto.
257D. 4.8.51 [to the point].
258D. 30.1.57 [to the point].
259Benedictus ..., commentary on X 3.26.16.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 540. The kings will aucht to be reducit ad arbitrium boni viri.
24 aprill <1542 or 1543?>: The lord Yester desyrit ane declaratour of the kingis will decernand him to haiff tint his office of the schireffschip of Peiblis perteininge to him in heretage, for the fault of his brother in letting away tua theivis gevin to him in keiping, for the quhilk fault the said lord cam into the kingis will, to be reducit - with the infeftment thairupone maid be the king to the lord Fleming, becaus the kingis will and declaratour thairoff excesserat arbitrium boni viri; et quando quis se refert ad arbitrium adversarii sui, ille non potest de jure inique arbitrari et contra rationem. Quod si fecerit, reduceretur ejus declaratio ad arbitrium boni viri, ut colligitur ex glossa l. penultima, ff. de arbitrio260. The lordis fand the ressone of the summondis relevant, and sua reducit the declaratione of the kingis will and the infeftment that followit thairupone, haiffing consideratione that the kinges majesties will was rigorous to tak his heretabill richt fra him for the offence of his brother being so small.
260Gloss by Franciscus Accursius on D. 4.8.51 [to the point].

320. Off kirkmen to be remittit to the competent judge.
The first day of maii <1543>: Isobell Hopper callit the bischope of Dunkeld, the laird of Drylaw and certane utheris befoir the lordis to heir thame decernit to desist fra the teind scheves of Abircorne, becaus thai pertenit in tak to Archibald Douglas, as be his foirfaltour wes as escheit disponit during his takkis be the king to the said bischope, and now laitlie the foirfaltour wes reducit in parliament haldin in Marche anno 1543, and sua scho that wes in possessioun thairof and in the tak with hir said husband desyrit to be put in hir possessioun. And becaus this caus dependit fra the decrete and censement of parliament, thairfoir, said scho, the said bischope aucht to answer heirupone befoir the lordis. Nochttheles the lordis be interlocutour remittit him to his competent judge of the kirk.

321. Summondis libellit conjunctlie aganes tua or thre, ane beand assolyeit ab instantia iudicii, contra alios non potest procedi.
<CONTINUED> And becaus the summondis wes libellit conjunctlie contra ipsum and thai culd nocht proceid aganes him, thairfoir thai also decernit that thai culd nocht proceid upone this summondis aganes the temporall man.

322. Clericus in causa hereditatis coram seculari iudice respondere debet, et in personalibus obligationibus dependentibus.
The 3 day or thairby of the said moneth <maii 1543>: In ane caus of reductioun of heretabill infeftment of Stevinstoun, mowit be the laird of Wachtoun aganes Mr Henry Sinclar, persone of Glasquow, and James Sinclar, the lordis be interlocutour decernit the said Mr Henry, non obstante privilegio fori ratione clericatus, to answer befoir thame in this caus, quia de iure et practica Scotie thair is na juge spirituall nor temporall to reduce heretabill infeftment or cognitioun in materis of heretage bot the lordis of Counsall alanerlie, and decernit the said Mr Henry to answer befoir thame upone the retreiting of personall obligatiounis maid to him upone the said infeftment be the said laird, et hoc ratione connexitatis et quia erant accessoria ad dicta infeodamenta.

323. Clerici pro debito regis coram seculari iudice respondent.
Quinto die mensis eiusdem <maii 1543: The lordis decernit the bischope of Abirdene to answer befoir thame in ane caus movit upone ane obligatioun of ane certane sowme of money borrowit be him fra the king at the quene and the laird of Adenelauchis instance as his donatour to the said dett, becaus that of the practik of Scotland, as the lordis allegit, et clerici in omnibus civilibus actionibus pro debitis quibuscunque regis debent coram dominis Consilii respondere.

324. Exceptio compensationis non admittitur de practica.
<CONTINUED> And actour in the said caus the lordis decernit exceptionem compensationis appositam pro parte episcopi Abirdene de alia summa sibi per regem debita (ut, quod asseretur, liquida) non admittendam, becaus of this practik the said exceptioun had nevir place and wes oftymes befoir thame proponit in uther caussis and nocht admittit. And sua in causa <iura> de compensationibus loquentia261 coram dominis Consilii in hoc regno locum non habent262.
261D. 16.2; C. 4.31.
262This criticism is probably too global - as the Court's decision merely forbids to argue "compensation" against a formally perfect deed before "reduction" of that deed has been applied for - in accordance with the rule in nrs. 56, 82, 343, based on the principle in nr. 16.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 539. Na recompensatione in Scotland.
<1542-1543?> The bischop of Aberdeine being persewit at the kingis instance for certane debtis alledgit that he aucht nocht to pay the samyn becaus the king was awand him ane liquidat soume, quhilk tak wau or at least mak recompensatione for the soume auchtand be him. The lordis fand be interloquitour that the bischops exceptione of recompensatione, albeit it was upon ane liquidat soume, aucht to be repellit becaus of the practik of Scotland na recompensatione admittit.

325. Terminus ad vocandum varrantum datur reo, licet vocandus plane sciverat litem isti motam.
The 6 of maii or thairby <1543>: Robert Gib wes callit at he quenis instance and als Robert Diksone of Hadingtoun abay to produce thir infeftment of the landis of Gukhill, the tane maid be the king in fewferme, the uther in lykmaner be the said Robert Gib to the said Diksoun, and to heir thame reducit, and sua thai war baith summond in this caus. Diksoun desyrit ane day to call his varrand, viz. Robert Gib, quhome of he had thai landis titulo oneroso. The quenis advocat allegit that he aucht nocht to haiff sic ane delay, quia dictus Gib eius authour erat citatus principaliter ad instantiam et sic sciebat bene ab initio litem moveri. And attour, becaus the caus wes intentit at the quenis instance, thair aucht na delay to be gevin bot his awin warrand reservit to him. The lordis be interlocutour decernit him ane day to call the said Robert Gib for his warrand, et quod non erat satis venditorem scire litem moveri emptori, imo quod adhuc hoc non obstante emptor denunciare ei litem motam et petere ut defensioni cause adsit adhuc, ut de emptione teneatur venditor. Et ita notatur in apostella ad Dy. in cap. Cum quis certus, extra de re iu., iii. col.263

326. In varrantum non potest rex vocari. Sed datur reo tempus ad vocandum alium varrantum, licet rex non sit actor.
<CONTINUED> And attour the lordis decernit him ane day to call his varrand, albeit the king varrand nocht na man nec possit de practica regni vocari in varrantum a quocunque264, cum iniquum esset quod, cum quis ad regis instantiam placitatur et habet alium certum obligatum sibi ad varrantizandum idem quod rex ab eo petit, non daretur ei tempus ad eum vocandum.
263Commentary by Dinus Mugellanus on 6. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 31: "Eum qui certus est, certiorari ulterius non oportet" - and there a printed remark, added by the editor.
264See nr. 281.

327. Off answering on the first day.
The aucht day or thairby <maii 1543>: The lordis decernit that Oliveir Sinclaris procuratour comperand for him at George Douglas' instance aucht nocht to answer aganes his will the first day contenit in the citatioun.

328. Quat previs auld retouris.
The 16 junii <1543>: The lordis decretit the laird of Houstounis retour of the landis of Carnis, becaus the assys saw na chartour of blanche haldin of thai landis, bot 2 or 3 retouris of iii.xx yeiris auld, makand mentioun that thai war haldin blanche. And als the superiouris thairof, viz. the lordis of Calder Comitis, had nocht thair preceptis of seasing conforme to thai retouris of blanche. And thairfoir domini superiores videbantur confessi tacite terras easdem in albam firmam teneri. And heirfoir the lordis assoilyeit the assys fra vilfull error, becaus the mater wes doutsum.

329. Blanche may nocht be provin bot be the chartour.
<CONTINUED> And nochttheless, becaus blanche halding can nocht be provin bot be chartour and seasing thairof and that retouris in this cace makis nocht sufficient probatioun, thairfoir the lordis retretit the retour for ignorance of assys, as said is. And in this cace the lord of N. wes the uthir pairtie and this retour wes be the said James' tenentis solisting and moyen of court, quhilk vald nocht thane bene done.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 538. Blench halding cannocht be provin bot be chartour and seasing.
16 junii 1543: Thair was ane retour desyrit to be reducit at the instance of the pairtie and the kingis advocat quhair that the laird of Houstoun was servit and retourit in the landis of Carnes, becaus the inquest servit and retourit the landis to be haldin blench, and thair was nothing producit befoir thame for probatione of the samyn, nather precept nor chartour of the halding of the said land blench. It was ansuerit that thair was thrie retoures producit that contenit into tham the space of lxxx yeiris of halding of the samyn blenche. To this was answeret that the retour was nocht sufficient nather to prove the blench halding, nor yit the inquest to serve upone the halding, bot the halding behouvit to be provin be chartour and seasing. The lordis pronuncit that the assys sould be assolyeit fra wilfull error and yit reducit the retour be resoun foirsaid.

Independent practick, taken from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 537. The keiping of minors pertenis to thame to quhom the ward appertenis and nocht to the tutour testamentar.
16 junii 1543: The laird of Achtermane alledging him to be the tutour testamentar to the bairnes of the laird of Haning Craufurd desyrit the lord Levingstoun to delyver the bairnes and heretrixis to him to be in his custodie and keiping. The said lord alledgit that the keiping of thame unto thair perfit age appertenit to the king unto quhom thair ward and mareag appertenit and the said ward and mareag being disponit to him as donatour thairof aucht to pertein to him, ut habetur in "Regia Ma." de heredum minorum custodia265. The lordis decernit conforme to the law the keiping of the bairnes to appertein to the king and his donatour.
265"Regiam maiestatem ..."

330. Off caus of advocatioun fra the lordis to the schiref.
The 18 of junii <1543>: The lordis advocat ane caus of N. fra the schiref of Air, becaus that the pairtie convenit befoir allegit that he wes suspect to him becaus he had gottin divers rolmentis aganes him quhilkis he had gottin retreittit be the lordis of Counsall. Et licet hec causa non sufficit de iure ad recusandum iudicem quod alias contra eum male iudicavit266, et alia causa seu causis, nochttheles the lordis fand that it wes thair practik267. And sua decernit the same.
266Wrong. Ius Commune does regard this as a valid reason: X 2.28.6.
267Recusatio iudicis ordinarii: see X 2.28.61, X 2.2.4; recusatio iudicis delegati: C. 3.1.16.

331. <LACUNA>

332. Off reductioun of rolmentis.
Eodem die <18 jun. 1543>: In causa reductionis rolmenti curie vicecomitis de Fyf contra quendam Narne lati, the said Narnes pairtie obtenit letters of cognitioun be delyverance of the lordis of Counsall to the said schiref in ane cace betuix thame. Befoir the schiref it wes exceptit judicialiter quod reus non tenebatur vicecomiti respondere, becaus he duelt within the stewartrie and the stewart wes his competent judge, and the cryme pleyabill also wes committit within the said stewartrie. And thairfoir the schiref wes na competent judge in this cace, and thairfoir askit to be remittit to his judge competent, and this exceptioun to be admittit, for the lordis bad "admit to bayth the pairteis thair just and laufull defensis". Quhilk he offerit him to preve. The schireffis repellit the same. Quhilk the lordis decernit wranguslie repellit, and thairfoir retreittit the said rolment, becaus actor debet sequi forum rei268, and the stewart within the stewartrie is judge ordinar and nocht the schiref. And this commissioun of the lordis givis him na jurisdictioun, bot <he> alanerlie exercit ordinariam vicecomitis jurisdictionem. Quod habet arg. cap. Licet, extra de offi. ordi.269

And actour in the said caus it wes exceptit that the said N. mycht nocht ask the said rolment to be reducit, quia sponte paruit ille, voluntarie solvendo in eodem contenta: quod sic videtur de iure illud approbasse, ratificasse et tacite renunciasse appellationi et petitioni reductionis eiusdem. Arg. l. Ad solutionem, C. de re iudi.270 Quo non obstante reductum fuit rollamentum, quia petitio hec reductionis decreti aut sententie non est omnis similis appellationi. Nam appellatione pendente reus de iure non cogitur finem parare. Ideo, si <finem parat> non invitus, sibi imputet quod voluntarie id facit. Itaque faciendo sponte sua actum contrarium appellationi, suo merito videtur renunciare et sententiam approbare. Sed de practica regni Scotie, decretorum et sententiarum secularium iudicum quoruncunque executio <non> defertur propter petitionem reductionis earundem jam impositam et pendentem. Imo cogitur condemnatus parere sententie quamdiu stat irritractata. Ideo, licet condemnatus solverit in summam contenta, non ideo videtur petitioni reductionis eiusdem renunciasse. Et licet solverit absque literis compulsatorialibus desuper levatis, non ideo de sponte solvere <videtur>, nec debet expectare levationem earundem unde possit gravioribus expensis gravari.
268X 2.2.8; C. 3.13.2.
269X 1.31.12 [to the point. Commands by the Court of Session to local sheriffs compared to commands by the pope to local bishops].
270C. 7.52.5 [to the point].

333. Off reductioun of rolment of perambulatioun.
The 20 day of junii <1543>: In causa perambulationis inter magistrum de Borthuik et Hugonem Douglas, bayth the pairteis in presens of the lordis had consentit: in 15 persones to pass upone the breif of perambulatioun, and letters of the lordis direct to the justice and his deputtis to summond thai persones to that effect. Quhilk comperit upone the ground except ane. And in his place the justice depute tuik ane uther man, in that absentis place. To the quhilk the said Hew vald nocht consent, and thairfoir he askit this rolment to be reducit. The lordis for that caus reducit the said sentence, becaus the judge did by the command of the lordis letters, putting uther upone the inqueist, nor thame that bayth the pairteis had consentit in and that the lordis ordanit be thair decrete and letters past thairupone.

334. Clericus coram <iudice> seculari respondet et hoc casu: viz. deliberationis domorum et clavium.
The 21 day of julii <1543>: The charteraris of Sanct Johnestoun callit the persone of Creytht, James Gordoun, to restoir thame the keyis of the place tane be him fra thame. The lordis decernit thame selffis competent judges in this caus, nochtwithstanding he exceptit de privilegio clericali, and that becaus the mater wes sclanderous and in greit prejudice of the said religious place, pertening to the kingis patronage, and of the devyne service, and quia res hec declinationem non patitur.

335. Off ansuering be ane simpill bill of delyvering of money ellis obtenit be the sentence and reasavit be the procuratour in the pairteis name271.
The 22 of junii <1543>: The lordis decernit letters upone Mr Andro Blakstok to delyver ane sowme of money to Violat Gourlay conforme to his obligatioun, quhilk money he had obtenit as procuratour to hir aganes Mr Johne Spens be ane decrete of the lordis of Counsall. And the lordis anent the payment thairof decernit him to pay the samyn and answer thairupone be ane bill but ordour, dyet, tabill or summondis peremptouris, quia inconveniens erat ut super re judicialiter obtenta de uno cogatur paupercula litigare.
271This is a later stage of the case in nr. 147.

336. Ratione rei seu possessionis (de qua agitur) sortitur quis forum, licet nulla alia ratione.
The 23 of junii <1543>: Johne Tennent askit ane caus of spuilyie intentit aganes him be capitane Lundie befoir Archibald Betoun, judge of the regalitie of Sanctandrois, to be advocat befoir the lordis, becaus he had <thair> na duelling place. Nochttheles the said Archibald wes judge competent to him in this cace, becaus the landis upone the quhilk the spuilyie wes maid wes within his jurisdictioun, et ita ratione rei de qua agibatur dictus Joannes ibi sortiebatur forum. Et hoc per l. unicam, C. ubi de possessione272, ut per Pan. in cap. fi., extra de foro compe.273. Et ita contra dictum Joannem sententiaverunt domini Consilii.
272C. 3.16.1 [to the point].
273Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.2.20 [to the point].

337. Varantus non datur in causa spoliationis intentate.
The 25 of junii <1543>: The foirsaid Johne Tennent wes callit for ane spuilyie of Mr William Creychtoun out of the Monkraw besyd the Falkirk. He allegit that he had tak thairof of my lord Dunkeld and he wes enterit thairto be his precept, and sua askit ane day to call his varrand in this cace. Quia de iure regni Scotie "wrang has na warrand"274, the lordis decernit that he aucht to haiff na day to call his varrand.
274Maxim also quoted in nrs. 161, 167, 583.

338. Off calling of warrand ubi agitur de exceptione decreti parliamenti.
The 28 of junii <1543>: Thair wes ane sentence of foirfaltour, gevin in parliament langsyne aganes George Dowglas, reducit alsua in parliament eftir the kingis deceis, and he decernit be the said sentence reductive to be restorit agane to all landis, takkis, steadingis and possessiounis that he had in tyme of the said sentence of foirfaltour gevin aganes him. He callit Oliver Sinclar befoir the bailleis of Brughtoun to heir him be decernit to be restorit to his possessioun of the landis and teindis of Quhitkirk, pertening to him in tak and assedatioun of befoir his foirfaltour, he than beand in possessioun thairof be vertew of his tak, of the quhilk thair wes now, eftir his restoring as said is, certane yeiris to rin. And that conforme to the said decrete of parliament restorative of him as said is. Oliver Sinclaris procuratour allegit that thai landis and teindis pertenit now heretablie in few, and that he be the space of iiii yeiris last bypast wes in possessioun thairof and had the samyn titulo oneroso of the abote and convent of Halierudhous. And thairfoir, quia erat in possessione titulo oneroso, desyrit ane day to call his varrand. It wes replyit for the said George that thair aucht na day to be gevin, and that becaus this wes upone the exceptioun of the decrete of parliament and that he aucht but ony delay to be restorit. The lordis of Counsall, becaus Oliver wes in possessioun cum titulo oneroso, decernit him ane day to call his varrand, for of befoir he had na place to haiff callit the same, sen he wes nocht specialie summond to the said sentence reductive of his foirfaltour and restoring of him to all his possessiounis foirsaidis, and vald tyne his varrand as he gat nocht the samyn now at this tyme.

339. Quod iudex libellum ineptum reiicit, licet reus ad hoc nil dicat.
The said day <28 jun. 1543>: In ane caus of spuilyie movit be the bailleis, Counsall and communitie of Carrell aganes the laird of Inglis Tarvate, the pairteis beand removit furth upone the relevancie of ane exceptioun peremptour proponit for the saidis lairdis pairt, the lordis, becaus thai fand the libell nocht relevant, albeit thair wes nathing objectit thairof be the said laird, thay ex officio rejectit the libell and absolvit the laird prout erat libellatum. And sua of the practik the lordis repellis libellis inept, albeit the uther pairtie say nathing thairof.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 536. The lordis ex officio assolyeit fra inept lybellis.
About the samyn tyme <16 jun. 1543>: Into the caus of spuilyie movit be the balyeis, toun counsell and community of Carrell aganis the laird of Inglishtarvet, the pairties beand removit furth upone the irrelevancie of the exceptione opponit be the laird, the lordis hawand consideratione off the lybell and findand the samyn nocht relevant albeit thair was no thing objectit be the pairties aganis the same, assolyeit the laird prout libellatur, quia iudex ex officio suo potest ineptum libellum rejicere, vide glossam circa l. ff. de officio assessorum275et c. Examinata, Extra de judiciis276.
275Gloss by Franciscus Accursius on D. 1.22.1.
276X 2.1.15.

340. That maillis of landis in non-entres may be askit first of the occupyeris of the landis during the non-entres.
The penult of julii <1543>: The laird of Fyffes sone, donator to the quene of the non-entres and waird of the barony of Petkery, pertening heretablie to the laird of Fyiffie, askit be summondis the saidis landis to be decernit in non-intres be the space of xi yeiris, and the laird of Petslego condamnit to restoir it and to pay the males thairof durand the said space to him as donatar to the kingis grace, becaus he intromettit with thai landis be the said space and bruikit thame. Petslego allegit that to be by the practik of this countrie, be the quhilk in sic caussis first aucht the ground to be poindit, and the samyn nocht beand strenyeabill, the landis to be apprysit for the maillis and deweteis of thame without ony distrenyeing. Nochttheles the lordis be interlocutour decernit that the intromettouris with the landis during the non-entres of thame mycht be callit for thair males and deweteis without ony distrenyeing or poinding or apprysing of the landis and ground thairof.

341. Quod sasina capta per virum tantum super carta coniunctae infeodationis secundum tenorem eiusdem carte non porrigitur ad uxorem.
The 6 day of julii anno 1543: The lordis of Counsall decernit the seasing of the baronie of Petkerie, gevin to the laird of Fyves that now is his father, conforme to the chartour of conjunct fie of the said baronie, gevin with precept thairupone to the said auld laird and Jonet his spous be the king, previt nocht that the said Jonet was saisit in thai landis, albeit the laird tuik saising conforme to the chartour of conjunct fee, quia maritus nihil agit nomine uxoris sue, nec ulla mentio in datione sasine et cartura eiusdem facta fuit de muliere, prout clare ex instrumento sasine patebat. And thairof the lordis decernit hir nocht to haiff bene sasit, and sua the landis to be in waird and in non-intres sen that manis deceis.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 535. The occupiers of the ground may be convenit for the maillis and dewties of the samyn during the non-entres.
30 junii 1543: The laird of Fyvies sone, to the quein donatour of the non-entres and ward of the barronie of Pitkerrie, desyrit the landis to be decernit to be in non-entres for the space <of> xvi yeiris and to that effect summond the277laird of Pitsligo to heir him compellit to pay the meallis and dewties thairof, becaus that during the said space he occupeit the lands. Pitsligo ansuerit and alledgit that he aucht to pay no meallis nor dewties bot conforme to the practick he aucht for the meallis and dewties poynd first the ground. And incaice the ground be nocht fund strenyeabill, he aucht nixt to apprys the landis for the same. It was ansuerit that it was in his optione to persew the occupiar of the ground or to poynd the samyn or to comprys as he pleasit best, and that the apprysing (quhilk was the last refuge) was incaice thair could be gottin na uther remeid. The lordis decernit that the occupiar of the ground during the tyme of the non-entres micht be persewit for the maillis and dewties without any poynding or apprysing of the samyn ground.
277MS has "and" instead of "the".

342. Agens in actione "quod metus causa" debet in libello offerre pretium quod accepit. Alias libellans non auditur.
The said day <6 jul. 1543>: The lordis be interlocutour decernit the laird of Wachtounis summondis, intentit aganes Mr Henrie Sinclar and James Sinclar for reductioun of thair infeftmentis of the landis of Stevingstoun (becaus the same, as wes allegit, <wes> maid be the said laird per metum qui poterat cadere in constantem virum278) nocht relevant, becaus the said laird in the said summondis offerit nocht the money (that he gat for the infeftment-making) in his saidis libell and summondis to the said Mr Henry and James. Et agens actione "quod metus causa" tenetur in libello offere pretium quod accepit, ut notatur in l. prima, C. quod metus causa279, et l<ege> Ang<elum> et alios in § Quadrupli, Inst. de act.280 And sua the lordis decernit reos non teneri respondere in libello prout libellatur. Et hoc ex causa predicta.
278Words from D. 4.2.6, see note at nr. 315.
279C. 2.19.1 [not to the point. Sinclair should have quoted C. 2.19.3 and 4].
280Commentaries by Angelus de Gambilionibus de Aretio on the title "De actionibus" of Justinian's Institutiones, and by other authors = on Instit. 4.6.25.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 534. Agens "quod metus causa" tenetur in libello offere pretium sive rem acceptam. Alioquin libellus non relevans.
6 julii 1543: The laird of Wachtoun persewit certane infeftmentis maid be him off the landis of Steinsone to be reducit, becaus the samyn was gevin metus causa et propter metum qui cadere potuit in constantem virum281. It was ansuerit to the samen be Mr Henry Sinclar that the summondis was nocht relevant, except he had lybellit that he had offerit the money (that he had gottin for the making off the infeftmentis) agane, quia agens actione metus causa tenetur in libello offerre praetium acceptum se restituere, ut collegit ex l. iii, C. de his quae metus causa fiunt282. It was ansuerit that the lybell was sufficient without the offer, quia ante omnia is, qui metum passus est, restitui debet in integrum. The lordis fand be interloquitour that the lybell was nocht relevant as was lybellit and that the thing that was ressavit behuifit first to be reallie offerit againe be the persewar.
281Words from D. 4.2.6, see note to nr. 315.
282C. 2.19.3 [to the point].

343. Quod testis comparens in judicio (non citatus) admittitur, nisi alia iusta causa eum repellet.
The 4 of julii <1543>: In the laird of Glencros caus, Barkmichall, anent the reduceing of the said lairdis infeftment of certane landis of umquhile Johne Clencros, producit at the bar in witnessis in his caus that war nocht summond, and askit thame instantlie to be summond in judicio and ressavit. The lordis, nochtwithstanding the uther pairteis objectioun that thai aucht nocht to be resavit, quia venerunt non citati et ideo erant suspecti, decernit be interlocutour thame to be resavit and suorne, cum hoc de iure liceat, ut notatur in decisione Capellae Tholosanae 284283. And als the samyn is of the practik of the lordis of Counsall.
283Decisions of the 14th century archiepiscopal court at Toulouse (Capella Tolosana), collected by Iohannes Corserius, "officialis" of that court, nr. 284.

344. Off calling for productioun of gifts and interpretatioun and restrictioun thairof to certane guidis.
The 8 of julii anno eodem <1543>: The abote of Lundoris callit be ane simpill bill to charge the lord Gray, donatour to the quene of the escheit of David Weddirburne in Dundie for the slauchter of Robert Lok (ut recordor) in Dundie, producit his gift thairof, to heir the samyn decernit nocht to be extendit to the gudis perteining to the said David Vedderburne beand within the regalitie of the said abacie of Lundoris. It wes allegit that the lord aucht to be callit ordourlie be ane peremptour summondis. The lordis decernit be interlocutour: The said mater mycht of the practik cum in be ane simpill charge but ordour dyet or tabill, and that of the practik the samyn hes bene hithertill in use.

345. That airschip gudis aucht to airis generalie servit to gentillmen and franct tenementaris of landis, albeit the air be nocht air to thaim of ony landis.
Eodem die <8 jul. 1543>: Margaret Crawfourde and Robert Simpill, hir spous for his intres, askit airschip guidis of his guidschir, the laird of Camnis, at Thomas Crawfurd, now laird thairof and intromettour thairwith. It wes exceptit, becaus scho wes nocht air to him of ony landis, scho aucht <to haiff> nane of his gudis, and als he non obiit vestitus de ullis terris ut de feodo. Nochttheles the lordis decernit hir to haiff actioun, quia erat deservita heres non de terris. Et hoc eo magis quia pater dicte Margarete obiit dominus liberi tenementi in Camnis et erat nobilis et baro and thairfoir aucht to haiff ane to haiff airschip guidis.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 533. Ane air will get airschip guidis albeit he be nocht servit air to landis.
9 julii 1543: Thair was ane Margaret Craufourd (and Robert Sempell hir spous for his entres) that persewit for the airschip guidis of hir guidschir (the laird of Camner) fra Thomas Craufourd laird thairoff. It was alledgit that scho aucht to haiff na airschip guidis becaus scho was nocht air to him of ony landis nor servit in the samen. And als that he decessit nocht westitus ut de feodo in aliquibus terris. It was ansuerit that it was yit284sufficient that scho was servit air generall, and hir father being ane barron and hawing guids and geir, scho aucht to haiff airschip. The lordis fand hir to haiff airschip guidis, nochtwithstanding scho was nocht servit air to landis.
284MS has "not" instead of "yit".

346. Quod prescriptio temporis triennalis contra reductionem <in>ordinatorum processuum per statutum parliamenti Jacobi quarti inducta285non habet locum contra regem.
The said day <8 jul. 1543>: In the laird of Dunlenrikis caus for reductioun of his retour at the quenis instance, the lordis be interlocutour decernit the act of parliament of king James the feird, saying that na inordinat proces suld be callit eftir thre yeiris at the instance of the pairtie pretendand thame hurt thairthrow etc., to haiff na place in the kingis caus, and that he mycht haiff reductioun of inordinat proces of retouris of utheris non obstante lapso triennio, quia de practica regni statutum illum hactenus non habuit locum contra regem, sic nec habere debet contra reginam.
285Statute ...

347. Off reduceing of letters de non alienando aut contrahendo cum debitore in fraudem creditoris.
Ultimo julii <1543>: Thomas Maxwell of Teiling, allegeand that Johne Maxwell, portionar of Golgowar, wes awin to him greit dettis and intendit to persew thairfoir and that he in his defraude intendit to annalle his landis and gudis in the mentyme, thairfoir he gat the kingis letters inhibitentis to the said Johne that he sould nocht annale his landis nor guidis in defraud of him his creditour. Quhilkis letters was gevin upone fals narratioun, becaus the said Johne wes awand him nathing that he culd schaw to the lordis. The said Johne askit <the letters> to be reducit and suspendit simpliciter. The lordis of Counsall decernit the letters to be suspendit simpliciter for the caus foirsaid, et quia libera dispositio rerum suarum286non est alicui interdicenda sine causa, et quod tales litere sunt quodammodo diffamatorie. Ideoque sine causa non concedende.
286Cf. the definitions of ownership (dominium) given by Bartolus de Saxoferrato and others, on D.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 532. Inhibitione aucht nocht to be gevin bot upone trew caus et cum cognitione causae.
About the samyn tyme or the samyn day <9 jul. 1543>: The laird of Teilling Maxwell had purchessit inhibitione upone Johne Maxwell his cousing, alledging the said Johne to be auchtand to him divers soumes of money. The said Johne desyrit the said letters of inhibitione to be dischargeit or suspendit simpliciter, becaus thai war purchessit upone fals narratioun287, quia libera dispositio rerum suarum nemini est auferenda sine justa causa. The uther pairtie allegit the inhibitione aucht nocht to be dischargit, unto the tryell was tane of the debt auchtand. The lordis, without he wald schaue presentlie the said debt restand to auchtan, dischargit the said inhibitione and suspendit the samen simpliciter.
287See note to nr. 55 about voiding of such letters.

348. Principall partie to be callit be the souertie for releiff be ane simpill bill allanerlie.
The said day <31 jul. 1543>: The lordis, in ane caus of N. aganes N., decernit that the souertie condamnit be act of adjornall for the principall pairtie mycht bot <be> ordour, dyet or tabill call the pairtie or his air for to releif thame be ane simpill bill within vi dayis warning, and that thai mister nocht ane peremptour summondis, in the cace Blakstok rei et Macgill actoris procuratour.

349. Off delyvering of letters inhibitouris de non aliendo in fraudem creditoris.
The 12 julii <1543>: The quenis advocat askit letters be delyverance of the lordis to mak inhibitioun to the lord of Crawfurde288 to sell or annale ony landis or reversioun of the said erledome and als that nane suld contract thairupone with him in defraude of the quene. And that becaus he wes oblist to the king to resigne to his hienes and his airis thai landis and reversionis howsone he war be him or thame requyrit. And for the doing heirof he wes under his summondis at the quene and governaris instance. The lordis of lang disputatioun delyverit the saidis letters aganes him, nochtwithstanding that sic lordis and gret barrounis <mycht be offendit>, quia videbantur tales litere quasi diffamatorie, ut ipsi allegabant. Bot the mair pairtie of the lordis said "nay", for thai war conforme to the practik and commoun law289. And thairfoir na man suld think him hurt or diffamit quhair thair is na thing contrair him done - bot be the law and ressone.
288Same case in nr. 494.
289D. 50.17.55: "Nullus videtur dolo facere, qui suo iure utitur."

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 531. Inhibitione grantit upone gryt men and earles.
20 july 1543: Thair was ane action intendit at the queines instance aganis the earle of Crawfurd for to resigne his landis in favouris of hir grace and mak hir assigney to the reversione of his landis, conforme to ane contract maid betuix the said earle and the kingis grace. Thairfoir the queines advocat desyrit letters of inhibitioun that the said earle sould nather sell, delapidat nor put away or analie ony of his landis. The earle insistit in the contrair and alledgit: na sic letters aucht to be gevin, quia erant quasi defamatorie, he beand ane nobill man in the countrey. The lordis newertheles thocht expedient that the letters of inhibitione sould be grantit.

350. Off interpreting of actis of the kingis graice and extensioun of thame ad casus tacitos, similes expressis.
The said day <12 jul. 1543>: George Drummond clamit at the erle of Atholl the males and fructis of certane landis of Rettray quhilk come in the kingis handis be waird be deceis of his fader, to quhome it pertenit be ressone of the courtesie of Scotland, becaus he mareit Grissall Rettray, heritrix thairof madin, and sua eftir hir deceis hir husband aucht to bruik thame for his lyftyme as he did, and the waird of thame wer disponit be the quene to the said George. The erlis <of Atholl> procuratour exceptit that the waird pertenit to the erle be reasone thair wes ane act maid be the king and his lordis laitlie at the passing of his armie aganes the Inglismen invaidand Scotland in the yeir of God 1543 <(= 1542?)> in August or thairby, that the airis of thame that happinnit to deceis in the armie or to be tane in passing to the armie or cumand fra it suld haiff thair waird frie, and sua the said erle suld haiff his waird. It wes replyit, nay, for he wes nocht air to his father, quha diet of sicknes tane in the armie, of the haill landis of Rettray, upone the waird of the quhilk the questioun wes, bot of the landis he wes air to his mother, and the act maid privilege to thame quhais fatheris or utheris freindis diet as said is, to quhome thai war immediat airis and suld entir to thair landis within thre termes nixt eftir the persones deceis to quhome thai war air. And sen the erle wes air to his mother of thai landis, that deceissit nocht as said is, thairfoir the said erle aucht nocht be vertew of the said act <haiff> the waird of the landis, bot the samyn suld pertene to the quenis donatour. The lordis of Counsall decernit for the pairt of the erle contra reginam et eius donatour, eo quod beneficium principis contra ipsummet latissime interpretandum, l. Beneficium, de consti. prin., ff.290, ergo et contra eius donatorem. Et ex coniecturata mente regis fuit that the airis of thame that diet as said is suld be of na wars conditioun nor thai war thair freindis levand, that thairthrow all nobillmen suld be weill gevin to the defens of the realme. And als indubitanter, si princeps tempore statuti dicti fuisset interrogatus de hoc casu dubio, beneficium suum ad illud quoque extendisset. Et sic paritate cause et rationis et mente dicti acti et conditoris eiusdem eque bene debeatur varda predictarum terrarum dictarum comiti ac si de eisdem heres fuerit patri suo. Et hoc eo magis quia pater eius ut predicitur easdem tenebat be reasone of the courtesie of Scotland, et per ipsius decessum venerunt in manibus regis ratione varde.
290D. 1.4.3 [to the point]; see also 6. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 16.

351. The lordis ar competent judges aganes clerkis for executioun of decretis arbitrall.
The xx day of julii <1543>: Quidam Villielmus Henrisone in Sanct Johnestoun callit ane preist (ut recordor) cognomine Gray to heir letters in the four formes gevin, conforme to ane decrete arbitrall gevin be certane thair arbitouris. The preist exceptit the lordis wes na competent juges to him in this cace. The lordis decernit be interlocutour that of the practik thai war competent judges to him in this cace for executioun of sic decretis, non obstante privilegio291.
291"Privilegium fori" of clergy, to be sued in competent church courts only: Decretum Gratiani D. 96 c. 1; X 2.2.2; 6. 2.2.2.

352. Off alienatioun of heretage upone deidbed be the redemptioun and outquytting of wedsettis fra seik folkis.
The 21 julii <1543>: In causa Mirabelle Scugall contra Joannem Forrate de eodem, the said Mirabillis' mother upone hir deidbed grantit ane annuell, heretablie annaleit to hir be the said laird put of his landis of Forrate, laufulie redemit and hir thairfoir to haiff resavit the samyn tyme xx lib., upone the quhilk the said annuell lay in wedset. Hir dochter than callit that redemptioun and outquytting to be reducit as maid in defraud of hir, air to hir said mother, and of the law of the realme nemo potest alienare hereditatem suam in lecto egritudinis in preiudicium heredis sui, as sayis "Regiam Majestatem"292. And that the samyn pretendit redemptioun wes maid in hir defraud it apperit, becaus for the money that scho grantit hir for to haiff reasavit for the redemptioun of the annuall the said laird wes actit to hir executouris, and sua the samyn confessioun wes fenyeit. It wes exceptit that this wes na voluntar alienatioun of heretage and that it wes necessaria alienatio, to the quhilk scho be hir reversioun wes oblist, and thairfoir did bot as scho aucht to do and wes oblist, and thairfoir the said redemptioun wes laufull. Nochttheles the lordis decernit to be reducit and retreitit as maid contra ius municipale regni and in defraud of the air.
292"Regiam maiestatem" ...

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 528.Alienatio in lecto aegritudinis non valet, quamvis alias fuerit actus necessarius.
21 july 1543: Thair was on Miragall Scowgall that persewit for the reductione of the redemptione of ane anuelrent furth of the landis off Forret, becaus the samen redemptione of the anuelrent was done be the said Miragalis mother in lecto aegritudinis in prejudicium haeredis, prout de iure in l<ibro> "Regi. Ma." nemo potest alienare hereditatem suam in lecto aegritudinis in prejudicium heredis293. It was ansuerit that this was na voluntar alienatione of heretage, bot quod fuit actus necessarius, to the quhilk scho was obleist be hir reversione. Et id potuit quod de jure potuit. The lordis decernit nevertheles this alienatione and redemptione to be reducit quia contra ius municipale regni facta fuit.
293"Regiam maiestatem ...

353. Quod contractus abatis et conventus obligat successorem ad varantizandum.
The xxvii of julii <1543>: Oliveir Sinclar callit the commendatour and convent of Halirudhous to varrand to him the teindschevis of the Quhytkirk at George Douglas' handis, clamend him to be restorit thairto becaus he had tua yeiris to rin of his xix yeir tak thairof maid to him be umquhile Robert, thane abote and now bischope of Ross, and convent of the said abay, be the quhilk he wes put be the foirfaltour led aganes him, the quhilk is now reducit in parliament. He (be decrete thairof decernit) <desyrit> to be restorit to all takis that he had the tyme of his foirfaltour. It wes allegit for the commendatour and convent that thai aucht nocht to varrand him, becaus the emptio proveniebat sine ipsorum consensu, et metu. Nochttheles the lordis decernit thame to varrand the said tak set be the said abote and convent, quia litera assidationis facta dicto Oliverio continebat eandem factam in utilitatem ecclesie de hoc, pro certa summa pecuniae ideo etiam date abati et conventui. Et de iure successor tenetur ex contractu predicessoris facto in utilitatem ecclesie294.
294Rule also stated in nrs. 64 and 98.

354. Quod ad probandum exceptionem dilatoriam non detur dilatio.
<CONTINUED> In eadem causa Georgii Douglas contra Oliverium Sinclar, the penult of julii, the lordis be interlocutour decernit that Oliveiris procuratour aucht to preve his exceptioun dilatour instantlie and that but ony delay of thair practik, nisi cum proponens haberet iustam causam petendi dilationem.

355. Gift of non-intres comprehendis nocht the non-entres eftir the dait of the gift.
Ultimo julii <1543>: The lordis absolvit the laird of Luss fra the actioun of non-entres of the landis of Glen intentit aganes him be Eduard Stewart, becaus his gift of the non-entres buir that the king had gevin him the proffeitis, fermes and deweteis of the landis beand than in the kingis grace handis be reasone of non-entres. And thane in veratie the land wes few be heretabill sasing, albeit the auld retour and sasing thairof wes thaireftir reducit, and sua the landis thaireftir came in non-entres. Bot or the reductioun of the retour and sasing thai wer nocht in non-entres, viz. the tyme that he obtenit his gift, quhilk extendit nocht to the non-entres of thai landis that than wes or sould happin eftirward ony tyme to be. And sua the lordis decernit aganes the said Eduard and absolvit his adversar fra the summondis.

356. Quod ad sententiam advocationis procedatur contra contumacem.
The xvi of november anno 1543: The lordis advocat ane actioun of ane puir woman of Striveling fra the bailleis thairof, becaus scho allegit that thai war patrone of the altar of the quhilk the chaplane clamit of hir befoir thame certane annuall. And albeit scho culd nocht preve the samyn allegeance, the lordis presupponit it in pena contumacie of the bailleis nocht compeirand. And sua de practica in sic caussis procedunt domini ad sententiam contra contumacem sine ulla vereficatione aut probatione iuris ipsius agentis295.
295This modernization of Ius-Commune-procedure was introduced sooner or later in all respective countries. Originally, when a defendant did not come to court, the procedure was halted and the pursuer was sent into possession of the defendant's property "causa rei reservandae" (X 2.6.3, X 2.15, see nr. 149). After a year, the pursuer could request a decree of definite possession.

357. Warrand nocht grantit to ane takisman of landis becaus of non-intres.
The xxviii day <nov. 1543>: The laird of Lethingtoun callit Alexander Hammyltoun for non-intres of certane landis as donatour to the quene thairto and to the males, proffeitis and fermes decernit to pertene to him and his guidis, and, failyeing thairof: his landis to be decernit to be apprysit. Thairfoir comperit George Sinclar for his intres and producit xix yeiris takkis of thai landis and desyrit to call his varrand now to stop the proces. <The lordis of Counsall decernit:> He aucht nocht to haiff ane day to call his warrand now to stop the proces of non-entres, bot reservit the samyn to him to dew tyme and place.

358. Possessio multurarum non concludit possessionem molendini.
The xxix novembris <1543>: The laird of Inneis callit James Stewart of Baldinspink for spoliatioun of him of his possessioun of the myln of Baldinspink296, libelland that he wes in possessioun of the said myln the tyme of the allegit spuilyie be uptaking be him self and utheris in his name the multuris of the cornis that wer grindand of the said myln, and setting and rasing of thame. The lordis decernit this libell inept, and <quod non> concludebat possessionem molendini, quia esse poterat that the myln pertenit to the said James and the multuris foirsaidis to the said laird, to caus all the cornis of the forrestrie of Boyne, of the quhilk the thirll multuris pertenit heretablie to the said laird, to be ground at his foirsaid mylne and the multuris to cum to the foirsaid laird, prout de facto erat in causa proposita. And sua the possessioun of uptaking and rasing of the multuris of the said forestrie culd nocht preve that the said laird wes in possessioun of the myln. And becaus the laird of Inneis petiit se restitui ad possessionem molendini possessi per ipsum, ut allegabat, modo predicto, qui quidem modus libellatus non continebat possessionem molendini ut dictum est, ideo domini absolverunt reum a spoliatione prout libellatum erat, ob ineptitudinem <libelli>.
296Same case in nr. 222.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 530. Possessione of multuris inferis nocht possessione of the milne.
20 november 1543: The laird of Innes persewit James Stewart of Baldinspink for the spoliatione of him of his possessione of the mill of Badinspink, lybelland that he was in possessione of the said milne the tyme of the alledgit spuilyie be uptaking be him selff and utheris in his name of the multures of the corne that war ground at the said milne and be setting and rasing thairoff. It was ansuerit aganis the lybell that it was nocht relevant without the said <laird> concludit in his lybell that he had bine in possessione of the milne and milne landis, for it mycht be that the milne mycht appertene to the said James and he to tholl the laird to tak up the multures of the forrestrie of Boyne the quhilk appertenit to the said laird and to be ground at the said milne. The lordis pronuncit be interloquitour that the uptaking and ressaving of the multures could nocht be sufficient for the possessione of the milne except the samyn had bein lybellit that he was in possessione of the milne or occupatione of the samen.

359. De duobus titulis in causa beneficiali et reali possessione fructuum virtute secundi tituli.
The xx day of januar anno 1544: The tenentis of the landis pertening to Sanctblais altar in the kirk of Perth callit schir Thomas Swyntoun and schir Patrik Ros to schaw thair rychtis quhairby ilk ane of thame intendit to found thame. Ros producit his gift of the patroun of the altar and the institutioun and the ordinar letters thairupone. The <uther> preist producit ane uthir gift and institutioun of the altar of ane uther allegit patrone iure devoluto, and that of the dait lang eftir the uther preistis, becaus he had gottin and tane up the last Mertinmes males and deweteis, and that of the practik in caus of the doubill poynding the tenentis aucht to answer to him that is fund in ultima reali possessione cum titulo. Nochttheles the lordis decernit the tenentis to answer the preist that gat the first giftis and institutioun, for thairthrow he wes in possessioun first of the altar cum titulo, and that the uthir preist had done wrang in uptaking of the Mertinmes maill, and thairfoir decernit him to delyver the samyn agane.

360. Factorie to be prowin be writ and nocht be witnes.
The 16 februarii anno 1544: The lordis decernit be thair interlocutour that the laird of Ormestoun mycht nocht of the practik preve the prebendaris of the quenis college factour to thair teindis of Ormestoun be witnessis, bot that the samyn aucht to be prowin be writ.

361. Defensio contra actionem de succedente in vitium alterius.
The fourt of merche <1544>: The abote of Newbottill summond Hew Dowglas of Langmerie to heir letters gevin aganes him as succedand in the vice of James Achesone in wrangus occupatioun of ane salt pane. Quhilk James wes laitlie decernit be the lordis of Counsallis decrete to haiff done wranguslie occupyit the same, and ordanit him to desist thairfra at the said abbotis instance. The said Hew allegit that sic letters suld nocht be gevin aganes him, quia longe ante dictum decretum et tempore eiusdem, etiam adhuc hodie ipse Hugo possidebat the salt pane cum titulo. Et sic non succedebat in vitium ipsius Jacobi.

362. Sententia non preiudicat nec probat contra tertium.
<CONTINUED> Et abbas replyit that the decreit buir the said James in possessioun, swa in contrair of the decrete the said Hew aucht nocht to be hard. The said Hew duplyit that the said decrete previt nocht aganes him, quia "Res inter alios actas ..." etc.297 The lordis be interlocutour decernit the said Hewis allegeance relevant, et quia sententia lata contra Jacobum Achisoun non probat contra tertium, ut iuris est vulgati298. And sua admittit his allegeance to his preif.
297See quotations in note to nr. 272
298As quoted at nr. 272.

363. Sufficit in actione spolii libellare possessionem in genere.
The 6 merche <1544>: The lordis decernit Nicoll Dundas' precept of spuilyie aganes Helene Hoge relevant, as it buir the said Nicoll in possessioun of myln and myln landis of N. at the tyme of the allegit spuilyie, albeit the maner and qualitie of possessioun wes nocht specifeit in the precept and libell.

364. Off poinding for annuellis.
The 7 of merche <1544>: The lordis decernit that ane man haifand annuell mycht poind thairfoir ony pairt of the landis bund to the annuell and that, gif thair wer divers annuellis upone ane tenement, thai mycht all poynd ony ane pairt thairof for thair annuellis.

365. Fundans se super titulo debet ante omnia illum exhibere ad petitionem rei, quamvis ille fundavit exceptionem super titulum.
Eodem die <7 mar. 1544>: In the actioun of Nicoll Dundas foirsaid, the lordis decernit that the said Helene <Hoge> and hir sone (fundand thair summondis upone ane tak in causa turbate possessionis per ipsos intentata contra ipsum Nicolaum) aucht to produce ad instantiam rei the said tak in initio litis, bot nocht to disput upone the strenth of it than, sed in processu exceptionis quhen the said titill is producit per modum probationis cause. Sed fundans exceptionem suam super titulo non tenetur illum citius exhibere, sed satis est quod producat in termino dato ad probandum exceptionem299.
Et sic interlocuti sunt domini Consilii die quarto (aut eo circa) Mercii anno 1543, in causa abbatis de Newbottill contra Hugonem Douglas in precedenti latere lata300, sed potius ut superius.
299See note to nr. 53 for the legal problem.
300Nr. 361.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 527. He that lybellis upon ane tak aucht to produce the samen instantlie.
7 martii 1543: The lordis pronuncit be interloquitour into the caus betuix ane Nicoll Dundace and ane Helen Hoge and hir sone that the perswere quha had lybellit upone ane tak aucht to produce the samen instantlie, bot nocht to disput upon the validity thairoff initio litis, - bot to ressave the samen in termino probationis et ubi dicendum fuerit contra producta bot giff the defendar except and alleg the tytill. Et si fundaverit <se> super aliquem titulum, non tenetur id statim exhibere, sed satis est quod producat in termino probationis seu exceptionis.

366. Letters of the four formes to be rasit upone ordinar letters monitoriallis alanerlie, but horning nocht to be execut befoir the cursing be execut first.
The 8 merche <1544>: The parochnaris of Elgyne callit schir Thomas Hay (ut recordor), allegit paroche klerk of Elgin, to produce the quenis letters in the four formes obtenit be him upone the gift and admissioun and to the paroche klerkschip of Elgin, becaus the parochnaris allegit that the quenis letters wer nocht conforme to the ordinaris, becaus the ordinaris wer bot simpill monitoriallis and contenit na cursing, and of the practik the fourt forme, viz. horning, aucht nocht to be gevin bot quhair thair wes cursing first precedand. And thairfoir, sen thair wes na cursing first precedand in this cace gevin be the ordinar, thairfoir the fourt forme, viz. horning, wes gevin inordinatlie and thairfoir aucht to be reducit. The uther pairtie denyit this. The lordis of Counsall decernit all the four formes ordourlie gevin and procedit upone the ordinar letters monitoriallis alanerlie and nocht contenand ony cursing, bot thai decernit the executioun of the fourt forme to ceis quhill cursing wer first rasit and execute aganes thame, aganes quhome horning suld be in lykwyis execute.

367. Off the admirallis jurisdictioun and the lordis of Counsall in sea caussis.
The 9 of merche <1544>: certane Flemingis callit certane Leithmen befoir the lordis of Counsall for spuilyeing of thame and thair schippis and geir fra thame, to wit tua schippis. My lord admirall, the lord Bothuell, comperit befoir the lordis and allegit that that mater pertenit to him as admirall of heretage, and desyrit the mater to be admittit to his admirall court and the lordis nocht to proceid thairin. The Flemingis allegit that, albeit the admirall wes juge and mair in this cace, nochttheles the lordis of Counsall were also judge ordinaris to all civill actioun within the realme, be the first institutioun of the college of justice, maid be the king and the thre estaitis in parliament, and that the lordis wer in use and possessioun in proceding.

In sic actionis of the Flemyngis aganes Robert Bartane, in the yeir of God im vc sextene yeiris, the samyn exceptioun wes proponit be the erle Bothuellis procuratouris. And nochttheles the lordis procedit in that mater and sua tacite repellit that exceptioun. And alsua allegit that, albeit thair be divers schireffis ordinar judges in heretage and als lordis of regaliteis ordinar judges, nochttheles thai mycht nocht of the practik of Scotland repledge ony actioun fra the lordis, and sua the lordis of Counsall ar ordinar juges to all the realme. And of the law actor potest reum habentem plures iudices eum convenire coram quo eorum voluerit. And sua the actioun beand begun befoir the lordis, it mycht nocht be remittit to the admirall to his court. The lordis of Counsall decernit thame selffis competent judgis in this cace and repellit the said admirallis exceptioun for the foirsaid caus and procedit finalie to sentence diffinitive in the mater, and (as use wes of befoir) war content that the admirall come and sat with thame, and to haiff his woit with thaim incace that he mycht say that justice wes <nocht(?)> equalie done.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 529. The lordis ar judges competent in all actione, suppois thai apperteine to the admirall.
9 martii 1543: Thair was certane Fleminges that persewit certane men in Leyth for spoliatione of thair guidis and tua schippis upone the sea. Comperit the admirall for his entres: Desyrit the mater to be admittit to his judgment as maist properlie apperteining to his jurisdictione. It was ansuerit for the Flemingis that, albeit the admirall was judg competent in this caice, yit newertheles the lordis war judges ordinar to all civill actiones, according to the first institutione off the colledg of justice. And albeit thair be divers utheris ordinarie judges, as schireffis and lordis of regalitie, yit thai may nocht repledge from the lordis of the sessione any caus or actione intendit betuix pairties duelland within thair jurisdictione fra the lordis, becaus the lordis ar judges ordinar in civill caussis to all the haill contrey. Et actor potest reum plures habentem iudices convenire coram quo voluerit: l. Heres absens, ff. de judiciis301. The lordis fand thame selffis judges competent in this caice and proceidit in deductione of the proces and was content the admirall sould cum and sit in judgment with thaim and haiff his woit amang thame.
301D. 5.1.19 [to the point].

368. Foirfaltour reducit, all frie tenentis aucht to be reponit in the first stait thai war in befoir the overlordis foirfaltour.
The 20 merche of thairby <1544>: Schir Johne Campbell of Lundie askit the laird of Grange' infeftment of certane landis haldin be him of my lord Glammis and become in the kingis handis be reasone of the lord Glammis' foirfaltour and thairthrow geving be the king to the said laird Grange, to be reducit, becaus the said foirfaltour wes reducit be censement of parliament haldin be my lord governour eftir the kingis deceis, quhairthrow all the said lord Glammis' frie tenentis aucht to be put in the samyn place thai war in befoir the foirfaltour. The laird of Grange replyit that his infeftment suld nocht be reducit for the caus foirsaid, and becaus bayth befoir and eftir the reducing of the said foirfaltour and in the tyme thairof in judgement the said lord Glammis consentit that that infeftment suld nocht be reducit, bot suld stand and be of effect siclyk, and als the foirfaltour wer nocht reducit for the caus foirsaid and that the reductioun thairof suld nocht be prejudiciall to the said infeftment. The said schir Johne duplyit that, sent the said foirfaltour wes reducit and decernit to be null fra the begynning and in all tymes cuming with all that followit thairupone, and that the said schir Johne' (fre tenent to the said lord Glammis) rycht wes tynt be the foirfaltour, and that the said lord mycht nocht haiff tane fra the said Schir Johne (without his consent) rycht, sua he mycht nocht consent that the foirfaltour, being reducit and declarit null fra the begynning, that it suld be of na awaill anent the escheit of the said schir Johne Campbellis landis, et quod pacta inter ipsos dominos de Glammis et Grange non poterant preiudicare ipsi domino Joanni, cuius jus hereditarium <per> dictum dominum suum superiorem ledi ante forisfacturam non poterat. Et ita domini Consilii decreverunt diffinitive, reduceand the said lairdis infeftment and reponand the said schir Johne in his heretage and in that samyn estait he wes befoir the foirfaltour.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 526. The consent of the overlord may nocht prejudge the tennent in his heretabill richt.
20 martii 1543: Thair was certane landis haldin of the lord Glames, quhilk the tyme of his foirfaltour was disponit to the laird of Grange, falline in the kingis handis be ressone of the foirfaltour foirsaid, quhilkis of befoir pertenit to schir Johne Cambell of Lundie. The lord Glames being restorit and his foirfaltour reducit be sentence of parliament, the said schir Johne desyrit the laird of Granges infeftment to be reducit becaus he, being ane frie tennent, aucht to be put into the place quhairintill he was of befoir the foirfaltour. Grang ansuerit that, nochtwithstanding of the said reductione of foirfaltour, his infeftment aucht to stand and haiff place, becaus (baith befoir, efter and in the meane tyme of the reductione of the said foirfaltour and in judgment) the lord Glames consentit that the foirsaid reductione of the said foirfaltour sould nocht hurt nor be prejudiciall to the laird of Granges infeftment, bot that it sould stand in the awin forme and effect. To this was ansuerit that, sen the said foirfaltour was reducit and maid null from the beginning and in all tyme cuming with all that he followit thairupone, the confessione and grant of the said lord could nocht hurt nor be prejudiciall to the said schir Johne, nor tak away his land without his awin consent mair nor the samen had newer bein led. For the reductione of the samyn was alyk as giff the samen had newer bein led. The lordis be sentence pronuncit reducit the said lairdis infeftment and reponit the said Mr Johne in his awin place, quia ius hereditarium semell acquisitum tenenti sine illius consensu tolli non potest.

369. Reversioun seillit and nocht subscryvit previs, albeit it beir that it is seillit and subscryvit.
The 25 mercii or thairby anno 1544: In the actioun of redemptioun of the landis of N. intenit be A. Vallace of Johnestoun aganes the laird of B., the lordis of Counsall decernit the reversioun of the saidis landis seillit alanerlie and nocht subscryvit that it maid fayth and wes laufull, becaus it wes maid befoir the act of parliament that ordanes all reversionis to be seillit and subscryvit be the pairtie or notar publict.

370. Exceptio taciti mandati de intromettendo cum decimis.
The 22 of julii anno 1546: Mr Henry Sinclar, fermorar of Kilvynning, callit Robert Boid for the wrangus intromissioun with the teind scheves of the kirk of Kilmernoche of the 1545 yeiris crope pertening to him be his assedatioun. Robert exceptit that he did na wrang, becaus he, the tua yeiris immediatlie preceding, of the abbote of Kilvynningis licence, tolerance and command intromettit with the saidis teindis for the payment of tua hundreth merkis yeirlie. And the said 45 yeir thair wes na intimatioun of his assedatioun maid to the said Robert thairof, nor yit na inhibitioun put to him in the abottis name, nor yit the fermoraris that he suld nocht intromit thairwith, and sua he intromettit ex tacito consensu, licentia, tollerantia et tacito mandato abbatis causatus302, ex eo quod non fuit ipse Robertus inhibitus ut predicitur, et sic videtur ipse abbas sibi remandasse intromittere cum decimis illius anni; quod quemadmodum ex taciturnitate locatoris, elapso termino locationis, videtur anno inde proximo relocare colono, ut habetur in l. Item queritur § Qui impleto, ff. locati303. Et sic dicebat Robertus that the fermorare mycht crave him na mair wrang in the intromissioun foirsaid. The lordis of Counsall admittit the said exceptioun and said all, that he aucht to preve that tempore mandati predicti it behovit be provin that the abbote bad him intromet for the said sowme of iic merkis yeirlie, et sic quod ante intromissionem fuerit inter ipsum et abatem conventum de summa pro decimis solvenda - or allis his exceptioun vald nocht be provin.
302Parallel legal problem in nrs. 26 and 40.
303D. [to the point]; and see D. 19.2.14.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 525. Domini admittunt tacitam tolerantiam sicut tacitam relocationem.
<1543-1546?> Maister Henry Sinckler fermorar of Kilwinning persewit Robert Boyd for the wrangous intromissione with certane teind schavis pertening to him be vertew of ane assedatione. Bot he alledgit he had done na wrang becaus tua yeir (preceiding the tyme he persewit) he intromettit with the said teindis be licence and tollerance of the abbot of Kilwinning. And na inhibitione being put to him be the said Mr Henry, he did na wrong in intrometting with <them> that yeir, ex tacita licentia et tolerantia. Nam quemadmodum ex taciturnitate locatoris nascitur nova locatio, ff. loca., l. Item queritur, § Qui impleto304, ita ex predicti magistri Henrici aut abbatis nascitur nova tollerantia. The lordis pronuncit be interloquitour that the said Robert Boyd had done <na> wrang and admittit the exceptione.

371. Off retracting of retouris.
The said day <22 jul. 1546>: The lordis of Counsall retreitit the erle of Catnes' retour, quhair he wes servit of the schirefdome of Catnes as air to his broder quha wes saisit thairin, becaus George erle of Huntlie producit quhair he wes sasit be ane retour lang of befoir the said erlis serving in all and haill the schirefdome Innernes, within the quhilk all Caitnes lyis, and his predicessouris and the erlis of Huntlie in continuall possessioun of the said haill schirefschip and heretablie infeft thairin, that the said schirefschip wes full the tyme of the said erle of Caitnes retour and serving, and sua the lordis retreittit the samyn.

372. Exceptio contra spolium de antiquiore possessione (et defensione eiusdem <per> continuum tempus) quam actor possidisse se dicit, et die etiam de-eiectionis305, vide Abba. in capitulo 1o, extra de rest. spo., colum. ult. nu. 9305et 20.iii in Di.307
Eodem die <22 jul. 1546>: In causa spolii A. contra B., actor dicebat se spoliatum per dictum B. reum tertio die, et continue per 20 aut 40 dies proxime precedentes se fuisse in possessione terrarum spoliatarum. Excepit reus quod die allegate spoliationis nullum spolium commisit, eo ipso quod per annum proxime precedentem diei dicti spolii allegati fuisset ipse in possessione earundem terrarum, et toto tempore possessionis allegate per actorem ipse actor molestabat ipsum in sua possessione. Quem tamen ipse continue repellebat, quemadmodum etiam fecit die pretense spoliationis, quo die ut antea semper repellendo eum et defendendo suam possessionem antiquiorem, pretensa possessione actoris, ipse reus spolium non commisit. Quam exceptionem rei domini Consilii admiserunt probationi.
305Parallel problem in nr. 92.
306Commentary by "Abbas antiquus" = Bertrandus de Montemirato on X 2.13.1, last column, marginal numbering n. 9 in the edition which the collector happened to use. Else: commentary by abbas Panormitanus (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis).
307Garbled quotation - probably from Decretum Gratiani.

373. De spolio commisso per officiarium regis et servos actoris, et an presumatur dominus sciens vel mandans. Et veritatem istius exceptionis vide latere sequenti.
The 23 of julii 1546: The laird of Weddirburne callit Mr George Hay of Myryearie308 for the spuilyie of certane gudis. Hay allegit he did na spuilyie, becaus thai gudis wer apprysit be ane pursivant be the kingis letters past upone ane decrete of the lordis of Counsal aganes the laird of Blacader for apprysing of the said lairdis gudis, and the gudis wes gottin be the officiar cum and out of the toun of Blacader. It wes replyit that the tyme of the apprysing and immediatlie befoir the samyn the laird of Weddirburnis servandis come to the officiar and offerit to mak fayth and to preve be witnes thai gudis to be the said lairdis (thair maisteris) guidis, and that in presence of Mr George Hayis servandis and houshald men beand presentlie with the said officiar, send with him be the said Mr George Hay, and that thai guidis come to his proffeit, and sua wranguslie tane be the said officiar and his servandis in his name and of his knawlege and command and to his use and proffeit. The said spuilyie suld be jugit of his command and ratihabitioun, for he culd nocht pretend ignorance of it done be the saidis persones in his name and command to his use. The lordis repellit the exceptioun, admittand the summondis and <laird Weddirburnis> reply to probatioun. And sua in poinding the officiar aucht nocht to poynd bot the mannis gudis that the letters specifeis, and he aucht to admit ony man and to mak fayth and to preve his gudis and to stope the poynding. And howbeit the officiar indorse the gudis that he poyndit the mannis awin gudis, yit the lordis will admit ane uther man to preve that thai guidis <ar> his and nocht the mannis guidis quhais guidis the letters biddis poynd, becaus the officiar may faill in the executioun of his office and err.
308Same case nrs. 373-375 continued in nrs. 406-407a. An abstract formulation of the same legal issue can be found in nr. 19. Similar problem in nrs. 256-257.

374. Probatioun of the propirtie of gudis poindit to be gevin to the officiar and his client and nocht to ane extranar clameand thai gudis as spuilyeit fra him.
Bot and the officiar or the pairtie that gat the gudis poindit, vald except thai gudis the <debitoris> pairteis awin propir gudis, than the probatioun of the propirtie of the gudis vald be gevin to the officiar and him for quhome thai war poindit, becaus it is to presume for the officiar and it that he dois, and nocht to the uthir pairtie309 that allegis thai guidis to haiff bene his (and nocht the mannis fra quhome thai war poindit). And this is the practik of Scotland. And anent the said reply in the said actioun of spuilyie of Weddirburne contra Hay recitata fuit lettre precidente that the said Mr George Hay culd nocht be excusit fra the spuilyie, becaus the officiar wes send be him and his awin houshald servandis with him and the geir brocht to him and cumin to his use and proffeit and that thairfoir it is nocht to presume bot that the knawledge of the geir poindit, and how the laird of Weddirburnis servandis offerit and preve the geir thair maisteris and nocht the laird Blacaderis quhilk come to his eiris.
309MS wrongly adds the word "to"

375. Quando ex facto servorum teneatur dominus.
Sed his omnibus non obstantibus credo de iure contrarium, et quod spolium allegatum non presumi debuerat nec de voluntate, nec scientia, nec mandato magistri Georgii factum, per not. Glo. penul., ubi Pan. et alii in cap. Cum ad sedem, extra de rest. spo.310, in cap. Presumitur, de re iu., in vi.311, ex quibus locis habetur quod "scientia in dubio non presumitur", nec mandatum ac voluntas domini in delicto servi, et ultra in dict. glo. pe. habetur312 et ibi per Pan. in cap. 1o eodem titulo313, quia dominus non tenetur ex facto servi nisi vel scivit et potuit prohibere et non prohibuit, ut l. Nullus, ff. de re iu.314, vel mandavit, vel nisi res ad eum pervenit: tunc enim (quatenus ad eum pervenit) tenetur, ut l. 1a, Quia ergo, ubi Bar. et alii, ff. de vi et vi ar.315. Et sic ego concludo quod ad condamnandum magistrum illum Georgium de spolio oportet quod aut probetur ipse eum spoliasse, aut mandasse spoliationem autem fieri, aut factum eius nomine ratum habuisse, aut scivisse spoliationem factam et nichilominus approbasse eandem. Et breviter secundum predicta non concludit contra eum spoliationem quae ad definitionem cause convenerit. Attamen predicta exceptio illius magistri Georgii non secludebat necessarie spoliationem obiectam. Ideo domini Consilii (ea repetita) admiserunt summonitionem spolii et replicam probationi, quod mutuo se juvabant.
310Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.13.15.
3116. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 47: "Praesumitur ignorantia, ubi scientia non probatur."
312Last-but-one gloss on X 2.13.15.
313Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.13.1.
314D. 50.17.55, remote argument; 6. 5.(13) de regulis iuris 62 "Nullus" would also be a remote argument.
315Commentaries by Bartolus de Saxoferrato and others on D. [to the point].

376. Off terme to be assignit to preve the caus of advocatioun desyrit to the lordis fra ane uthir judge inferiour.
Eodem die <23 jul. 1546>: In causa advocationis cuiusdam Petri Masone contra quendam puellam que eum convenerat coram ballivis de Kelvynning, the lordis be interlocutour assignit him ane terme to preve the caus contenit in his summondis of advocatioun quhairfoir he desyrit the mater to be advocate befoir the lordis, bot thai thocht that wes lang to delay and vald nocht mak ane practik thairfoir.

377. Questio316
<27 jul. 1546> Obligatur Titius ad infeodandum me in certis terris, et ego promitto illi reversionem earundem. Et adiecta est clausula in contractu quod, si contigerit me non infeodari per ipsum in aliquibus de terris predictis, hoc casu reditus et devoria istarum terrarum (in quibus me non infeodavit) prestabit mihi semper, donec in illis etiam me infeodaverit. An per istam clausulam videatur inter nos recessum a reversione unica omnium terrarum sic, quod quatenus fuero infeodatus, eatenus cogar reversionem ei dare?
316This is an abstract of the following piece.

377a. Contractus ultro citroque obligatorius.
Die 27 julii anno 1546: The laird of Keir had contractit with Mr Thomas Marjoribank that the said Mr Thomas suld delyver to him certane money for to redeme his landis of Ratho, and that the said laird suld redeme thairwith and infeft Mr Thomas heretablie in the same, extending to xxxvi oxingang of landis, and that the said Mr Thomas suld gif him ane reversioun of the samyn landis agane upone sic sowmes of money and yeiris takis as was agreit amangis thame317. And this contract wes actit in the buikis of Counsall. And in the samyn thair wes ane claus that in cace it happin the lairdis of Keir nocht to infeft him in ony of thai landis, he sall content and pay to the said Mr Thomas the males and dewtes of samekill of thai landis that he infeft him nocht in, ay and quhill he be infeft thairin. The laird of Keir had infeft him in xxxiv oxingang of land and restit tua oxingang that he had nocht infeft him in. Now the laird of Keir raisit letters upone the said Mr Thomas for non-fulfilling that contract, forsamekill as he had nocht gevin him ane reversioun of thai landis that he wes infeft in as said is. Mr Thomas allegit that he sould gif na reversioun, becaus this contract <wes> ultro citroque obligatorius et sic ex eo neuter potest agere nisi cum partem suam eiusdem plene prius adimpleverit, l. Julianus § Offerri, ff. de actio. empt. et ibi Bar.318 Et ex <eo> quod adhoc dictus Mr Thomas non est per dictum dominum infeodatus totaliter in dictis xxxvi bovatis terrarum ut predictum est, allegit Mr Thomas that Keir had nocht fulfillit the contract for his pairt, and thairfoir he had na actioun to compell the said Mr Thomas to gif him reversioun. And he allegit that he aucht nocht gif bot ane reversioun of the haill landis as the contract proportit and sua mycht nocht be compellit to gif ane reversioun - or ellis the laird of Keir infeftand him in ane oxingang than he mycht haiff compellit him to gif ane reversioun thairof, and infeftand him thaireftir in ane uther to gif siclyk ane uther reversioun thairof, et sic consequitur to gif mony and divers reversiounis and particularlie contra the contract berand ane reversioun, quhilk wer ane great inconvenient to gif de minima quaque parte reversionem.
317Similar cases in nrs. 383-385 and in nr. 463.
318Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato on D.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 523. Quhow ane generall claus is extendit.
29. july 1546: Thair was ane contract betuix the laird of Keir and Mr Thomas Marjoribankis. The quhilk being registrat, the laird of Keir persewit Mr Thomas for the delyvering of ane reversione quhilk was ane pairt of the contract. It was ansuerit and alledgit be Mr Thomas that he aucht nocht to delyver the said reversione, becaus the laird off Keir had dischargit the said contract. And producit his discharge, quhairintill he grantit him to haiff ressabit certane soumes of money, the quhilk the said Mr Thomas was bund be the contract to pay to him, and als grantit that he was satisfiet of all the rest off all the poyntis of the contract. And thair was na uther poynt bot the said reversione and payment of the saidis soumes, and thairfoir be that generall claus he had dischargit the said contract. And sua na reversione aucht to be gevin. To this was ansuerit be Keir that this generall claus could nocht comprehend the reversione, becaus the reversione was of grytter avail nor the soumes of money that was speciallie spokin of, viz. the heretable tytill to bring him to his landis, et clausula illa generalis non potuit operari nisi quoad majora expressa. To this was ansuerit that the generall claus behuifit to comprehend the said reversione, be ressone thair was na uther poynt or claus of contract by and attour the soumes of money except the said reversione. The lordis fand be interloquitour that the generall claus of discharge could nocht be extendit to the reversione nor speciall mentione maid of the same. Vide doctores scribentes in l. Si de certa, C. de transactio.319 Et plene disputata fuit haec questio in causa in controversia que agebatur in anno 1577 <(!)> inter dominum Somervellum et dominum de Cambus<ken>nethum; bene an male a dominis judicatum fuerit, novit ille qui nihil ignorat320.
319C. 2.4.31 [to the point].
320Reference to God, also used in the decretal X 2.1.13 which was commonplace among jurists.

378. An particularis solutio vel prestatio facti promissi admittitur invito creditore.
Item de iure (invito creditore) non admittitur particularis solutio, l. Tutor § Lucius, ff. de usuris et fruct.321, § Offerri322. Et sic, cum dominus Keir integre non infeodaverit magistrum Thomam in dictis 36 bovatis et non impleverit contractum pro parte sua, sequitur quod in nihilo est liberatus et quod ei ad reversionem competere non potest actio. Hoc facit l. Julianus, de verbo.323, l. Etiam, ff. de solu.324, quia dicunt rem cum defectu aliquo solutam posse adhuc peti totam. Facit par<agraphus> Stipulationes non dividuntur, ff. de verbo.325, quod <si> facta sunt individua, nec dicitur factum fecisse nisi qui totum perfecit, l. In executione, ff. de verbo.326, l. Nisi is qui quadraginta, ff. ad l. Falci.327, ex quibus sequitur quod, cum in duobus bovattis terrarum adhuc Mr Thomas non fuerat infeodatus per dominum Keir, quod ipse contractum pro parte sua nondum implevit et ideo ex eo non agere possit contra magistrum Thomam, per iura predicta. Quibus rationibus et iuribus non obstantibus maior pars dominorum concluserunt contrarium et quod ei competebat actio ad reversionem, ex eo quod per clausulam illam predictam dicebant videri provisum quod, si in aliquibus terris dominus Keir non infeodav<er>it magistrum Thomam, quod ex eo casu magister Thomas haberet proficua terrarum illarum a domino predicto semper et donec in illis ipsum infeodaret, et quod sic videbatur tacite actum inter partes contrahentes quod sic in hoc casu magister Thomas reversionem daret domino Keir saltem de terris in quibus extiterat infeodatus. Et hec decisio dominorum videtur omnino irrationalis et contra iura predicta, tamen pluralitate votuum obtinuit hoc tempore.
321D. [to the point].
322D., as above.
323D. [to the point].
324D. 46.3.27 [to the point].
325D. 45.1.72 [to the point].
326D. 45.1.85 pr. et § 1 [to the point].
327D. [to the point].

379. Quod excommunicatio repellit agentem ad retractionem vel suspensionem litterarum regiarum contra ipsum levatarum, licet tunc videatur venire ad suam defensionem, et de iure excommunicato licent omnia que ad defensionem pertinent: vide doctores Capellae Tholosanae, nr. 137328.
Eodem die <27 jul. 1546>: The laird of Arnottis sone, pryour of Scotlandwell, callit freir Galter Moncur (allegit pryour thairof)329 to heir letters in the four formes (impetrat aganes him upone ane pretendit sentence and cursing-geving be the minister of Faill aganes the said freir Archibald to desist and ceis fra the place of Scotlandwell) retreitit and suspendit as inordourlie gevin and procedit. Moncuris procuratour allegit, he aucht to be repellit ab agendo in hoc casu, eo quia excommunicatus per suum superiorem antedictum. He replyit that (dato et non concesso quod erat excommunicatus) admitti tamen hic deberet, eo quia venit ad iudicium provocatus et <ad> suam defensionem contra literas illas contra ipsum impetratas, et quia reus excommunicatus de iure ad defendendum se semper admittitur, cap. Inter., de excep., in antiquo330. Et quod nuper hoc practicatum fuit per interlocutoriam dominorum Consilii in causa Colvini Wallace qui (licet esset excommunicatus) tamen per dominos Consilii fuit admissus ad prosequendum suum <libellum> ad relevandum ipsum de quadam summa pecuniae, pro qua summa pecuniae ipse nomine domini sui erat summonitus. Hoc non obstante maior pars dominorum interlocutoriam tulerunt in contrarium, repellendo istum ab agendo (ratione excommunicationis allegate per ipsum actorem), per cap. Solet, de sententia excommunicationis in vi.331. Et iudicio meo male tulerunt hanc interlocutoriam, cum ipse ad defensionem suam venerit ad iudicium, et <propter> literas contra ipsum levatas. Tamen pluralitate votuum obtinuit in hoc casu332.
328Decisions by the "Capella Tolosana", 14th century, collected by Iohannes Corserius (see nr. 343), nr. 137.
329Other stages of this case in nrs. 302, 398, 400.
330X 2.25.5; the point of law also results from X 2.25.12 and X 5.39.40. Parallel problem in nr. 65.
3316. 5.11.2 [to the point, but not cogent for the outcome of this case].
332Contrasting decision taken in nr. 495.

380. Off delyvering of presonaris borrowit under panes.
The xxix julii anno 1546: Ane gentill man callit Mr Johne Hepburn of Benistoun for xl lib., becaus he oblist him to restoir and delyver to him the Inglisman that he borrowit fra him out of the Stanepetht upone xx dayes warning, under the pane of xl(?) lib., and the said Mr Johne had failyeit thairin333. Mr Johne allegit that he aucht nocht to delyver that Inglisman, becaus the king of Ingland had be oppin proclamatioun eftir the said oblissing forbidden under the pane of deathe ony of his lieges presonaris <to> enter in Scotland. And sua the man culd nocht get <to Scotland> agane334.
333Case 380 + 381 continued in nr. 492. Other ransom cases in nr. 413 and 421-423. It appears that the English prisoner had been set free, to return to England in order to raise ransom money, and that a Scottish friend, the defendand, had promised a conventional penalty if the prisoner would not come back - which came down in effect to disguised surety for the ransom sum. [Side remark: According to Roman law, the person who had redeemed a Roman citizen from the enemy could hold the released prisoner "in mancipio" as a sort of slave until the costs of redeeming were paid off, or worked off: D. - maximally for five years: C. 8.50.20. Compare Jewish law in Exodus 21.2 and Leviticus 25.49. The topic is amply treated by Adalbert Erler, Der Loskauf Gefangener, Berlin 1978.]
334First point: "Impossibilium nulla obligatio", stated in 6. 5.(13).6 and D. 50.17.185, against a promise "effecturum se ut Titius daret" (Inst. 3.19.3), combined with the defense "Cum non stat per eum, ad quem pertinet, quo minus conditio impleatur, haberi debet perinde ac si impleta fuisset": 6. 5.(13).66.

381. Quod conveniri possit quis ad penam in contractu positam, non habita ratione <de> interesse actoris <quod> contractui per reum esse<t> conventum - quod conveniri possit etc. ut suprascripta.
<CONTINUED> Secoundlie he allegit, incace he aucht to delyver him agane, howbeit he failyeit thairin, he sould nocht be compellit to pay that pane bot safar alanerlie as his adversar culd preve that he wes skathit in wanting and non-delyvering to him agane of the said Inglisman, quia (ut ipse allegabat) pene iste conventionales de practica Scotie non practicantur nisi quatenus interest partis cui contractus penalis est factus. Sed iis non obstantibus domini diffinitive condamnaverunt magistrum Joannem actori in dicta pena 40 librarum predicta secundum tenorem sui promissi335.
335Second point: If the prisoner had come back, the pursuer would not be 40 pounds richer. Although he would have the person back, he would not have a lever to extort from that prisoner ransom in that quantity. The prisoner would know he could never return home to England anyway, as he would be hanged there - so he might as well remain in Scotland.
The defender's argument implies that conventional penalties (if they are admitted in Scotland at all) must be seen as a sort of pre-estimated liquidated damages, with an agreement to shift the burden of proof of damage from the person who sustained the damage to the person who must redress it: Inst. 3.15.7, D., D. 46.5.11. The defender in this case would undertake to prove that the pre-estimate was far too high, and that the real damage sustained by the actor was much lower.
The counter-argument of the Court of Session is that Roman law also allowed a second type of conventional penalties, namely "absolute" ones, stipulated as a threat and punishment, independent from any damage which might result: D., D. 45.1.38 pr., C. 2.55(56).1, and that the agreement in question had to be interpreted in this sense.
The defender's argument, however, was based on canon law doctrine which forbade "absolute" conventional penalties and regarded respective contract clauses as void. Canonists held that "absolute" penalties tasted of usury and taking advantage from something which (according to morals) should not have happened, and thus it tasted of sin: doctrine based on Decretum Gratiani C. 12 q. 2 c.11 § 1 and X 5.37.9, connected to canon law's doctrine of "restitutio" (see note to nr. 101). Although the Court of Session tended to side with canon law in this question (see nr. 492), the English were hated so much that the Court sided here with Roman law.
Modern English law sticks to the canon law doctrine. Among modern Ius-Commune-countries, only Louisiana still maintains this doctrine (Civil Code art. 2005 and 2005, with official interpretation). All other civil codes of Ius-Commune-countries have returned to Roman law. They merely express a presumption that penalty clauses be meant as global pre-estimates of minimum damages (and - in some countries - as well maximum damages). In Pearl Assurance Co. v. Union Government 1934 A.D. 560 (P.C.), the Privy Council brought South Africa in line with English law. This was resented by South African lawyers. As soon as appeals to the Privy Council had been abolished, the South African parliament restored Roman law: Conventional Penalties Act no. 15 of 1962.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 524. Interesse conventionis prestatur336.
29. julii 1546: Thair was ane gentill man that persewit Mr Johne Hepburne of Bersatoun upon his band and obligatione anent the delyvering off ane Inglish man quhom he borrowit furth of the Stenipeth and promesit him to delyver him againe within xl dayis warning under the pane of xl li., and becaus he had failyeit in delyvering of him, to pay the said soume of xl li. He ansuerit and alledgit that he aucht nocht to pay the said soume becaus the delyverie of the Inglishman stuid nocht be him bot be the king of Ingland quha had be opin proclamatione dischargit any Inglishman to enter in Scotland, and incaice he was obleist to redelyver the said man he aucht to pay na farder peny bot in sa far as the pairtie was interest, quia paenae conventionales de jure Scotie non prestantur, sed tantum quatenus interest parti cui contractus penalis est factus337. The lordis decernit and pronuncit that the said xl li. aucht to be payit, quia fuit interesse conventum - quod semper prestatur, nisi dolus aut fraus intercesserit, juxta illud "Pacta servanda sunt", l. Juris gen. § Pretor, ff. de pactis338 et cap. i, extra de pactis339.
336This is a ransom case, also reported in nrs. 380-381 (note); parallel case in nr. 413.
337Famous legal problem. See notes for nr. 381.
338D. [to the point].
339X 1.35.1.

382. Exceptio contra spolium: of the preiff to be gevin to the officiar that poindit, and nocht to the persewar calling for spuilyie.
Ultimo julii predicti <1546>: James Andersone eldar callit William Mowbray officiar and Johne Aird for the spoliatioun of certane oxin and ky fra him. It wes allegit exceptit that James Andersone and Johne Andersone, sone to the said James eldar, wer actit in the schiref of Edinburgh buikis to releve the said Johne of certane guidis spuilyeit be thame fra N. and that the schiref depute directit furth his precept to the said William Mowbray officiar to poynd the said James' tua sones gudis and geir for the said Johne Airdis releif, at command of the quhilk precept the said officiar past to poind thair guidis, and that the said James eldar of his awin will frelie put befoir him the saidis guidis (that he callit now) for the said Johnes releif, and that he did the samyn and thairfoir did na wrang nor spuilyie, and offerit him to preve the samyn be his indorsatioun of the precept and witnes contenit thairin. It wes allegit that that exceptioun suld nocht be admittit as contrair to the summondis of spuilyie. Nochttheles the lordis decernit it to be admittit probationi reorum, et eo maxime quia presumptio est pro officiario in executione sui officii, et eo petenti in similibus casibus danda est probatio, et non impugnanti illam.

Eodem die <31 jul. 1546>: The laird of Keir dischargit all the sowmes of money contenit in the contract foirsaid maid betuix him and Mr Thomas Moncur and grantit him weill payit thairof, except ane certane sowme, and als dischargit the said Mr Thomas of the remanent poyntis of the said contract. And suith it wes, thair wes na uther poyntis in it that Mr Thomas aucht to do bot the geving of ane reversioun340 of the landis contenit in the said contract, as the said contract mair fullelie proportis. The laird rasit letters upone the said Mr Thomas for non-fulfilling of the contract, viz. in the poyntis of reversioun. He allegit, it wes dischargit be the lairdis acquittance as fulfillit, quia clausula illa generalis, and of the remanent poyntis suld nocht be superflue, and that it behovit to comprehend it, becaus that thair wes na uthir <poynt> in the contract concerning Mr Thomas, as said is. It wes allegit that the reversioun wes of grittar awaill nor the pointis specialie dischargit, viz. the sowmes of money, becaus the reversioun wes ane heretabill rycht of the landis, and sua it suld nocht cum under that generall claus.
340Similar case in nr. 377a.

384. Clausula generalis quid operetur.
<CONTINUED> It wes allegit for Mr Thomas pairt that, albeit it <(= the reversioun)> wer of greittar awaill nor the poyntis specialie dischargit, nochttheles in this cace yit it suld be comprehendit heir, becaus ubi clausula generalis non potest operari nisi quoad maiora <clausulae> expresse, ut quia <maiora> tantum restant, tunc comprehendit illa, ut per Joannem Monachum in cap. In generali, de re. iu. in 6.341 et per Feli. et alios in cap. Sedes, extra de rescriptis342. Sed in casu nostro nullum restabat punctum contractus per magistrum Thomam adimplendum preter promissionem reversionis. Et ex quo in acquittantia erat dictum quod dominus Keir fatebatur se plene solutum de omnibus pecuniarum summis in contractu contentis et de eisdem et omnibus aliis punctis contractus prefati exoneravit magistrum Thomam, igitur per generalem illam clausulam exonerat ipsum etiam de danda reversione.
341Commentary by Iohannes Monachus on 6. 5.(13).81: "In generali concessione non veniunt ea quae quis non esset verisimiliter in specie concessurus."
342Commentary by Felinus Sandeus on X 1.3.15 [to the point].

385. Quod reversio danda non remittatur per generalem exonerationem de omnibus punctis contractus.
<CONTINUED> Et ulterius dicebat Magister Thomas quod reversio longe erat minoris valoris quam summe pecuniarum de quibus erat exoneratus, et ideo deberet illud punctum tanquam minus <clausulae> expresse videri per clausulam generalem remissum. Is omnibus non obstantibus maior pars dominorum interlocuta fuit clausulam predictam non comprehendere reversionis donationem, et quod oportebat specialiter et in specie eandem remitti - et judicio meo male iudicata et contra jura. Et <in> hac questione domini erant equaliter divisi. Et dominus chancellarius votum suum tulit pro domino Keir.

386. Repleging of preistis fra the criminall and temporall judgement of parliament to the spirituall court.
In august anno 1546: In the parliament haldin be the governour and thre estaitis for foirfalting of thame that slew the cardinall archiebischope of Sanctandrois, the governour and the thre estaitis admittit the vicaris generalis of Sanctandrois letters of repleiging of ane preist callit thair to underly the law as airt and pairt of that slauchter fra the said parliament and temporall judge to the spirituall judgement of the saidis vicaris generalis and thair officiallis and commissaris in the said caus.

387. It is treasone to slay the chancellare of the realme.
<CONTINUED> The thre estaitis decernit be interlocutour that it wes treasone to slay the said archiebischope, chancellar of Scotland, per l. Quisquis, C. ad l. Juliam Ma.343. And thairfoir the thre estaitis of censement of parliament for treasone committit (as said is) foirfaltit Normand Leslie, fear of Rothes, the laird of Grange and thair complices slayaris of the said archebischope, cardinal.
343C. 9.8.5 pr. [to the point].

388. Fundans se super titulo344.
<25 aug. 1546> In sciptis debent reo ante omnia exhiberi contractus vel instrumentum in libello actoris mentionatum. Et convenienter vide Rotam in Novis decisionibus 34346. Et ibi plene allegat Pan., In. et alios in cap. 1o, extra de probationibus345.
344This is an abstract of the following piece nr. 389. Parallel rule in nr. 53 (note).
345Decisiones Rotae Romanae novae, collected by Guilielmus Horborch (1378-1381), nr. 34 = de probationibus 2 [to the point].
346Commentaries by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) and pope Innocent IV (= Sinibaldus Fliscus) on X 2.19.1.

389. Clame of spuilyie.
The 25 of august <1546>: The lordis decernit that the erle of Cassellis, allegeand in his clame of spuilyie of the place and fruitis of Glenlus (gevin in be him aganes the laird of Lochinvar) that he had tak and assedatioun of the same347, sould produce and schaw the said allegit tak or the uther pairtie aucht or mycht be compellit to answer to his clame, becaus fundans se super aliquo scripto in suo libello debet ante omnia ad partis adverse petitionem ostendere illud scriptum super quod se fundavit348. Et hoc dicebant domini verum in actione spolii - sed in hac instantia non tenetur actor super validitate tituli sui disputare. Et quamquam in actione spolii satis sit de iure probare possessionem et violentam eiectionem, cap. Consultationibus, ubi Pan., extra de officio dele.349, tamen fundans se in huiusmodi actione super certo titulo debet, si pars petat, illum producere, de practica dominorum Consilii. Ad quod videtur facere quod notant Inno. <et> Io. An. cap. 1o, Extra de probationibus350. Et de hoc plene et singularie Rota in Novis decisionibus351. Sed contra: quod exhibere in casu nostro teneatur actor comes de Cassillis assedationem suam, de qua in libello suo mentionem fecit.
347MS wrongly inserts "and".
348Parallel rule in nr. 53 (note).
349Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 1.29.10 [to the point].
350Commentaries by pope Innocentius IV (= Sinibaldus Fliscus) and Iohannes Andreae on X 2.19.1.
351Decisiones Rotae Romanae novae, collected by Guilielmus Horborch (1378-1381), as in nr. 388.

390. Spoliatus restitutionem petens et proprietatis mentionem faciens in suo libello, non arctatur tamen ad probandum proprietatem.
<CONTINUED> Videtur quod narratio proprietatis facta in libello possessorio non arctat libellantem ad probandum proprietatem, secundum Pan. in cap. Ex parte 6, nu., 322o, Extra de fo. compete.352. Et ad obtinendum interdictum recuperande possessionis satis est de iure (ut predicitur) probare possessionem et violentam eiectionem. Igitur.
352Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.2.15 [to the point].

391. Quum spoliatus cogitur titulum rei petite ostendere antequam restituatur.
<CONTINUED> Sed hoc non obstante domini bene interlocuti sunt, quia in hoc casu dictus dominus comes huiusmodi rerum ecclesiasticarum et <quasi->possessionis earundem erat omnino incapax, nisi haberet titulum aliquem saltem colorativum. Et ideo, ubi sine titulo non cadit possessio, ibi restitutionem petens debet habere titulum aut saltem colorativum et eum ostendere353, secundum Rotam in Novis Decisionibus, 34354. Et sic bene interlocuti sunt domini Consilii comitem debere ostendere assedationem suam, sine qua <quasi->possessionem, pro qua se petebat restitui, habere in iure non poterat.
3536. 2.5.2 - see problem in nr. 172 (note).
354Decisiones Rotae Romanae novae, collected by Guilielmus Horborch (1378-1381), as in nr. 388.

392. Actor, an debeat habere terminum ad producendum instrumentum, de quo in libello suo mentionem fecit. Et quod ideo tenetur producere, antequam reus debet ei respondere. Et dic breviter quod, nisi rationabilis causa subsit quod non possit statim exhibere, deberet de practica sine ulla dilatione producere. Et si non producit instanter, reus ab eius libello absolvitur, viz. ab instantia et observatione iudicii and as the lordis sayis: "for ocht that thai may haiff yit sene" - sed non simpliciter ab actione intentata.
Eodem die anno 1546, dictus comes in eadem causa petiit terminum ad producendum suum titulum, quia eo presenti producere non potuit, ex eo quod abbas de Glenlus recepit in custodia eius assedationem per ipsum et conventum suum factam dicto comiti. Et cautionariis suis propter impletionem eiusdem arctitat, <et> ipsi comiti; et dare dictus comes <... ...>. Quam assedationem restituere dicti comiti recusabat. Et ideo petiit terminum ad producendum titulum suum predictum assignare, et monitoriales contra abbatem pro productione eiusdem.

Allegabat dictus dominus Lochinvar: Comitem hic actorem debuisse venire cum facto parato, et ante iudicium providisse sibi propter356recuperationem assedationis ab ipso abbate. Et terminum non dandum ei ad hoc, sed ab eius ipsummet petitione absolvendum, quia titulum nullum ostendebat comes. Sed hec interlocutoria non fuit probata quia dictus comes tandem exhibuit assedationem predictam sub forma instrumenti, et decretum arbitrale in quo dictus abbas eandem affirmare fuit ordinatus, et etiam per illud decretum affirmavit eandem, et literas factorie sue, sibi per abbatem de Corsragell (cui assedatio illa facta fuit) factas. Et ita colorativum saltem titulum ostendebat.

Exceptum fuit ex parte domini de Lochinvar quod illud decretum et assedatio retractata erat per sententiam iudicum delegatorum archiepiscopi Sanctandree ad quem abbas de Glenlus reclamaverat, et sententia definitiva ipsorum delegatorum producta ab illo.

Replicavit comes se appellasse, et protulit scripturam manualem magistri Thomae Huchesone, confitentem receptionem appellationis et promissionem commissionis ex ea curia desuper; et appellatione pendente sententiam esse suspensam.

Duplicatum fuit ex parte altera quod comes appellationem nullam ostendebat et quod ipse actor debebat venire cum facto parato ad iudicium.
Triplicatum fuit ex parte comitis quod instanter appellationem producere non poterat, et petiit dilationem duorum dierum tantum ad illam producendam. Et quod ipse non venerat deliberate ad iudicium, sed res erat dudum(?) sub compromisso relata ad dominum gubernatorem et per ipsum de consensu partium relata ad dominos Consilii. Et etiam quia illa appellatio erat in manibus dicti Thome pro commissione levanda.

Respondit pars adversa: Iis omnibus non obstantibus terminum ad producendum appellationem comiti non esse dandum.

Conclusum et interlocutum fuit per dominos ex equitate, rationibus quibus supra: dandum comiti dictum terminum.
355MS: penes.

393. Quod petens fructus et proficua terrarum violenter vel iniuste occupatarum possit libellare certam summam pecunie pro omnibus proficuis earundem, et annua proficua earundem non sit necesse libellare in specie, vide Pan. in cap. Gravis, Extra. de rest. spo.355.
The 15 of December anno 1546 in sessione apud Sanctumandream: N. callit Colintoun for the wrangus intrometting of the landis of the Grange pertening to him as donatour to the quene, to quhome the samyn and remanent of the moveabill guidis of A. Johnestoun pertenit as escheit throw being of the said N. etc. at the horne, and askit the said laird to be decernit to desist fra the tak foirsaid and to refound, content and pay to him as donatour foirsaid the proffeit of the saidis tak landis of Grange for the space of ane yeir that the said laird occupyit thame, extending in all proffeitis to 40 lib. It wes exceptit contra the generalitie of the libell, as the proffeitis aucht to haiff bene libellit in speciall and the laird foirsaid aucht nocht to answer to the said generall libell. The lordis for the maist pairt interloquendo decreverunt that libelling generall of the proffeitis of the ground sufficient, howbeit thair wes divers of the lordis in the contrair. For the use and styll of libelling of summondis of spuilyie of wrangus occupatioun of landis is that the proffeitis be specifeit, viz. the sawing of the landis, the males, gressowmes, quhat scheipt, nolt or horsis the ground may beir and quhat be the yeirlie proffeit of the cornes that the ground may saw and guidis that it may beir and pryces thairof.
356Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.13.11 [to the point].

394. Quod pactum vel consensus aliorum de utendis vel possidendis bonis tertii, nec iure eis vel ulli eorum nunc spectantibus, sit nullius momenti. Si bona illa iusto titulo ad aliquem eorum differantur, non possunt invicem agere nec excipere ex illo pacto vel consensu mutuo.
Eodem die <15 dec. 1546>: The lord Lyndsay, wardar of Craighall, askit the place thairof and tour at Mr Alexander Kynninmonthe357, quha exceptit that he suld nocht be decernit to delyver it to him, becaus it wes convenit of befoir betuene the said lord, the erle of Rothes, Mr Alexander and Petir Kynnynmonthes that the said Mr Alexander with consent and consall of the saidis erle of Rothes and lord Lyndsay sould haiff the said tour in keping.

It wes replyit: That contract wes nocht consentit to, <namely nocht> be Petir, ane of the persones contenit in it. And als it wes maid or the laird wes wardatar, and nevir ane of the saidis four persones contenit in it had uther rycht or intres to the same. And that the samyn buir bot that the said Mr Alexander with consent of the lord and erle foirsaid suld intromit thairwith - quhilk consent oblissit him nocht varrand that to him; that the contract had na foundament ressonabill, nor inducit na obligatioun anent that poynt upone ony of the persones358, and thairfoir that the said lord mycht ask as vardatour foirsaid, maid be the quene lang eftir that appoyntment, the said toure fra the said Mr Alexander, ex iure suo longe post conventionem predictam sibi domino Lyndsay superveniente. Quemadmodum vana et inutilis omnino de iure videri poterat conventio inter Titium et Sempronium super rebus Caii, in quibus vel ad quas conventionis tempore neuter eorum nullum omnino ius aut interesse pretendere poterat. Quod si Titius de consensu Sempronii haberet fundum dicti Caii et Sempronius haberet de consensu Titii omnia mobilia Caii, si postea ad causam vel hereditario iure vel legati deferretur fundus Caii ad Sempronium et tempore delationis hereditatis vel legati Titius possideret ipsum iniuste: vanum debet dicere, si sibi iure novo hereditario vel legati competentem petiit Sempronius fundum a Titio, Titium posse repellere eum ab agendo, exceptione predicti conventionis et consensus Sempronii, quod Titius fundum Caii haberet, cum tempore consensuum suorum conventionis predicti neuter eorum in vel ad bona mobilia vel immobilia Caii ullum ius haberet. Et sic de iure pactum inter aliquos de iure tertii ad eos nullo modo spectante omnino est inutile359. Et si res illa ad alterutrum eorum iusto titulo postea pervenerit, neuter potest contra alterutrum vel de illo pacto vel consensu prestito excipere. Et sic domini Consilii decreverunt (prescripta conventione non obstante et consensu domini de Lyndsay in ea contento) turrim deliberandam ei tanquam vardatario per dictum magistrum Alexandrum.
357Continued in nrs. 405 and 415.
358Point: An immoral contract is void: cf. 6. 5.(13).64 "Quae contra ius fiunt, debent utique pro infectis haberi."
359Inst. 3.19.3 et 21.

395. Quod dominus terrarum quoad sua devoria earundem prefertur in bonis sui tenentis omnibus aliis creditoribus ipsius tenentis.
Die 20 (vel eocirca) septembris anno 1546, apud Sanctumandream: A. petiit arrestamentum bonorum B. sui tenentis (factum ad instantiam C. virtute decreti arbitralis lati contra dictum B. ad eius instantiam) in magnis pecuniarum summis relaxari, ad effectum ut ipse A., dominus terrarum occupatarum per dictum B., <possit> namare easdem <(= summas)> pro firmis et lie males et devoriis earundem terrarum per dictum suum tenentem sibi debitis, ex eo quod divoria terrarum ante omnia et omnes alios creditores sunt solvenda. Et dominus terrarum in eo preferitur ceteris creditoribus. Tamen dictus C. allegabat hoc fieri non debere in preiudicium sententie pro eo late contra dictum B. Domini Consilii decreverunt dictum arreistamentum relaxandum ad petitionem dicti domini tenentis predicti ad effectum predictum, quia de practica Scotie the males, deweteis and firmes of the landis aucht and sould be first payit, et quoad ea dominus terrarum prefertur ceteris omnibus creditoribus tenentis ipsius, <in> bonis existentibus super fundum domini.

Supplementary practick, taken from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 522. The lord or laird of the ground sould be first payit of the tenentis for thair dewties auchtand to him.
20 december 1546: Thair was ane supplicatione gevin in at the instance of A.B., desyreand ane arrestment to be lowsit at the instance of N. upone the guidis moveabill of D. tennent to A. - A.B.C.D. alledgit that the arrestment aucht nocht to be lousit be ressoun it proceidit upone ane decreit obtenit be him aganis D. the tennent, and sua thair aucht na arreistment to be lousit in the preiudice of the said decreit. To this was ansuerit that the lord or laird of the ground aucht to be preferit in payment of his maillis and dewties to all uther creditouris, and except the arrestment war lousit, he cold nocht poynd for the samen. The lordis (nochtwithstanding of the decreit) decernit the arrestment to be lousit; and that of the practik of Scotland the lord or laird of the ground in payment of his maillis and dewties is preferit to all uther creditouris.

396. Quod executor non potest donare nec gratis assignationem facere ad bona defuncti aliter quam testamentum canat.
Eodem die (vel eocirca) <20 sept. 1546>: A. petiit decretum vicecomitis de P. (latum contra eum ad instantiam B., assignati C. executoris quondam D., in et ad certas res quondam defuncto pertinentes) retractari, ex eo quod ipse executor de iure donare bona defuncti vel constituere in et ad ea vel eorum aliqua cessionarium vel assignatum non potest. Et pretextu dicte assignationis ipse B. non habebat ius neque actionem exigendi dicta bona. Domini Consilii retractaverunt decretum dicti vicecomitis et causa allegata quod executor non potest donare vel dilapidare bona defuncti, sed est nudus executor et minister ultime voluntatis defuncti. Et in nostro casu non apparebat ulla legitima causa assignationis. Et ideo tanquam gratuita donatio bonorum defuncti, et reiecta fuit et decretum nullius roboris et momenti, et ex ea actio non competisset assignato.

397. Quod appellatio a collatione alicuius non impedit collationatum in perceptione fructuum, nec effectuum literarum in 4 formis suspendit.
Primo decembris (vel eocirca) anno eodem <1546>: Quidam Vilsoun capellanus petiit literas regias in quatuor formis, levatas per magistrum Jacobum Rolland rectorem de Balvadder (conformes literis ordinariis super collatione sua rectorie eiusdem) ad faciendum parochianos suos sibi respondere de fructibus, suspendi, ex eo quod ipse dominus Wilsoun extat presentatus ad eandem rectoriam per dominum de Methven patronum eiusdem et vacatio rectorie ipsius nunc demum devenit ad notitiam suam, quamvis ad spatium anni ipse Rolland de eadem fuerit provisus per collationem ordinariam ad presentationem domine regine asserte patrone dicte rectorie. Et ipse Wilsoun nunc a tempore notitiae vacationis et collationis predicte debite appellavit. Et per appellationem dicebat collationem, literas ordinarii desuper, et literas quatuor formarum regine conformes illis, suspendi debere. Sed domini Consilii decreverunt appellationem non suspendere effectum premissorum. Alioquin nullus beneficiatus in hoc regno gauderet fructibus suis, utique aliquis nebulo semper inveneretur qui a collatione ipsius appellaret. Et hoc esset valde absurdum. Et practica dominorum Consilii non solet admittere.

398. Quod super deliberatione locorum religiosorum et prelatorum (prelaturis vacantibus) occupatorum domini Consilii contra clericos usurpant jurisdictionem.
Die 7 decembris (vel eocirca) <1546>: In causa regine contra fratrem Archibaldum Arnot, ministrum de Scotlandwell360, et nonnullos alios clericos, ad videndum literas quatuor formarum dirigi contra eos pro occupatione iniusta loci de Scotlandwell (vacantis per decessum fratris Galteri Moncur, asserti ministri etiam eiusdem loci, nuper defuncti), contra tenorem acti cuiusdam dominorum Supremi Consilii regine de non capiendo per quoscunque loca religiosa vel prelatorum (prelaturis ipsis vacantibus per prelatorum decessum), ex eo quia dictum actum factum fuit in favorem clericorum, domini Consilii <interlocuti sunt> se iudices competentes in hac causa contra clericos, quamvis earundem iurisdictionem expresse in hoc casu dicti clerici excipientes declinarent361, et bene, pro mea opinione; sed maior opinio contra me in illo.
360Other stages of this case in nr. 302, 379, 400.
361Grounded on "privilegium fori", see note to nr. 353.

399. Quod metus possit opponi etiam per viam exceptionis contra titulum alicuius.
Eodem die <7 dec. 1546>: In causa spolii intentata per tenentes de Cokburnispethe contra dominum de Home et suum premonitum pro certis victualibus per ipsum ab eis spoliatis, exceptum fuit pro parte reorum quod actores renunciarunt sponte dicte actioni spolii. Sed pars tenentium replicavit quod metu cadente in constantem virum362 per eos omnes relato fecerunt dictam renunciationem. Duplicatum fuit pro domino et magistro de Home quod metus via exceptionis non esset hic admittendus, cum tunc rei produxerint instrumentum publicum dicte renunciationis, sed quod debuerunt tunc tenentes querere per viam actionis "quod metus causa" ad retractandum renunciationem predictam. Triplicatum fuit quod per viam exceptionis vel replice metus opponi potest363. Domini Consilii interlocuti <sunt>: de metu posse agere via exceptionis vel actionis. Ad libitum metum posci, iuxta jura ff. quod metus causa et de doli mali et metus exceptione364.
362Words from D. 4.2.6, see note to nr. 315.
363Exception to the rule stated in nr. 312.
364D. 4.2 et D. 44.4.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 521. Just fear and dredour may be allowit and admittit be way of exceptione aganes ane tytill unreducit.
7 december 1546: Thair war tenentis of the landis of Cokburnepeth that persewit the lord Home for the spoliatioun of certane victualis. It was ansuerit be the said lord that the tenentis had renuncit and quytclamed all actione that thai had intendit or mycht intend aganis him be way or occasione off the taking away and spoliatione of the said victuall. To this was ansuerit be the tenentis that thai maid the said renunciatione be just fear et qui cadere poterit in constantem virum366. To this was ansuerit that thai could nocht alledge this fear and dridour be way of exception bot the said renunciatione aucht to stand quhill it war tane away be way of actione. The contrair was alledgit on the uther pairtie et juxta leges ff. quod metus causa et doli mali et metus exceptione365. The lordis fand be interloquitour that the pairtie mycht alledge and except "quod metus causa" and feir and dridour be way of exceptione or actione, as it pleisit best the pairtie367.
365Words from D. 4.2.6, see note at nr. 315.
366D. 4.2 et D. 44.4 [to the point].
367The decision corresponds to Digest texts quoted above. In is an inroad, however, into the rule stated in nr. 16 (see note there) and parallel cases, according to which documents are treated as valid until they have been invalidated by "reduction".

400. De practica dominorum, qui proponit peremptorias exceptiones, inducit litis contestationem. Et postea actor addere aut diminuere libellum suum non potest.
Undecimo decembris <1546>: In causa regine contra ministrum Scotlandwell predictum368, domini Consilii interlocuti sunt regine procuratorem non posse aliquid libelli sui pro deleto habere post peremptoriam ex altera parte propositam, quia de practica dominorum inducit litis contestationem, post quam de iure actor libellum mutare, addere aut minuere non possit369, nec in eo aliquid pro deleto habere.
368See nr. 398, with nr. 302 and 379.
369C. 2.1.3

401. That escheit of bastardie may be callit be ane charge of fourtie dayis and requyris nocht peremptour summondis.
Eodem die, anno quod supra <11 dec. 1546>: Duncanus Dundas, donatarius regius ad et in omnia bona quondam Joannis Moffat bastardi et ea ratione spectantes regine ratione eschete per bastardiam, fecit per literas vocari omnes interesse habentes ad videndum literas decerni officiariis regine ad inquirendum omnia bona dicti quondam bastardi et deliberandum eidem <Duncano> predicto. Comparuit Mr Thomas Marjoribankis procurator Moffat et uxoris defuncti et produxerunt testamentum ipsius defuncti in quo erant executores ipsius confirmati et opposuerunt contra ordinem literarum et dixerunt peremptoriam summonitionem xxi dierum esse dandam et non esse procedendum per simplices literas mandatorias. Domini Consilii interlocuti sunt ordinem esse bonum et non esse necessariam dictam xxi dierum summonitionem. Preterea allegat Duncanus escheatam decernendam quia defunctus de corpore suo heredem non habebat et sic omnia bona eius de practica huius regni debentur regine ratione eschetae.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 520. The bairn of ane bastard, laufullie gottin, will succeid to him bayth in moveabill and immowabill guidis.
7 december 1546: Thair was ane Duncane Dundas that was maid donatour to the escheit of ane Moffat as diand bastard without ony laufull successione off his bodie, and thairefter acclamit the guidis and geir of the defunct to appertain to him. Compeirit the wyff and the executrice of this Moffat and allegit that he had, the tym of his deceis, ane dochter gottin laufullie in mareage. And sua, hawand the dochter laufullie gottin, scho was his laufull heretrix, and the geir aucht to apperteine to hir and his wyff divisive, conforme to the ordour. To this was ansuerit that this dochter could nocht be his air, be ressone na persone can haiff ane air except he be barron, burges or sacerdos. And the said Moffat hawand na landis nor immobilia could nocht be barrone, nor was he burges or sacerdos. To this was ansuerit that giff he had landis or immobilia, his auin laufull dochter was habilis ad succendendum patri and sua the king and the donatour was ay secludit respectu legitimae prolis. The lordis fand be interloqitour that, in respect of the lawfull dochter, thair could be no escheit socht of bastardie.

402. Bastardus non potest habere heredem nisi de corpore suo legitimum et hoc casu prole legitime existente liberam habet bonorum suorum bastardus dispositionem et non confiscantur, posito quod proles illa in nullo ei succedat ut quod mobilia non possidebat defunctus.
Respondet Marjoribankis quod tempore decessus sui habebat filiam unam ex legitimo matrimonio natam, et ubi bastardus natus habet heredem legitimum de corpore suo cessat escheata et de bonis suis libere potest disponere, prout ut dictus Moffat (ut supra dicitur) fecit, et sic regina eschetam pretendere non poterat. Et replicavit Dundas quod defunctus heredem non poterat habere quia terras non habebat et sic nec baro nec burgensis nec sacerdos preter quos de iure Scotie heredem nullus potest habere. Duplicavit Marjoribankis quod filia erat legitima patri et habilis ad succedendum ei et si possidisset immobilia et quod sic cessaret escheta. Interlocuti sunt domini quod, legitima et naturali proli existente bastardo de corpore suo procreata et qui posset ei heres esse, si immobilia hereditaria possedisset bastardus, cessat escheata ipsius ratione bastardie. Tamen domini Consilii assignarunt terminum reis ad probandum prolem legitimam extitisse defuncto, tempore sui decessus.

403. Quod minor annis super hereditatem respondere tenetur que ad eum pertinet ratione forisfacture alicuius iam reducte.
Eodem die <11 dec. 1546>: Jacobus Hammyltoun, heres quondam Jacobi Hammyltoun de Finnart militis, petiit heredem domini de Gastoun producere infeodamentum suum regium certarum terrarum patri suo factum (ratione forisfacture dicti quondam Jacobi) et illud decerni nullum, quia dicta forisfactura iam extat per decretum parliamenti reducta cum omnibus inde secutis. Reus, quia minor annis, allegabat se non placitare teneri in hoc casu super hereditate sua, secundum leges regni et "Regie Maiestatis"370. Domini Consilii nihilominus in hoc casu interlocuti sunt minorem in hoc casu teneri respondere super hereditate illa ad eum delata per forisfacturam que extat reducta, prout erat in hoc casu, alias sequeretur magnum inconveniens et absurdum, et iniuste hereditate sua defrauderetur heres dicti domini Jacobi iniuste forisfacti.
370Statutes and "Regiam maiestatem" ...

404.Quod appellatio a sententia retractiva collationis alicuius beneficiali collationem inde sequentem pretextu dicte sententie suspendit, et literas ordinarias et eisdem conformes literas regias 4 formarum.
Eodem die <11 dec. 1546>: Quidam dominus Thomas Diksoune presbiter levabat literas quatuor formarum super literis episcopi Dunkeldensis, conformibus collationi cuiusdam capellanie ecclesie Dunkeldensis, facte sibi per episcopum Dunkeldensem ratione sententie diffinitive late pro dicto Diksone contra dominum Willelmum Struduris pretensum capellanum eiusdem, retractantis collationem ipsius prius sibi de eadem capellania factam per decanum dicte ecclesie. Quas literas in quatuor formis dictus W. petiit suspendi, ex eo quod ipsi prius legitime in dicta capellania collationatum erat et literas ordinarias desuper cum aliis similibus regiis literis habebat et in possessione eiusdem et perceptione fructuum erat ad spatium unius anni (vel eocirca) et ipse legitime appella<vi>t a predicta sententia cum omnibus inde sequtis, et secuturis. Ideo appellatione sua pendente dicta sententia erat suspensa cum omnibus inde secutis, et ea pendente nihil esset de iure innovandum. Domini Consilii pretextu appellationis et predictas suspenderunt literas dicti N. <(= Thomae Diksoun)>, quamvis, si a collatione simplici alicuius esset appellatum per non habentem legitimum titulum sed pretendentem interesse, non solerent domini deferre appellationi, prout nuper extat iudicatum in causa Vilsoun et Rolland folio precedente relata.

405. Quod regina aut donatarius eius agere possit ut bona positi ad suum cornum pertinere sibi declarentur, et literas cornus eius iuste executioni demandatas et confiscatum ipsum debite et rite positum ad cornum suum declarari.
Die tertio (vel eocirca) 1546 <= 3 feb. 1547?> : The lord Lyndsay callit Mr Alexander Kynnynmonthe371 to heir and sie his gift of the said Mr Alexanderis guidis moveabill throw his being at the horn for non-delyvering of the place of Craighall disponit to the said lord be the quenis grace and my lord governour, hir grace tutour, and letters of horning on the said Mr Alexander and executioun thairof and his gudis foirsaidis decernit to pertene rychteouslie to the said lord as donatour foirsaid. The said Mr Alexander allegit that the said lord had na actioun in the premisses becaus he mycht nocht of the law compell the said Mr Alexander ad agendum, et "ut nemo invitus" etc.372; et hac via videbatur dictus dominus quasi compellere dictum magistrum Alexandrum ad agendum. Sed non obstantibus allegationibus dicti magistri Alexandri, domini decreverunt per sententiam interlocutoriam dominum Lyndsay habere bonam actionem ad petendum bona ipsius magistri Alexandri declarari sibi pertinere ratione eschaete prefate, et declarare ipsum iuste et debite positum ad cornum regine et literas cornus contra eum iuste et legitime executas esse.
371Same case as in nrs. 394 and 415.
372Principle "Ut nemo invitus agere vel accusare cogatur", stated in C. 3.7.

406. An dominus teneatur de spolio per officiarium regis et servitores suos per eum missos ad distringendum per literas regias bona Titii, et iidem capiunt bona Caii tanquam Titii, atque Caius offert se instanter probaturum sua <esse>, et ideo officiarius et servi domini capere illa non potuerant, et sic committunt spolium.
Die 7 februarii anno predicto <1547>: In causa spolii intentata per dominum de Veddirburne et matrem eius contra Georgium Hay de Manyerie373 for spoliatioun fra thaim of certane meiris and oxin, the said Mr George allegit that he did na spuilyie, becaus thai guidis wer apprysit to him be the kingis letters and officiaris for the guidis of the laird of Blacader. Weddirburne allegit that the tyme of the apprysing his servandis, he than beand in waird within Dunbar, thane come and offerit to the officiar to preve that thai war his guidis and nocht Blacaderis. Quhilk preiff the officiar refusit unjustlie, and sua the said Mr George culd nocht be excusit. He ansuerit: he did na spuilyie for all this. And gif ony wrang or spuilyie wes done, it wes the officiar and servandis with him that did that in his outrage, et sic ipse adhuc semper reus sit bone fidei, howbeit the geir come to him as apprysit for the laird of Blacaderis geir. Weddirburne allegit that he culd nocht be excusit fra spuilyie nor pretend ignorance in facto famulorum suorum, et quod ex eorum facto teneri debet et contra eum presumi, quia non est veresimile quod famuli eius, qui cum nuncio erant, non retulerunt ei domino suo that Weddirburnis servandis offerit to preve to the officiar as said is, and sua quod dictus magister Georgius scienter recepit illa bona iniuste capta per officiarium et servos ipsius. Contra: quod hoc nescivit et sic bone fidei possessor remanserit, et ideo a spolio excusandus. Probatum exstitit in causa quod servi domini Veddirburne, antequam predicta bona essent appretiata per officiarium, obtulerunt sufficienter probare et fidem facere quod bona illa erant domini Veddirburne et matris sue, non autem domini Blacader. Et quod servi magistri Georgii nolebant pati officiarium videlicet capere iuramenta et probationem predictam, sed precise abigerunt bona ipsa. Sed non erat probatum in processu hoc ad magistrum Georgium pervenisse, nec ipsum hoc mandasse ac fecisse aut ratum habuisse. Queritur quid juris. Et primo videtur quod magister Georgius condamnari de spolio debet, eo quod, concessa oblatione probationis quod bona erant domini Veddirburne et sue matris et recusata per officiarium et servos domini Veddirburne <(! = domini Gregorii)>, prout plene extat probatum, negari non potest, cum officiarius et qui cum illo erant (maxime vero quia nolebant pati ipsum capere illam probationem) spolium dictorum bonorum comiserint - quia de practica Scotie in apprysing of guidis the officiar aucht <nocht> to appryse the guidis for ane mannis det that ane uther offeris him redie to mak fayth and preif his awin and nocht that mannis for quhais det the officiar do apprys.
373Same case nrs. 406-407 in nr. 373-375. Similar legal issue in nrs. 256-257. Abstract formulation of it in nr. 19.

407. An dominus teneatur ex facto servorum vel officiarii regis delinquentis in executione sui officii ad instantiam alicuius.
Dominus autem de iure tenetur pro facto famuli, quatenus ad ipsum immediate pervenit374. Bar. et alii in l. i § Quod ergo, et § Familiae, ff. de vi et vi ar.376, Carde. in Cle. i. par. <5> de sta. mo.375 Sed ex confessione magistri Georgii constat hec bona ad eum pervenisse: igitur tenetur. Item dominus tenetur ex delicto familie in officio quod ei commissit: Bar. in l. i. § i in prin., ff. de publi.377, et ibi glossa378. Sive etiam si domino ignorante deliquerit servus: Ratio est, imputet sibi dominus, quia bonos servos debet habere, l. Cum si exhibuisset379, ff. de dolo, ubi ex dolo administratorum rerum municipii tenentur municipes quatenus ad eos pervenit380. Concordantia in glo. 'bonos' in preallegata lege Cum si exhibuisset381. Et per hoc magna est presumptio contra Georgium quod officiarius et servi sui, cum primum ad eum perveniebant, certiorem eum fecerunt quod servi domini W. obtulerunt probare bona ipsius esse. Quod ex spolio suorum servorum tenetur hic magister Georgius, adde etiam "Quod cum aliena"382. Immo illa debet restituere cum fructibus, cum culpa non careat habendo malos servos et eis mandando hoc negotium in quo pecca<ve>runt.

Quod autem non teneatur Georgius actione spolii, patet: Nam non datur nisi contra spolii autorem aut mandantem aut ratum habentem, Pan. in cap. Cum ad sedem, ubi lex, extra, de rest. spo.383. Sed nullum horum hic extat probatum contra Georgium, sed tantummodo error et delictum servorum suorum, cuius notitiam ad ipsum pervenisse non constat, et sic ipse semper bone fidei remansit ante litem motam. Et quamvis res ad eum pervenit, non ideo presumitur mandasse, secundum Pan. in dicto cap.384, per glo. ibidem385 hoc expresse decidentem. Et quod etiam ex delicto vel facto servorum suorum non tenetur dominus nisi vel mandato, voluntate aut ratihabitione domini faciunt: arg. l. i., ff. de vi et vi armata386 et l. 4, C. de noxali. actio.387, nisi actione quatenus ex facto servorum ad dominum pervenit. Et si nihil: tunc tenetur noxali actione, ut dicit l. 4a, eodem, C.388
374Same case in nrs. 373-375 and 407a. Parallel problem in nrs. 19 and 256-257.
375Commentaries by Bartolus de Saxoferrato and others on D. and D. - perhaps also garbled with quotation of § Familiae in D. [all to the point].
376Commentary by Gencelinus de Cassanhis, cardinal, on Clem.
377Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato on D. 39.4.1 pr. et § 5 et D. 39.4.3 pr.
378Gloss by Franciscus Accursius, on D.
379D. 39.4.3 pr. [to the point].
380Doctrine by Bartolus, based on the above quoted texts.
381Cross-references in gloss by Franciscus Accursius on word "bonos" in D. 39.4.3 pr.
382"Quod cum aliena iactura quis recepit, restituere tenetur" = canon law doctrine of restitution, based on the command "Thou shalt not steal" (Exodus 20,15; Leviticus 19,11). A related principle is formulated in D. 50.17.206. In view of this principle, the actio de in rem verso was extended beyond C., and the actio negotiorum gestorum (contraria) beyond D. and C. 2.18.24, respectively.
383Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.13.15.
384Again Panormitanus abbas, same place
385Gloss by Bernardus Papiensis, revised by Bartholomaeus Brixiensis, on X 2.13.15.
386D. [to the point].
387C. 3.41.4 [to the point]
388Again C. 3.41.4 [to the point]

407a. Absolutio a spolio.
The 18 of februar <1547>: The lordis of Counsall for the maist pairt decernit Mr George Hay389 to be absolvit fra the spuilyie, becaus the act of admissioun of the laird of Weddirburnis reply and summondis principall wer bayth admittit to Wedirburnis preve and ane terme assignit to him for preving of the reply and poyntis of his summondis and the reply wes weill provin bot nocht the principall poynt of the summondis, viz. that Weddirburnis geir wes tane in contrar of his servandis, thai offerand thame to preif to the officiar that the geir wes the said laird of Weddirburnis, of the said Mr George causing, command, assistance and ratihabitioun. For it wes nocht provin that he causit his servandis and officiar to tak the geir away eftir Weddirburnis servandis offerit to preve the geir wes his, nor that he commandit him to do that, nor assistit thairto, nor ratefeit thair deid, for in toto processu nullo modo exstitit probatum quoad scientiam rei aliene, viz. quod res esset domini Vedd., vel quod pervenit ad notitiam ipsius magistri Georgii quod servi eius noluerunt pati officiarium recipere probationem famulorum domini Veddirburne ut predicitur. Quia facta bene constituit in ipso spolio, sed non domini ipsorum qui non probatur unquam hoc rescivisse. Et sic ex delicto servorum non tenetur dominus nisi quatenus ad eum pervenit. Et si nihil: tunc tenetur noxa. Vide l. i. § Familiae, ff. de vi et vi ar.390, Pan. et alii cap. 1o, de resti. spo.391 et cap. Cum tamen ad sedem, ubi glo., et Pan. ibidem392, quod de spolio servorum non tenetur dominus nisi mandaverit vel ratum habuerit; et quamvis res per servos spoliate ad eum pervenerint, non tamen presumitur illud eius voluntate aut mandato factum. Sed advocatus regis dixit esse spolium, et dominum hic de spolio servorum esse condamnandum, ex eo quod dominus tenetur de delicto familie delinquentis in officio ad quod per dominum est proposita, secundum Bar. expresse in l. prima, ff. de publi.393. Ratio est quia debet dominus sibi imputare, quia debuit bonos habere servos et certus de eorum capacitate officii, ad quod eos proposuit: l. Cum si exhibuisset, ff. eodem tit.394. Sed hic deliquerunt et indubie ipsi commiserunt spolium, ergo ex eorum delicto tenebatur dominus similiter de spolio. Exemplum de hoc faciant omnia iura ex facto familie dominum obligantia.

Sed hoc non obstante maior pars dominorum Consilii conclusit absolvitoriam a spolio, quia domino Georgio bona ipsa legitime appretiata per officiarium, et deliberata in solutum sibi fuerunt, et de scientia rei aliene vel mala fide Georgii nihil constabat in processu. Et quia inter dominos contravertebatur quos fructus a quo tempore Mr Georgius restituere deberet de iure, ideo pro nunc decretum absolutorium predictum iacuit in silentio, et an fuerat pronunciatum nescio. Sed certum est quod per maiorem partem dominorum Consilii fuit decisum et votis sententiatum.
389Same case in nrs. 373-375 and 406-407. Similar legal issue in nrs. 256-257. Abstract formulation of it in nr. 19.
390D. [to the point].
391Commentaries by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) and by others on X 2.13.1.
392X 2.13.15, with gloss by Bernardus Papiensis and commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis).
393Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato on D. 39.4.1 pr. et § 5 [to the point].
394D. 39.4.3 pr. [to the point].

Supplement from anonymous collection Adv. 23.3.6, nr. 519. The tyme of poynding or apprysing be ane officer, gif ane uther persone offer to mak faithe and prove the guidis to be thaires, the officer aucht to admitt the samyn.
7 februar 1546 <= 1547> : The laird off Wadderburne and his mother persewit Mr Georg Hay for the spoliatioun of certane guidis, hors, meiris and ky. Mr George ansuerit that he had committit na spuilyie, becaus the guidis was poyndit be ane officer of armes and thaireftir laufulie apprysit to him as guidis of the laird of Blakadares. To this was ansuerit that at the tyme of the poynding Wadderburnes servantes cam and offerit to mak faith to prove that the guidis was his, and that he was in ward himselff at that tyme. The quhilk being refusit be the officer and thame quha was with him, the officer and the persones quhilk was with him, quhilkis war the servandis of the said Mr George, had committit spuilyie. To this was ansuerit that giff ony wrong was done be the officiares in refusall of the heiring to mak faith, and assistance of his servandis wyth the officer, it was <nocht> by his knawledge and witting, and he was ay in bona fide. To this was ansuerit that the saidis guidis was thaireftir ressavit be the said Mr George and his servantdis togidder, et de jure dominus tenetur de facto famuli quatenus ad ipsum immediate pervenit, ut sentire videbantur B. et alii in l. i., § Quod ergo et § Familiae, ff. de vi et vi arma.396. Item dominus tenetur ex delicto famuli in officio quod ei commisit: Barto. in l. i., § i. <et> in principio, ff. de public.395. Ratio est: imputet sibi dominus, qui malos servos elegit397. To all this <was> ansuerit be the said Mr Georg that, nochtwithstanding his servandis assistit the officer in the refusall off making the faith and that thay brocht away the guidis and thairefter wes res<av>et be him, <this> will newer enfer any spuilyie, except thay wald alledge that all was done be his command, assistance and ratihabitione. The lordis admittit the summondis and reply to probatione. The quhilk efterward nocht being provin, absolvitour was givin for the part of the said Mr. George.
395Commentaries by Bartolus de Saxoferrato and others on D. and D. - perhaps also garbled with quotation of § Familiae in D. [all to the point].
396Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato to D. et pr.
397D. 39.4.3 pr.

408. That ane man absent furth of the realme aucht to be summond upone xl dayis be opin proclamatioun at the heid burcht of the schyr quhair his duelling place is.
Die 7 februarii anno eodem <1547>: The lordis decernit the lord Setoun beand furtht of the realme, summond be Oliveir Sinclar upone xl dayis at his duelling place of Witsounday and siclyk upone the saidis dayis be opin proclamatioun at the mercat croce of Edinburgh, as letters be oppin delyverance of the lordis proportis, nocht to be ordourlie summond, becaus Edinburgh wes nocht the heid burcht of the schyr of the said duelling place, and ane man beand out of the realme (of the practik) sould be summond upone xl dayis be opin proclamatioun at the mercat croce of the heid burcht quhair his duelling place is, and utherwyis the summondis is nocht laufull, howbeit it be maid at his duelling place in the realme and intimat to his vyfe, barnes and servandis.

409. Off doubill poinding be the heretabill laird and him that the landis ar apprysit to.
Eodem die <7 feb. 1547>: The tenentis of the landis of Farme of Hammyltoune callit ane preist callit Prectitrow and ane Johne Hammyltoun of Farme for doubill poinding. Prectitrow allegit he wes infeft heretablie in the landis and in possessioun thairof of 5 yeiris and mair immediatlie preceding the terme of doubill poinding, and thairfoir he said the tenentis sould ansuer to him. The other producit quhair he wes infeft be chartour and seasing in the landis be the erle of Arrane superiour be resone of the samyn apprysit ordourlie to him fra the laird of Myntow, laird thairof.

410. That laufull apprysing preiudges to all heretabill possessouris nocht comperand ay and quhill it be reducit.
<CONTINUED> The preist said that the apprysing suld nocht hurt him, infeft lang of befoir and in possessioun. Hammiltone said: becaus all haifand or pretendand to haiff intres wes summond generalie (as use is) to heir thai landis apprysit and the proces of apprysing suld prejudge to all persones quhill it be reducit. And sua the tenentis suld obey and ansuer to him of thair males and deweteis. The lordis of Counsall decernit the tenentis to ansuer the said Johne Hammyltoun be resone of the saidis proces of apprysing and his infeftment past thairupone, ay and quhill it war reducit, becaus of the ordour and proces thairof.

411. Quod negotiorum <gestor> iure retentionis utatur in rebus alteri emptis, donec ille omnia impleat ad contractum emptionis spectantia, quibus gestor ipse est obligatus ad utilitatem absentis.
Die undecimo februarii anno eodem <1547>: Isobell Machane and hir husband coft certane landis <to be deliverit> to Frances Ure beand in France and oblist thame to caus him gif ane reversioun of the saidis landis to the sellar upone the money gevin to him for thaim. Now callit Frances Ure hir to delyver to him his evidentis of the land. And scho desyrit him first to give the said reversioun for the quhilk scho wes bound, utiliter gerens negocia ipsius absentis, and that scho aucht haiff for hir releif. He denyit to gif hir it, bot gif he war ordourlie callit thairto, for scho mycht nocht thairfoir hald his evidentis. The lordis ex equo decreverunt eam non compellendam tradere illi cartas et evidentias illarum terrarum nisi ille prius eidem Isobelle deliberaret reversionem predictam pro relaxatione sua ab obligatione predicta, de qua clare constabat dominis Consilii per instrumentum publicum et actum librorum officialis Laudonie, de data evidentiarum earundem.

412. Off suspensioun of the secound letters of cognitioun rasit in prejudice of the uther pairteis summondis first rasit upone the samyn mater.
Eodem die <11 feb. 1547>: The laird of Hammyltoun had summondis rasit befoir the lordis aganes Andro Murray for trubling of him in his possessioun of certane landis propir to him (as he allegit) in possessioun. This summondis dependand per citationem befoir the lordis, Andro Murray rasit letters of cognitioun to the schiref upone his possessioun upone the samyn landis as commoun to him as pairt and pertinent of his landis of Blakbarronie. Hammyltoun callit thir letters of cognitioun to be suspendit, becaus thai war prejudiciall to his summondis first rasit and dependand, quia sententia lata in causa cognitionis decreti vicecomitis parit exceptionem rei judicate, coram dominis in causa Hammyltoun contra eum. The lordis decernit for the said caus Murrayis cognitioun to ceis, quhill the first summondis wer endit befoir the lordis, in prejudice and defraud398 of the quhilkis the lordis understude the cognitioun rasit.
398Problem related to the one of "gratia subreptitia", see nr. 55 (note).

413. Off paying of panes for non-entering of presonaris borrowit and lattin frie under panes of money399.
Eodem die <11 feb. 1547>: The lordis decernit the laird of Stainypet and his sone in law to pay the sowme contenit in thair band maid to the laird of Blakburne, becaus that thai (beand requyrit, conforme to the band) enterit nocht to him ane Inglisman contenit in the band, according to the promiss under the pane of payment of the said sowme, nochtwithstanding the proclamatioun maid in Ingland that na prisoneris suld entir agane in Scotland, quhilk Stanepet allegit excuis of non-entrie of the prisoner. The lordis vald nocht admit that.
399See the parallel ransom cases nr. 380-381 (note), 492, 524.

414. Off reduceing of rolmentis of courtes for inordinat proces.
Die 18 februarii (vel eocirca) <1547>: In causa Andree Burrell contra Stephanum Dudeistoun, the lordis of Counsall retreitit the bailleis deputtis of Sanctandrois rolment of court, becaus of the ineptitude and nulletie of the proces, in the quhilkis the judges eftir divers termes set ad sententiandum in causa (et sic conclusa jam in causa, de practica regni huius) admiserunt actorem ad probandum suum libellum, Burrell reo contradicente, cum tamen de iure et practica post conclusionem in causa nec de iure nec de facto possit quidcumque per alterutram partem produci, et quamvis iudex potuisset sine ulla probatione actoris in eadem causa sententiare, ex eo quod Burrell reus exceptionem peremptoriam proposuerat et in eius probatione defecit. Et ideo de practica Scotie400 videbatur satis probata intentio actoris, et sic ex superabundante tantum recepit testes ad probandum intentionem actoris. Quod tamen in hoc inverserant ordinem processus, ut predicitur, ideo ob nullitatem inordinati processus eundem retractaverunt.
400If a defender raised an exceptio peremptoria, this was interpreted to imply that he would not deny the pursuer's account of facts of the case - except if the defendant had expressly protested that he wanted to deny, nevertheless (see nr. 293). This standpoint of the Court of Session disagrees with Ius Commune: Proposing an exceptio peremptoria was not interpreted as a confession of the alleged facts, according to X 2.25.6.

415. That ane man may be put to the horne without the burcht quhair he duellis and that letters in the four formes may be execute be divers officiaris and that the officiar may nocht gif ony delay to the pairtie by the tenour of the letters. And incace he do and convene utherwyis with the pairtie, the samyn sall nocht save the pairtie.
Eodem die <18 feb. 1547>: In causa domini de Lyndsay contra magistrum Alexandrum Kynnynmonth401, the lordis be interlocutour decernit the exceptioun of horning of the said Mr Alexander at the mercat croce of Sanctandrois and nocht first at the mercat croce of the heid burcht quhair the said Mr Alexander duellis, videlicet deulie, et quod in quacunque parte regni potest quis poni ad cornum regis. Et in eadem causa domini repulerunt exceptionem dicti magistri Alexandri contra executionem eandem oppositam, videlicet quod iniuste facta fuit executio, eo quod officiarius executour of the letters in the four formes grantit him ane langar tyme nor wes contenit in the letters for delyvering of the hous. And of the consuetude of Scotland the officiar usis to prolong the dayis of sic letters, and sua he had iustam causam differendi deliberationem.

The lordis decernit that exceptioun irrelevant, and that ane officiar may nocht prolong the termes set in the quenis letters nor yit do ony thing by the tenour thairof, and als decernit that the four formes may be execute be divers officiaris of the samyn letters, as wes in this cace.

And als the lordis repellit the said Mr Alexanderis allegeance that, howbeit the four chargis and all the houris thairof wes run out, Patrik Bruce, na horning being execute, come as procuratour and in name of the said Mr Alexander, his maister, to the lord Lyndsay in Sanctandrois the day befoir the executioun of the horning with the keyis of Craighall and requyrit the lord to pas or send and resave the hous, offerit him readie than instantlie to pas and delyver it. Et sic Alexander dixit se moram precedentem in non-deliberando satis purgasse et sic iniuste postea positum ad cornum.

The lord Lyndsay replyit that Cragyhall wes fyve myl fra Sanctandrois and that servand came at four eftirnone in winter ane day or tua befoir Yuill, and he requyrit gif that servand had outher letters, command or powar of Mr Alexander, his maister, to delyver the hous to him or to requyre him to resave. Quha said he haid nather command, letters nor powar nor procuratorie of his maister thairto. And upone that the said lord producit ane instrument in respect of the quhilk he wes nocht oblesit to trow that fallow nor to pas with him. And the rather becaus the said Mr Alexander had ellis set ane hour tua dayis befoir for delyvering of the said hous and begylit the said lord thairin and keipit nocht tryst, and sua the lord culd nocht be haldin be that verball and oblatioun of that fallow in mora recipiendi.

The lordis of Counsall repellit the said Mr Alexanderis allegeance, in respect of the said instrument, aganes the quhilk thair wes nathing sed. Et hoc amplius quia ad evitationem pene, ubi est dies et pena apposita in contractu vel iudicialibus decisoriis (<sicut> et in maleficiis), non admittitur de iure purgatio more, secundum Zasium, Bar., Jas. et alios in l. Si insulam, ff. de verbo. ob.402, unde scrib<entes> in l. Magnam, C. de contra. vel commit. sti.403. Et quia thir letters of the four formes wes past upone ane decrete of the lordis aganes the said Mr Alexander. And sua tendebant ad executionem sententie iam late, et sic summus in deciso iudiciorum and als summus in materia delicti, quia contumacia est delictum. Et hic agebatur de quadruplici contumacia ipsius magistri Alexandri in non-obtemperando decreto dominorum et literis regine predictis. And als quia et dies et pena apposita hic erat. Ideo elapsis omnibus terminis literarum et eo in contumacia vera constituto propter contemptum authoritatis regie, actione jam sic acquisita regine, etiam si dominus Lyndsay postea accepisset domum de Craighall adhuc, tamen potuisset regina pro suo interesse facere ponere ipsum Alexandrum ad cornua sua ob suam inobedientiam predictam, et ad consequendum bona mobilia ipsius.

Et sic, omnibus magistri Alexandri rationibus repulsis, domini decreverunt eum bene positum ad cornua regine, et ideo omnia mobilia eius esse iuste confiscata et dictas literas contra eum rite executas fuisse.
401Same case as in nrs. 394 and 405.
402Commentaries by Ulricus Zasius, Bartolus de Saxoferrato and Iason de Mayno and others on D. 45.1.84 [to the point]..
403Commentaries on C. 8.37.12 [to the point].

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 518. Execution of horning may be at uther places nor the heid brucht of the schyre quhair the rebellis duellis.
6 februar 1546 <= 1547> : Into the actione betuix the lord Lindsay and Mr Alexander Kinninmonth, quha was put to the horne at the instance of the said lord for non delyverance of the tour and fortalice of Roghall, it was found that the executioun of the horning maid at the brucht of Sanctandrois and nocht at the brucht of Couper (quhilk was the heid brucht of the schyre quhair the said Alexander duelt and remanit) was sufficient; and that ane persone may be put to the horne at quhatsumewer brucht within the contrey.

416. Quod eiectus debite et toleratus postea ad certum tempus possit quocunque tempore ante festum Martini in hieme via facti removeri inde per dominum terre.
Die 20 februarii (vel eocirca) <1547>: In causa spolii intentata per magistrum Georgium Blair contra Jacobum Ogilwy de Cloway, it wes exceptit that Mr George wes laufullie warnit, removit and ejectit out of the saidis houssis and utheris landis and houssis of Bendoquhe at the terme of witsounday, and that he grantit the samyn in anno 46, and at that witsounday he sat thairin of the tolerance and licence of the said James, fewar of thai landis of Plario, unto the xx day of Julii nixt thaireftir (and that howbeit the said Mr George <wes laufullie ejectit befoir>), and James the secund day of august or thairby, viz. within ane schort space and incontinent post finitum tempus precarii, viz. within 12 dayis thaireftir, mycht put him furth of the ground and cast doun the hous and put his guidis of the ground. The lordis be interlocutour admittit the exceptioun and thocht it ressonabill that the tollerance of the laird of the ground, tholand the man varnit, removit and ejectit at witsounday to sit thaireftir, that the laird may ony tyme forrow mertinmes put him be way of deid of the ground, and specialie within ane schort tyme, decem dierum (vel eocirca).

417. Quod minor annis tenetur respondere super improbatione hereditarie sue sasine.
Primo mercii (vel eocirca) anno eodem <1547>: The lordis decernit David Weymes, secound sone to the laird of Weymes that last decessit, to answer upone the impreving of his instrument of seasing of the landis of Litillyn, for the quhilk the quenis advocat callit him to produce the samyn and to heir and sie it cumlie inprovin, nochtwithstanding the said Davidis procuratour allegit that he was minor annis et agebatur hic super hereditate sua et annullatione sue sasine hereditarie, et de iure Scotie minor non tenetur placitare nisi 4 vel 5 casibus relatis in "Regia Majestate"404. Sed domini Consilii hanc allegationem repulerunt ratione iniquitatis eiusdem: nam esset iniquum quod minor ex suo suorumve dolo et fraude confectione falsi instrumenti reportaret commodum. Et quia periculum erat in mora: quod si improbatio differretur in perfectam illius etatem, forte interea posset testis instrumentarius perire et sic instrumentum numquam posset improbari. Et ideo, ut veritas elusceret, interlocuti sunt domini ut supra, licet hic casus consequenter auferat minori hereditatem, viz. instrumentorum improbatio. Similiter extat practicatum contra reginam nondum duorum annorum que decreta fuit per interlocutoriam dominorum Consilii respondere super retractatione resignationis domini de Dalkeith facte ad perpetuam remanentiam in manibus illustrissimi quondam patris Jacobi quinti regis Scotorum per dominum de Dalkeith, in qua causa exceptio minoris etatis regine fuit repulsa406.
404"Regiam maiestatem" ...
405Case quoted in nr. 461.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 517. The heretabill infeftments of ane minor may be improvin.
1 martii 1547 <= 1548> : David Weymis, first sone to the laird of Wasterweymes, being persewit to improve his seasing of Litertoun be the kingis advocat, compeirit and allegit: he aucht nocht to ansuer becaus he was minor annis et agebatur super illius hereditatem, et minor annis non tenetur placitare de sua hereditate <nisi> in casibus in jure expressis. To this was ansuerit that minor ex suo vel predicessorum suorum dolo non debet cum alterius jactura locupletari; and also periculum fuit in mora, for the witnessis insert into the instrument (quhilis servit for the direct improbatione of the samyn) mycht die in the meane tyme. The lordis pronuncit be interloquitour that the said David aucht to ansuer, nochtwithstanding of his lesage, and admittit the kingis advocat to improve.

418. Off reduceing of auld chartour of tailyie.
Eodem die <1 mar. 1547>: In causa Lachelan McClachelan contra dominum de Lewmond, the said lordis foirbearis resignit his landis of N. in manibus regis to be gevin agane to him and his airis maill, and sua the king tailyeit the landis to the airis mall. The king thaireftir revokit generalie the tailyeis maid be him in hurt of the rychteous airis, and sua this tailyie came under revocatioun, he reservand than dochteris. Nochttheles upone that resignatioun thair had past 2 or 3 retouris; and farder king James the fyft at his perfyt aige of xxv yeiris resavit this said lord Lewmondis resignatioun of the saidis landis and gave thame new agane to him, retefeand, confirmand and apprevand the said auld chartour of tailyie. Now this Lachelan wes cum of ane of the airis of the first reservand, askit the first chartour of tailye to be reducit, becaus it cam under revocatioun foirsaid and wes maid in prejudice of the airis femall, in quhais place he is now, and, sen it wes maid in the kingis less aige and revokit (as said is), he allegit that this said lord of Lewmondis resignatioun (maid be vertew of that chartour) wes nocht of awaill, nor chartour followand thairupone. And confirmatioun of king James the fyft maid na new rycht and culd nocht tak away fra the first reservantis airis femell actionem eis semel conpetentem ad petitionem declaratorie <sententie> nullitatis dicte tailye, ratione generalis revocationis ipsius regis concedentis. Sed iis omnibus non obstantibus, the lordis be sentence diffinitive decernit the said lord of Lewmondis chartour of tailyie with all that followit thairupone and the confirmatioun of king James the fyft guid and of strenth, and that the samyn wes maid at the kingis perfyt aige, and that he gave it of 21 yeiris as may be understand be the last act of parliament of king James the first and the sext act of king James the secound and king James the ferd, howbeit tempore Jacobi quinti perfecta etas regis videtur fuisse 25 annorum. Et ibidem referatur eadem perfecta etas suorum predecessorum.

419. Tailyie lesum of the law of Scotland: the mater of tailye treatit.
<CONTINUED> And als the lordis fand that of the law of Scotland tailyeis ar usit and previt past memour of man and sua lesum, and thairfoir aucht nocht to be reducit, and that thai suld nocht cum under generall revocatioun. And of the lesumnes and notar of tailye: sa are treitit of tailye in "Re. Ma."405 paulo ante tractatum legum seu statutorum Malcolmi MakKynnoch de feodis officiariorum regis and of the breking of tailyeis407. And it is ewill to find samekill of tailye writtin agane in our lawis, et ibi agebatur quod revocatione generali regis aperta fuit via et data, competens heredibus femineis, ad petendam declaratoriam nullitatis tallie predicte, et sic actio semel illis <competens> sine eorum facto ab eis auferri non poterat - quod nec <fiebat per> supervenientem Jacobi quinti confirmationem dicte tailyie.
406"Regiam maiestatem" ...
407An unknown treatise. It appears that it was contained within the collector's manuscript copy of "Regiam maiestatem".

420. Quod confirmatio regis in perfecta etate impedit declaratoriam <nullitatis chartarum> generaliter revocatarum per suum predicessorem ratione earundem in sua minore etate factarum.
Ad hoc respondebatur quod, dato et concesso (ut predicitur) quod dicta charta tailyie facta fuisset in minori etate regis et venisset sub generali revocatione ipsius, et quoque in eius potestate fuit eam non revocare, immo confirmare, heredibus femineis invitis. Postquam (lite desuper non mota per eas ad declaratoriam, et re omni integra) Jacobus quintus post suam perfectam etatem 25 annorum eandem confirmavit, quod sic preclusa est eis heredibus femineis408 via agendi ut supra, provide ac si rex qui eam concessisset (etiam cum tunc minor annis fuisset), confirmasset eandem in sua perfecta etate. Et adde quod sub revocatione venire non poterat hec tallie, quia cum sit (ut predicitur) licita de iure, non potest dici fuisse in preiudicium anime et conscientie regis concedentis eandem. Et sic sub revocatione non veniebat. Et ita diffinitiva sententia fuit dominus Lewmond absolutus, et etiam tallia antiqua decreta bona et non retractanda ex causis allegatis. Et eo magis becaus thair wes thre retouris past, sent the making of the chartour. And it wes mair nor threscoir yeiris auld.
408MS draws the word "eandem" behind "etatem" and the words "heredibus femineis" behind "ut supra" - probably due to interlinear corrections in the original manuscript which were erroneously drawn to the wrong spot when the original manuscript was copied.

421. De probatione novationis, exonerationis, solutionis, transactionis scripte obligationis et iudicialiter actitate.
Ultimo februarii anno eodem <1547>: In causa magistri Andree Home et domini Edmestoun contra Thomam Keir of the Yair propter409 summam mille angelorum nobilium promissam eis penae nomine per dictum Thomam, casu quod non deliberaret quendam captivum Anglicum dictis Home et Edmestoun, certis die et loco contentis in obligatione eisdem facta in scriptis per dictum Thomam, Thomas excepit quod condamnari ad penam non deberet, ex eo quod dictus Anglicus fuit deliberatus dicto domino Edmestoun cum consensu ipsius magistri Andree, et sub cautione redeundi demissus in Angliam. Et ad hoc probandum produxit Keir scripturam confectam (ut asserebat) inter ipsum et prefatum Thomam, Home et Edmestoun, sed non subscriptam per Home, qui etiam eandem omnino negavit. Keir obtulit se probaturum per testes eum confessisse (prout in scriptura continebatur) obligationem priorem novatam et novam conventionem natam inter ipsos.
409MS: penes.

422. Solutio summae in sententia iudiciali contentae non admissa probationi testium.
Hwme dicebat quod, ex quo obligatio prima fuit in scriptis et autentica in libris dominorum Consilii et desuper authoritas eorundem et decretum interpositum, quod exoneratio, solutio, transactio aut novatio illius nisi per aliam scripturam fieri non deberet de iure. Nec practica regni: que transactionem aut solutionem obligationis scripte aut debiti ex sententia iudiciali nisi per aliam scripturam non admittit. Alias per duos testes subornatos probaretur forisfactio decreti dominorum et judicialis cuiuscunque - quod attenta testium in hoc regno falsitate410 esset valde periculosum. Et allegabat de hoc interlocutoriam dominorum Consilii latam inter abbatem de Newbottill et magistrum de Haillis:411 non admittendum ad probandum solutionem summe contente in decreto dominorum Consilii (cuius executionem dictus abbas contra eum petebat) per testes, prout offerebat se probaturum, - sed per scripturam tamen (ita dicebat dictus magister Andreas) debere hic fieri.
410Words from C. 4.2.18.
411Case mentioned in nr. 462.

423. Novatio obligationis scripte et exoneratio eiusdem actitate coram dominis admissa probationi quinque testium iuxta iuris communis dispositionem.
<CONTINUED> Domini Consilii interlocuti sunt dictum Thomam admittendum fore ad probandum exceptionem suam per testes, dum sint quidem <ad> minus quinque numero et omni exceptione maiores. Concordant <ad> probandum arg. l. Testium, C. de testibus412. Et hoc eo magis quod collega dicti Andreae scripsit hanc literam pro Henrico Keir predicto, et quia ipse partes erant inhabitatores limitum Scotie, viz. Bordouris, et inter ipsos multa sine scripto sepe bona fide fiebant. Et in eis propter ignorantiam iuris videbatur hoc admittendum.
412C. [to the point].

424. Quod ad retractandum chartam feudifirme factam per regem in deminutionem rentalis sui possit per testes probari.
Die 12 februarii anno 1546 <= 1547> : In causa regine et Archibaldi Hammyltoun de Roplocht contra N., the lordis be interlocutour decernit that the diminutioun of the kingis rentall mycht be provin per testes in hoc casu ubi agebatur ad retractationem chartae feudifirme terrarum de A. <factae> per Jacobum quintum Scotorum regem patri ipsius N. in diminutionem (ut asserebat advocatus regius) rentalis ipsius domini regis, et sic in preiudicium corone regie.

425. Quod arrestamenti relaxatio per testes possit probari et non necessarie per scripta.
Die 9 mercii anno eodem <1547>: In causa fracte arrestationis per dominum Gray vicecomitem de N. virtute literarum regiarum et deliberationem dominorum Consilii super certis pecuniis(?), turri<bu>s et auld treis contra tenentes domini Oliphant, the lordis be interlocutour admittit witnes to preve the lousing of the arrestment allegit be the tenentis. Et hoc de practica, ut fuit ante iudicatum per dominos, qui retractaverunt rotulamentum curie ballivorum (vice canonicorum Sancte Crucis prope Edinburgh) latum pro Roberto Canros tunc abbote Sancte Crucis contra Robertum Bruce413 in Edinburgh super fractionem arrestamenti dicti abbatis, quia dicti ballivi noluerunt admittere ipsum Robertum ad probandum relaxationem eiusdem arrestamenti per testes. Preterea: non solent nec possunt partes semper habere (in inventione cautionis, usque ad quam, ut sepe, arrestamenta hec fiunt) notarios vel scientes scribere. Et sic domini decreverunt scripturam in hoc casu non esse necessariam, licet dominus advocatus regine dissenserit et dixerit hoc tamen per scripturam fieri debere, et protestavit quod inposterum hoc sit practicatum.
413Similar legal problem in nrs. 24, 194 (quoted as a precedent), 289.

426. De evictione tenetur is cuius res appreciata creditori evertitur.
Die 10 marcii <1547>: Mr Patrik Panter obtenit ane decrete aganes the laird of Carmilie and thairthrow gat certane of his landis apprysit and thairupone obtenit heretabill sasing. Thaireftir the laird of Palmuris (superiour to the said laird of Carmylie) retour wes reducit at the kingis instance with all that followit thairupone, and sua all Palmuris landis, tenent and tenendrie. And sua all Carmelies landis haldin of him become in the kingis handis, and sua wes the landis appprysit to Mr Patrik. Yit na decrete of non-intres beand led at the kingis instance upone Palmuris landis (his retour beand reducit), Palmure tuik be compositioun ane new infeftment of the king and Carmelie tuik ane new infeftment of Palmurie of all his landis (and inspeciall of the saidis apprysit landis) and be vertew thairof tuik new sasing thairof. And Palmurie gat the gift of his non-entres at the king and sua, quhill Carmilie intres, tuik the proffeit of the apprysit landis or ellis componit thairfoir with auld Carmilie. And Carmilie sen his infeftment tuik up the proffeit of the saidis apprysit landis. A litill befoir the reductioun of Palmureis retour Mr William Lamb and the said Mr Patrik sister dochter, tua airis of the said Mr Patrikis, gat the act obtenit be him contra auld Carmilie transferrit in thame as airis to him active, and in this the laird of Carmilie passive as air to his said fader, be decrete of the lordis of sessioun with letters executoriales to poynd and distrenyie the laird of Carmilie and his landis for the sowmes contenit in the decrete principall, and that in king James the fyft tyme. Thai letters nocht being extinct, the king decessit. Callit Mr William Lambe foirsaid this day the said laird to heir letters gevin upone him siclyke as said is, or ellis to allege ane caus quhy thai sould nocht be gevin. Carmelie allegit that thai sould nocht be gevin, becaus the decrete tuik effect in his faderis tyme and landis as said is apprysit to hum thairfoir, and sua may nocht be maid doubill payment. Mr William Lambe answerit: that payment wes na payment and of na awaill, becaus of the reductioun of his superiouris retour with all that followit thairupone and put the landis in the kingis handis be reasone of non-entres, and that Mr Patrik bruikit nocht <nor> mycht nocht bruik thai landis thairthrow, and sua thai wer evictit thairfra. Et solutioun earundem annullavit et fuit extincta, and sua he suld haiff new payment of the decrete, re eo soluto asservata evicta (ut predicitur). Et hoc per l. Deferre § fi., cum tribus legibus sequentibus, ff. de iure fisci414, et quia debitor, cuius res ex causa iudicati est creditori in solutum data <et> venditionis titulo alii vendita et assignata, tenetur de evictione equi boni ac si ipse debitor voluntarie eandem vendidisset, lege preallegata416. Ad hoc respondit Carmilie (per McGill procuratorem suum) quod per reductionem sasine domini sui superioris <nec> terre ille appretiate nec proficua earundem poterant per regem occupari, nec nisi eisdem decretis per sententiam dominorum Consilii in non-introitum poterant pariter et heredes sui a quocunque de earum possessione amoveri, nec impediri aut prohiberi in perceptione fructuum, laboratione et occupatione earundem, becaus the landis nocht beand in non-entres decernit, thai past negligentlie fra the possessioun thairof. Imputent sibi quivis <quod> suum non sunt prosecuti. Et precipue heredes isti duo ad multos iam annos wer negligent to get thairselffis enterit to the landis. It wes answerit be Lambe that thai culd nocht be servit thairof, becaus Carmylie wes now set thairin, and sua he wes the stope thairof. <Carmylie answerit:> Gif he wes wranguslie sasit, he bade thame reduce his sasing. And sen sa is that thai vant the landis in thair awin default and negligence, nocht usand the samyn as said is, bot negligentlie falland fra thair possessioun, thai suld nocht haiff redie executioun of thair decrete aganes him.
414D. 49.14.21 [to the point], to be read with text from D. onward.
415D. 49.14 as above.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 516. Reduction of ane retour takis nocht away possessione of landis, except decreit of non-entres follow upon the samyn.
<1547?> Maister Patrik Panter obtenit ane decreit aganis the laird of Carmelie. And thairefter for fulfilling of the said decreit obtenit his landis to be comprysit and obtenit heretabill seasing off the saidis landis. Thaireftir the laird of Palmure retour, quha was superiour to thir landis comprysit fra Carmylie, was reducit at the kingis instance with all that follouit thairupone, baith infeftmentis of tennent and tenandri, yit was thair na decreit of non-entres gevin of Palmures landis. Thaireftir the aires of Maister Patrik and Mr William Lamb and ane sister dochter persewit the laird of Carmylies aires for fulfilling of the said decreit. Carmylie ansuered: he aucht nocht to fulfill the said decreit, becaus it tuik effect in his fatheris tyme and his landis was comprysit thairfoir and he aucht nocht to mak doubill payment. To this was ansuerit that this payment was na payment, becaus the superiors retour was reducit and sua cuist all the landis in non-entres in the kingis handis, sua that the aires of the said Mr Patrik mycht nocht bruik the saidis landis. And sua the apprysit landis war evictit fra thame, et solutio, quae facta fuit per terras appretiatas, evanuit et extincta fuit. And sua he aucht to haiff new payment of the said decreit, quia res in solutionem assignata fuit evicta. Et hoc per legem Deferre § final., cum tribus legibus sequentibus, ff. de jure fisci415. To this was ansuerit that, albeit the superioris retour and seasing past thairupone was reducit, yit the king had na entres to tak up the maillis and deweteis of the same, except the landis had <been> decernit into non-entres and decreit follouit thairupone. And unto that tyme Paniter and his aires had guid actione to occupey the landis and tak up the profeittis and dewteis off the same. And gif thai did it nocht, imputetur illis that negligentlie they passit fra thair richtis. The lordis decernit be interloquitour that the reductione of the retour puttis nocht the heretabill tennent fra the possessione of the landis - quhill the landis be decernit to be in non-entres. And to that tyme the heretabill tennent may justlie intromet with the profeittis of his awin landis.
416D. 49.14.21 [to the point], to be read with text from D. onward.

427. That (the retour beand reducit) the king may nocht step(?) to the landis nor tak the proffeitis thairof nor put out the heretabill possessouris thairof. And that the heretabill possessouris may jos and bruik the landis ay and quhill thai be decernit in non-entres be sentence.
The lordis of Counsall be interlocutour decernit that, forsamekill as the reductioun of ane retour puttis nocht the heretabill tenentis fra thair possessioun nor uptaking of the proffeitis of the landis unto the tyme the landis be decernit be decrete of the lordis of sessioun in non-entres and the males, proffeitis and deweteis thairof decernit to pertene to the king or uther ourlord, and that of the practik of this realme the decrete of non-entres is necessar or the tenentis of the landis may be put thairfra, and sua the airis foirsaidis, na decrete of non-entres being led to this hour upone the landis, thai mycht haiff enterit thairto and bruikit the samyn, nochtwithstanding the reductioun of the retour foirsaid, and sua it wes bot thair awin negligence that thai persavit nocht thair rycht and gat nocht the proffeitis of the saidis landis and that thai haiff yit guid actioun thairto and to reduce the said laird of Carmyleis new infeftment of the apprysit landis. And sua the effect of the apprysing be reductioun of the retour wes nocht evacuat utpote thaireftir nor decrete of non-entres beand led thairupone. Thairfoir the lordis assoilyeit Carmylie fra the said Lambes summondis and ordane na new letters for apprysing of Carmyleis guidis, geir or landis for new executioun of the decrete principall to be gevin, quia (ut predicitur) prior executioun per appretiationem non expiravit, nec terre adhuc dici poterant evicte heredibus predictis per fiscum. Quod si realiter terre evicte fuissent per fiscum, thai beand decernit in non-entres be decrete off the lordis, tunc indubie potuissent heredes de novo agere ad executionem primi decreti in eos active et in istum dominum de Carmylie passive translati, ut supra dictum est.

428. Libellans plura coniunctim, quorum alterum per se sufficerit, probans alterutrum obtinet de hac re plene. Pan., Fel. et alii in cap. Licet causam, vide ex. de proba.417
<CONTINUED> The lord Ogilvyis and D<unnonis> procuratour allegit that he had libellit coniunctlie his entres as is foirsaid, viz. assignatioun and heretabill infeftment, and suld preve all the samyn. Schir Johne allegit he suld be admittit be ony of thai ressonis. Howbeit thai war libellit coniunctlie, that astrictit him nocht to preve thame baytht. Et quod admitti pro suo interesse deberet, ratione assignationis predicte, virtute cuius habebat ius ad terras prosequendi infeodationem earundem etiam si nullus adhuc fuisset infeodatus in eisdem. The lordis decernit be interlocutour that assignatioun <to be> sufficiens interesse, et eum non astringendum ad plus probandum, quamvis coniunctim libellavit assignationem et infeodamentum suum inde secutum.
417Commentaries by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) and by Felinus Sandeus on X 2.19.9.

429. De tertio comparente pro suo interesse ad reducendum decretum contra alium latum.
Undecimo Marcii <1547>: Schir Johne Campbell callit the laird of Dunnwne and the lord Ogilvie for reductioun of ane decrete gevin aganes the said laird' gudmother, reduceand ane decrete gevin for hir aganes the said lord as pledge and souertie for the laird of Dunnwme, be vertew of the quhilk first decrete thair wes certane landis of the lord Ogilvyis (callit "the Hall Yardis") apprysit and with hir consent assignit to the said schir Johne Campbell of Lundie, knycht, qua than payit to hir the sowmes thai war apprysit for. Now the said schir <Johne> callit for reductioun of this secound decrete, et hoc tamquam tertius pro suo interesse, for it wes nocht gevin aganes him. He libellit his entres, viz. that the landis foirsaidis wer apprysit and assignit to him as said is and he thairthrow heretablie infeft in the samyn and in possessioun thairof 7 or 8 yeiris unto the tyme of the geving of this secound decrete, quhairthrow his infeftment past upone the apprysing and assigning (as said is) wes reducit. And to verafie this, he producit the proces of apprysing, prevand thai landis assignit to him (as said is) and ane precept of the superiour of the landis to entir him thairto. And allegit his chartour and sesing-instrument wer tint and brint at the birning of Edinburgh. The lord Ogilvyis and Dunnonis procuratour allegit as is contenit in the uther practik aboue writtin418.
418Reference to nr. 264-266.

430. Quod nullitas sententie per viam exceptionis opponatur.
The 12 of merche <1547>: The laird of Kirkmichell wes callit be schir Johne chartouris in the Holme, to heir letters gevin contra eum conforme to ane rolment, decernand Kirkmichell to desist and ceis fra all trubling of him in the 5 pund land of N. and the said Johne to be kepit in his possessioun thairof, ay and quhill he be laufullie callit and ordourlie put thairfra. Kirkmichell allegit that the letters sould nocht be gevin, becaus in lentrane etc. anno 1546 foirsaid, in ane actioun of the lord Glammis aganes the laird of Erlischaw and his colligis, the lordis be interlocutour decernit the exceptioun of nullitie, proponit be Glammis aganis ane decrete of the schiref deputtis of Fyfe (producit be the said Erlischaw and his colligis), viz. that the juges wer inhibited be the lordis letters to proceid and dischargit of thair offices, et quia sic inhibiti processerunt, decretum eorum allegatum <vitiaretur> nullitate, to be admittit, howbeit Erleschaw allegit that that decrete and sentence suld haiff effect ay and quhill it wer reducit, et quod nullitas in hoc casu per viam exceptionis non esset de practica admittenda419.
419Another exception to the rule stated in nr. 312.

431. Quod minor annis placitare cogatur super retractatione sui infeodamenti hereditarii.
The 13 of maii anno 1547: The bischope of Murray, commendatour of Scone, callit Patrik Leirmonth, sone to the provest of Sanctandrois, for reductioun of ane few (maid be the said commendaterie and convent) per metum iustum qui in constantem virum cadere poterat420. Mr James McGill procuratour for Leimonth allegit that he wes minor annis et ideo secundum leges Scotie in "Regia Maiestate" cap. <...>421 ergo non esset compellendus litigare in hoc casu, viz. super re hereditarie sibi pertinente, auferendo sibi quod iure hereditario ad se spectabat. Et produxit simile decretum dominorum Consilii nuper latum inter N. et D., ut plenius in eo patet.
420Words from D. 4.2.6, see note at nr. 315.
421"Regiam maiestatem", ch. ...

432. Minor contra minorem nullo privilegio gaudet.
<CONTINUED> Nihilominus episcopus allegabat quod, quia ipse agebat nomine ecclesie quae semper censetur iure minoris et ut minor422, et ideo minor contra minorem privilegio non gaudet, item quia domini Consilii in causa comitis de Mortoun contra reginam super retractatione resignationis (per ipsum facte in manibus illustrissimi principis Jacobi 5 sui patris ad remanentiam perpetuam), exceptione minoris aetatis regine proposita per advocatum, fuerunt interlocuti eam placitare debere, iure "Regie Majestatis" non obstante, eo quod lex illa dura et contra rationem, quia ex dolo vel metu (vel suo vel alterius) res apud minorem usque perfectam eius etatem permanet cum magno incomodo alterius. Et ita domini Consilii hic per suam interlocutoriam decreverunt dictum Patricium respondere debere in hoc casu.
422This is why the church, like a minor, gets four years to apply for "in integrum restitutio": 6. 1.21.1-2.

433. Off redemptioun of landis to be fulfillit as the reversioun specialie beiris and in na uther kynd of money. Et quod appellatione auri vel argenti placka Scotia non denot<atur>.
The 15 of maii predicto <1547>: In causa redemptionis terrarum mota per Mariotam Ogilvy contra A.B., domini decreverunt terras non esse legitime redemptas, ex eo quod reversio continebat pecunias dandas esse debere boni auri et argenti, et instrumentum consignationis et numerationis continebat bonam partem summe in reversione contente fuisse lie plakkis Scotorum, nec plackis sunt de bono auro nec argento. Et reversiones sunt juris stricti et in specie implende. Et si contineret reversio summam pecunie in obolis, non liceret in quacunque alia pecunia auri vel argenti solutionem facere.

434. Dilatoria proposita et interlocutoria desuper pronunciata(?) non auditur eadem pars postea declinatoriam judicis volens proponere, etiam si ab initio pro omnibus suis exceptionibus fuerit protestata.
The 16 of maii <1547>: In causa episcopi Moraviensis commendatarii de Scona contra Patricium Leirmonth et patrem eius propter423retractationem infeodationis certarum terrarum illis per dictum commendatarium et conventum suum facte, excepit magister Jacobus McGill, dicti Patricii procurator, quod quia erat minor annis, viz. unius et viginti nondum annorum, de hereditate sua placitare non teneretur iuxta legem Scotie, ut habetur in "Regia Majestate", ubi habetur (nisi in certis casibus) minorem placitare non teneri424. Sed ipse procurator hanc exceptionem proposuit sub protestatione de non admittendo iudices et proponendas reliquas suas dilatorias et fori declinatorias exceptiones. Cum hec exceptio hic fuit repulsa per interlocutoriam dominorum Consilii426, postea excepit idem procurator quod dicti domini iudices in hac causa esse non possunt, ex eo quia ista infeodatio nunc fuit apostolica auctoritate confirmata, et ideo coram temporalibus iudicibus de eius retractatione agi non poterat. <Responsum fuit:> nec eos declinare <posse> quod iam videbatur admississse per interlocutoriam predictam petitionem. Nec eius protestatio predicta utpote facto contraria poterat eum iuvare. The lordis be interlocutour decernit that he had ellis preiudgit it in this caus to him selff, for he suld ante omnia declinatorias iudicum proponere, ut notat Pan.(?)425.
423MS: penes.
424"Regiam maiestatem", ch. ...
425See nr. 431.
426Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis), probably on X 2.28.68 or X 2.2.4 or X 3.1.16.

435. Quod appellatio in beneficialibus a reductione collationis suspendat executionem illius sententie; et quod satis est ad hunc effectum debito tempore appellatum esse a sententia, viz. infra decem dies; et quod de intimatione appellationis (debita vel non) domini Consilii nullam omnino capiant cognitionem.
The 17 of maii predicto <1547>: Schir Nicoll Tullo obtenit ane sentence anent the vicarage of Rothtwene in Murray aganis schir Henry Balfour, reduceand the said Henryis provisioun of the vicarage. And Tullo gat the ordinar letter upone his provisioun of the said vicarage apostolik be vertew of the sentence that he obtenit (as said is) and thairupone gat the quenis letters in the four formes. Schir Henry allegit that thir letters suld be reducit as inordourlie gevin and procedit in contrair of his ordinar collatioun, be vertew of the quhilk he had bene x yeirs possessour of that benefice and had siclyke ordinar letters of the king. Tullo schew his sentence foirsaid. Schir Henry schew instrumentum appellationis sue a sententia retractiva sue collationis infra decem dies. Tullo allegit the appellatioun wes desert and null, becaus the intimatioun of it a tergo scripta wes nocht justlie maid, quia erat facta in loco iudicii et non in presentia iudicum qui sententiam tulerunt, viz. magistrorum Alexandri Galloway et Jacobi Veddar canonicorum Abirdene, tum cum ipsi illo tempore intimationis et continue ad spatium mensis proxime precedentis ipsam intimationem semper fuissent presentes in civitate Vetere Abirdonense ubi sententiam illam tulerunt, et de iure intimari debet appellatio judici personaliter, si presens sit. Schir Henry said the lordis had na cognitioun quhidder the intimatioun wes guid or nocht.

436. Solum querunt domini Consilii, ut appellationem admittant, an debito tempore sit appellatum.
<CONTINUED> The lordis decernit thai aucht nocht to ken de intimatione, et quod de practica eorum erat videre tantunmodo an debito tempore fuerit appellatum a sententia, ad hoc ut ipsi admittant appellationem et ut illa coram illis effectum habeat suspensivum sententie a quo est appellatum.

437. Appellatio a translatione acti confessati impedit executionem eiusdem acti.
The 15 of junii anno 1547: The lordis decernit <the letteris> executorialles of ane chaiplane of Sanctandrois (rasit upone the laird of Balvery be ressone of ane act transferrit) to ceis (obstante appellatione a sententia translationis dicti acti confessati) ab initio, howbeit appellatio a confessione propria non admittitur per dominos Consilii ad impediendum executionem acti confessati427.
427Because the document has not yet undergone "reduction", see rule in nr. 16. Similar problem in nr. 20. Besides, "confessus pro iudicato habendus", C. 7.59.1.

438. Off hereyeldis paying.
The 16 of Junii vel eocirca <1547>: In ane caus of spuilye movit be Johne Tucler in Leith contra Isobell Wauchope, relict of umquhile James Logane in Leith, the lordis decernit that the said Johne aucht na hereyeldis to hir, becaus his father (that diet) had bot four aikiris of land or thairby of the said Isobellis, lyand besyd Leyth, and duelt nocht thairupone nor wes nocht husband. And the lawis of this realme requyris ut aliquis solvat hereyeld quod sit husbandus sedens et moriens super terram alicuius liberi hominis, et quod ad minus tenuerit de eo octavam partem bovate terre. Est autem bovata terre 4 plewis of land. Et in casu nostro dictus <Jacobus> (Joannis pater) mortuus non sedebat tempore sui decessus super dictam terram, nec tantum tenebat terre. Et sic domini decreverunt hereyeldam non solvendam. Et ideo condamnaverunt in spolio dicti equi pro hereyelda capti ipsam Isobellam captricem eiusdem.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 514. Ane hereyeld can nocht be tane bot fra him that duellis upon the ground and is ane husband of the aucht pairt of ane davak of land.
16 junii 1547: Thair was ane Issobell Wachope, the relict of umquhill James Logane in Leyth, that had tane away ane hors fra ane Johne Cuiltar in Leith. The said Johne persewit for the spoliatione of the said hors. Scho allegit scho committit na spuilyie, becaus scho had tane the said hors as ane hereyeld, the land appertening to hir and hir husband quhairupone the said Johne duelt, according to the lauis of the countrie. It was ansuerit be the said Johne that he aucht na hereyeld, becaus his father that deceissit and of quhome scho cravit the hereyeld had bot four aikeris of land or thairby of the said Issobell lyand besyd Leyth, nor duelt nocht thairupone, nor was nocht husband. And as the lauis of the countrey requyris ad hoc quod aliquis solvat heryeldum, (quod) sit husbandus, sedens et moriens super terram alicuius liberi hominis, et quod adminus teneret de eo octavam partem unius donatae terrae. Est enim donata terrae four plewis of land. And sua the said Johne allegit that he duelt newer upon the land nor occupiet sua mikill land as mycht import ane hereyeld. Thairfoir he aucht na hereyeld. The lordis pronuncit that the said Johne aucht na hereyeld and that the woman had committit spuilyie.

439. Quod filius infeodatus a patre in hereditate, reservato sibi libero tenemento earundem pro toto tempore eius vite, tenetur nihilominus filius ad debita patris solvenda etiam postea contracta, tanquam <heres> et successor patris.
Ultimo januarii anno 1547 <= 1548> : In causa magistri <Georgii> Hay contra filium N. burgensem de Edinburgh, petentis ab illo N. (tanquam herede et successore sui patris) certam pecuniam dicto quondam defuncto datam Edinburgi, pro financiis faciendis ipso Magistro G. in Gallia et non factis ibidem, exceptum fuit pro parte ipsius juvenis quod non heres fuit nec successor patri suo, ex eo quod in nullis terris ei succedebat. Ideo ad eius debita de iure <non> tenebatur solvenda. Replicavit magister G. quod, ex quo ipse erat filius et heres apparens quondam patris sui et infeodatus per ipsum in vita sua in certis terris infra burgum de Edinburgh, reservato libero earundem tenemento dicto eius patri pro tempore vite sue, succedit patri in eisdem saltem quoad liberum tenementum earundem. Et quod in eisdem terris censeri debet heres et successor patri suo, licet infeodatus de eisdem a patre fuerit antea hereditarie, et ideo eius debita debet solvere. Duplicavit <N.> quod non, ex eo quod erat hereditarie infeodatus in illis longe antequam <pater suus> hoc debitum contraxisset. Et <si> ita esset quod filius semper ad debita patris teneri debeat, sive ante sive post infeodationem filii hereditariam in vita patris factam sibi de terris aut aliis immobilibus, sequeretur quod hereditarium ius filio de feodo concessum nihil ei prodesset, et quod pater posset illud (quando vellet) revocare et terras illas alienare in preiudicium filii sui, si posset eum sic obligare per debita postea contracta. Sed sic est quod pater feodum semel datum a se filio revocare non potest. Nec habet postea ius terras alienandi directe. Ergo nec indirecte potest, per nova debita - que essent si ad ea solvenda filius teneretur, quia compelleretur filius (nihil habens preter terram illam) eam vendere ad debita solvenda. Domini Consilii pro maiore parte interlocuti sunt filium teneri tanquam heredem successorem patris sui ad dictum debitum magistro Georgio solvendum, non obstantibus allegatis in contrarium. Sed ego dissensi, ex eo maxime quod debitum contraxit pater longe postea quam filium infeodasset de terris suis, et ipse renunciavit successioni et hereditate patris, et non habebat terras has ex successione patris sui, sed alienatione earundem longe ante sibi a patre facta (ut predicitur). Et quare mihi videtur quod sicut extraneus fuit singularis successor. Ut emptor vel donatarius quivis ad debita sua (dolo aut fraude cessante) non tenetur, sic nec obligari debeat in hoc casu filius, et maxime in casu nostro ubi nulla doli in alienatione nec in patrem nec in filium suspitio cadebat. Et hoc decretum dominorum duxi valde preiudiciale omnibus baronibus regni qui magnas summas pecuniarum dant in dotem, cum "heredes apparentes" ponantur in hereditario feodo terrarum omnium et dominiorum patrum suorum. Quia, si hec sententia est iusta, hac infeodatione non obstante potuerunt patres tantis debitis onerare eosdem filios suos quod pro eorum solutione cogentur isti totas terras suas alienare - quod videtur iniquum, cum iure teneatur (C. de filiis pro patre428) filium non obligari ad debita paterna.
428C. 4.13.2 et 4 [to the point].

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 515. The sone being put in his fatheris land wil be haldin to pay the debtis contractit be his father.
16. junii 1547: Thair was ane Mr Georg Hay that persewit A.B. burges of Edinburgh for certane soumes of silver, quhilk was gevin to the father of the said burges air for to mak finance and furnishing to the said Mr George in France. The burges air alledgit, he aucht nocht to pay the samyn becaus he was nocht his fatheris air nor succeidit to him to nane of his roumes nor landis and wald renunce all airschip guidis. To this was ansuerit that during the tyme of his father he was infeft and seasit in certane tenementis and landis be his father, reserving the liferent of the samyn to his father, and sua he (haifand the saidis tenementis na utherwayis) he aucht to be decernit to enter as air and successour to his father. To this was ansuerit that this debt was contract be the father efter the putting of him in the landis. And giff sua be that the fear of the landis (efter he is put in the landis) was bund to pay the debtis of the father (that puttis him into the landis) contractit thaireftir the putting (of him into the landis) wald serve for litill, becaus the samen father micht ay thairefter contract for debtis and soumes that indirect he mycht eat up all the landis. The lordis nevertheles decernit the said man to pay the said Mr Georg the foirsaids soumes and debtis contractit be his father. Nonnulli dominorum in contraria fuerunt opinione quod filius in hoc casu fuit tanquam extraneus aut singularis successor ut emptor vel donatarius, et ad paterna debita (dolo et fraude cessante) non teneretur. Dicebant hoc decretum prejudiciale futurum baronibus Scotiae qui magnas pecuniarum summas dant in dotem cum filiabus suis hoc respectu ut earum mariti (prolem) in paternis hereditatibus infeodant, pro acquisitione earundem liberis et prolibus inter eosdem procreatis.

440. De probanda sasina terrarum sine iusto et perfecto instrumento sasine publico.
The 10 marcii anno 1547 <= 1548> : A. petiit se decerni heredem quondam patris sui de certis terris; et assisa retornavit negative, eo quod instrumentum sasine patris sui de illis terris <perfectum non exhibuerat. Petit nunc A. dictam deservitionem negativam> reduci per decretum dominorum Consilii, ex eo quod dictus A. coram dominis Consilii producit decretum antiquum eorundem dominorum, decernens dominum superiorem earundem terrarum ad infeodandum avum actoris ipsius in dictas terras in alba firma, et aliud decretum eorundem dominorum ubi dictus dominus superior iudicialiter confessus fuerat se infeodasse patrem actoris in eisdem, secundum tenorem prioris decreti, et preceptum sasine dicti domini superioris sub eius sigillo pro danda sasina earundem terrarum, et transsumptum prothogalli cuiusdam notarii publici, fand iudicialiter pro parte actoris ipsius per officialem Dunkeldensem: quod prothogallum canebat de sasina earundem terrarum, data per unum ballivorum dicti domini superioris in eodem precepto contentum, licet in dicto prothogollo deessent multa verba vel scale (ut apparebat) consumpta, nec mensem aut diem continebat. Ex quibus indiciis (decretorum, transumpti, prothogolli, instrumenti sasine ac precepto sasine) domini decreverunt sasinam defuncti satis constare, licet de eadem non haberetur ullum instrumentum publicum perfectum. Et ideo retractaverunt deservitionem negativam predictam.

441. De redemptione terrarum per reversionem, datam ante recognitionem earundem postea factam in manibus regis.
The 14 marcii anno 1547 <= 1548> : Quidam vir nomine Auchinlek vendiderat certas terras suas de N. (tenendas de aldermanno et ballivis Air) suo domino superiori earundem terrarum sub reversione, obtenta etiam litera regressus a dicto domino superiore in casu redemptionis earundem terrarum de N. Postea eedem terre per recognitionem, ob alienationem maioris partis earundem tentatam sine confirmatione regis (varde et releiff de domino rege)429per eosdem aldermannum et ballivos, factam <in manibus regis, ad regem reversae sunt. Et sic domini Consilii> decreverunt. Rex (terris sibi approprietatis per recognitionem) denuo dedit easdem dictos aldermanno et ballivis: proviso in eorum infeodamento novo quod ipsi infeodarent hereditarios suos tenentes earundem terrarum, ut ante fuerat, solvendo ratam compositionem datam per dictum elderman et ballivos sibi domino regi pro novo infeodamento. Qui elderman ballivique infeodarunt de terris predictis de N. fratrem illius Auchinlek (hereditarii tenentis earundem terrarum tempore recognitionis). Et hoc forte de consensu heredis dicti A<uchinlek>. Et qualem literam regressus Auchinlek habuit de dictis elderman et ballivis ante recognitionem talem, post novum suum infeodamentum a rege obtentum eidem concesserunt. Dictus Auchinlek constituit filiam N. suam assignatam in et ad reversionem illarum terrarum. Quae hoc debite intimavit hereditario possessori terrarum, et premonuit eundem ad recipiendum summam in reversione contentam et ad videndum terras illas legitime redemi et omnia puncta reversionis impleri, premonitione et numeratione pecunie reversionis debite factis. Transtulit ea ius reversionis et redemptionis terrarum in quendam Seatoun cum toto processu redemptionis legitime deducto. Qui Setoun citavit coram dominis Consilii N. hereditarium possessorem terrarum ad videndum terras illas decerni legitime redemptas. Reus dixit hoc decerni non debere, eo quod per recognitionem reversio precedens erat extincta. Et contra regem effectum ullum non potest habere, ita nec contra ipsum habere deberet. Et ipse de novo obtinuerat terras illas a comitate de Air, non tanquam heres hereditarii tenentis tempore recognitionis, sed tanquam extraneus: libere a iure primi tenentis, a quo nullum ius haberet, ideo reversio illius ei preiudicare non deberet. Omnibus quibus tamen non obstantibus domini Consilii ex bono et equo et rigore iuris relicto (qui iacere videbatur pro reo) decreverunt terras legitime esse redemptas et reversionem debere adhuc habere suum effectum, eo quod (ut ex nova infeodatione burgi de Air a rege concessa) constabat de mente regis esse, et quod hoc etiam statuto in acto parliamenti (ut allegabatur) cautum erat ut <in> huiusmodi recognitionum casibus vassalli eorum qui immediati erant tenentes domini regis (terrarum in recognitionem venientium) deberent de novo infeodari, singuli de suis partibus earundem terrarum, ut ante recognitionem erant, solvendo tantum modo domino suo superiori partem compositionis per eum domino regi pro nova infeodatione date, et quod ante recognitionem dictus Auchinlek, heredes eius et assignati ius redimendi terras illas habebant per reversionem, et quod mens regis videbatur quod habentes ius hereditarium in illis terris ante recognitionem recuperare illud deberent etiam postea (ut predictum est). Ideo decreverunt terras legitime redemptas, <eo> quod redimens in hoc casu numeraverat et consignaverat etiam partem compositionis (per dictum N. solute aldermanno et ballivis burgi predicti pro sua infeodatione), una cum summa contenta in litera reversionis.
429MS puts "sine confirmatione regis" before "varde" - probably because these words were added above the line and were drawn to the wrong place when the original manuscript was copied.

442. Off letters in the four formes to be gevin upone simple executoriales but ordinar letters or bullis principall.
The 28 of februar anno 1548 <= 1549, or scribal error> : The lordis be interlocutour decernit the letters in the four formis conforme to the executoriallis alanerlie schawin to thame (but ony bullis sub plumbo430 ) of Mr David Panter's provisioun to the abbacy of Cambuskenneth per decessum Alexandri abbatis ultimi, upone the quhilkis the vicar generall of Sanctandrois refusit to gif ordinar letters (as wes schawin per instrumentum publicum coram dominis Consilii productum). Ratio erat that the saidis executoriallis wer in autentica forma curie Romane and had the tenour of the bull principall contenit in thame. Thairfoir constare dicebant de provisione, et dominus gubernator admisit easdem tanquam legitime levatas et sibi intimatas, et quod inconveniens erat quod ordinarius quilibet, recusans literas suas ordinarias conformes eisdem, suld hald ane man <nocht> lawfullie provydit of his benefice. Et sic conclusit maior pars dominorum Consilii, quavis aliqui eorum tenerent contra, viz. quod de practica Scotie litere regie in quatuor formis dari non deberent super quavis provisione apostolica in beneficialibus nisi literis ordinariis provisione conformibus ante obtentis, et quod dicte litere quatuor formarum deberent tantum dari conformes literis ordinariis in hoc casu et nullo modo super solis executorialibus, quas etiam executoriales dicebant non esse autenticas ad probandum provisionem beneficii, licet referrent copiam principalium apostolicarum literarum provisionis sub plumbo de verbo in verbum (ut moris est) - per N<ovellam>, C. de edendo431. Verumtamen omnes domini unanimiter fatebantur de practica regni Scotie dare literas regias predictas conformes literis apostolicis declaratoriis in beneficialibus causis, quamvis ordinarii locorum eisdem declaratoriis obedire nollent, nec literas suas ordinarias conformes dare eisdem, prout hoc mense practicatum fuit bis: Viz. in causa magistri Joannis Spens, rectoris de Kirkchris, producentis declaratorias super rectoriam de Kirkchris contra dominum Joannem Durie (in dicta rectoria per episcopum Gallavidie ordinarium intrusum et collationatum). Declaratorias dictus episcopus obedire recusabat, ac literas suas ordinarias illis conformes dare omnino nolebat, prout per instrumentum publicum coram dominis Consilii productum clare constabat. Similiter super apostolicis declaratoriis obtentis per magistrum Davidem Bonar super rectoriam de Strabuk contra abatem de Dunfermeling et super personaria prebenda ecclesie Brechenensis, idem David declaratorias produxit contra quendam Hepburne (de illa prebendaria per episcopum Brechenensem provisum), et super vicaria de Logy contra magistrum Joannem Stevinsone, et super vicaria de Panbryd contra magistrum Alexandrum Kynnynmonth - quibus omnibus Davidis declaratoriis ordinarii locorum repugnabant nec ordinarias literas suas conformes dare volebant. Tamen domini Consilii literas quatuor formarum declaratoriis omnibus premissis conformes decreverunt. Et hoc dixerunt omnes de consuetudine esse. Et id decrevit maior pars eadem ratione super executorialibus solis in causa Davidis Panter predicta, licet hoc ante super executorialibus solis practicatum nemo dominorum recordaret, et antiqui dominorum. Minor pars eorundem tamen dissenserunt et dixerunt hoc non esse practicatum. Et hoc nota bene.
430"Without leaden seal" = thus trusting the mere "litterae executoriales" of the papal chancery, although the underlying papal act of prebendary provision (brought to execution by these "litterae executoriales") was not proved to them in the usual way, namely by papal bulla (sealed in lead with the papal seal).
431The decision of the majority was correctly based on Auth. "Si quis in aliquo instrumento" post C. 2.1.7, ex Nov. 119.3.

443. Habere pro deleto quid (post exceptionem dilatoriam propositam et disputatam ante) licet.
Eodem die <28 feb. 1549?>: In ane caus of retreiting of infeftment of landis gevin be the quene in tailye to Robert Carrutheres and certane his bretherane and thair airis maill, at the instance of the tua damesillis dochteris to the reservand, restitione in integrum contra dictam infeodationem (per reginam minorem annis) intentata et dicta alienationis et infeodationis nullitate etiam intentata in eodem libello coniunctim, the exceptioun beand proponit verbo contra summonitionem quod <petitio> erat inepta, continens videlicet illa dua remedia contraria, et ideo petita per reos <sententia> absolutoria prout libellatur; the <oral> exceptioun beand disput at the bar, the lordis ordanit it to be gevin in writ on the morne (and remanent exceptiounis delatouris). On the morn comperit actor et ante omnia dixit se velle habere pro deleto the haill caus of his summondis contenand the nullitie. The exceptioun beand gevin in per reos et absolutoria petita (ut supra), <rei> dixerunt: post disputationem iam habitam et exceptiones discussas (verbo latas et nunc in scriptis petitas iuxta <dominorum> desiderium termini et act desuper confecti) non licere actori habere quid pro deleto. <Pars actrix respondit> breviter quod libellus non erat adhuc acceptatus expresse verbo per reos, nec lis contestata videlicet per propositionem ulle exceptionis peremptorie. Decreverunt omnes domini licere adhuc actori libellum emendare, <habendo> quid pro deleto - quod licet de iure facere usque ad litis contestationem vel donec libellum fuerit expresse per reum acceptatum, ut notatur in l. Edita, C. de edendo432, - quamvis rei dixerant per propositionem exceptionis illius dilatorie et disputationem (ut predicitur) desuper late habitam libellum in ea parte tacite esse ab ipsis acceptatum et litem desuper quasi contestatam, sic quod ultra ullam partem habere pro deleto non posset actor. Sed domini et hanc litis contestationem et tacitam acceptationem libelli negabant de iure esse. Et ideo decreverunt ut supra dictum est.
432C. 2.1.3 [to the point].

444. De petenda restitutione in integrum, viz. cum venditor est 23 annorum.
The 16 of merche anno quo supra <1549>: Johne Steill callit Johne Hammyltone in Owtoun to heir and sie ane chartour of certane landis (maid to him be the said Johne) retreitit and rescindit and the landis to be restorit agane to him, as maid be him minorem annis, viz. nondum 23 annorum existentem (confecte charte et alienationis tempore), et enormiter lesum per dictum alienationem.

Reus excepit libellum non esse relevantem, berand the said Johne "minorem annis" and specifeand his aige of xxiii yeiris: becaus of the lawis of Scotland perfecta, legitima et maior etas omnium personarum (excepto rege cuius etas perfecta est 25 annorum iure novo, licet temporibus Jacobi primi, secundi et tertii fuerit similiter 21 annorum) censetur esse 21 annorum. Usque ad quem etatem tantum durat curatela, et non usque ad 25um annum prout de iure civili, as in sindrie passagis of "Regiam Maiestatem"433 is contenit.

Actor434 replicavit quod, licet erat etas perfecta to airis maill to entir to thair landis, nocht tamen quoad alienandum et contrahendum. Quum (si sic tisiserentur) possent minores 25 annis restitui iuxta iuris civilis regulas436 et canonici435, et quod ius municipale regni Scotie hunc passum non determinabat, ideo sequenda esse iura civilia et (quoad restitutionem in integrum petendam) minorem etatem semper durare usque 25um annum completum, quia "casus omissus remanet in dispositione iuris communis", l. Si quis in aliquo, C. de eodem437. Et tempus heredis intrandi ad suas terras non debet censeri etas maior et perfecta quoad omnes alios actus, quia femine, quoad hunc effectum, <post completam> 14 annorum etatem censentur de iure etatis perfecti; et filii burgensium (quia primum sciunt ulnare pannos et numerare pecunias) dicere velimus perfecte personas etatis. Predictum esse perfecte et maioris etatis ad contractus et alienationes rerum immobilium (<sine> revocatione, etiam si enormiter fuerit lesus) tunc faciendum, esset valde absurdum, nam etiam infans est perfecte etatis - quo non tamen ad alienationes rerum immobilium faciendas; quemadmodum masculus in 20o anno, femina in 18o anno potest veniam etatis a principe impetrare et sic haberi pro maiore annis adeo ut tunc restituere in integrum contra gesta per eos (post veniam etatis impetratam) non obtinerent, ut C. de eis qui veniam etatis438, quo casu tamen immobilia sine decreta iudicis alienare non potest439: glo. in l. C. de <in> integ. restitutione440. Item ratione liberorum minores 25 annis quoad honores, dignitatem et quedam privilegia habentur pro maioribus etate, non tamen quoad alienationes rerum et contractus441. Et sic, licet tales in certis his casibus habeantur pro maioribus quoad nonnullos actus, non tamen indistincte, quum immo contra alienationes (per quas sint lesi) initas ante 25um annum tanquam minores restituuntur, ut in locis predictis notatur. Et sic restat quod minor etas quoad petendam restitutionem in integrum ratione minoritatis et lesionis durat usque ad 25um annum etatis.

Domini tamen Consilii per interlocutoriam sententiam decreverunt: de iure municipali regni Scotie perfectam, legitimam et maiorem etatem (omnino excepto principis) tantum esse 21 annos quoad contrahendum et alienandum etiam immobilia. Etiam firmiter, sicut(?) de iure civili poterant olim maiores 25 annis. Quod probatur quia curatoris officium (qui datur adultis adhuc junioribus) expirat de practica Scotie in 21o anno etatis eius cui datur curator. Et sic etas 21 annorum censetur etas maior.
433"Regiam maiestatem" ...
434MS: Reus
435C. 2.21.
436X 1.41.
437Authentica "Si quis in aliquo documento", post C. 2.1.7 [text not directly to the point].
438C. 2.44.1 [to the point].
440Gloss by Franciscus Accursius on C. 2.21 [to the point].
441Words from D. 4.4.2.

445. Quadriennium petende restitutionis in integrum minoribus concessum de iure, quando(?) incipiat currere de iure municipali Scotie.
<CONTINUED> Et sic repulerunt domini Consilii dictum libellum tanquam ineptum, fundatum super minoritate Joannis Steill, etatis 23 annorum tempore alienationis terrarum, contra quam restitui se petebat tanquam tunc minorem et lesum. Et sic restitutionis <in> integrum petende tempus quatuor annorum immediatorum post perfectam etatem442 (et iure civili 25 annorum, de iure Scotie 21 annorum) statim incipit currere post completum 21um annum. Et hoc quadriennium hodie practicatur in Scotia. Et hec singularia nota.
442C. 2.21.4. See 6. 1.21.1-2, as churches are treated as minors. In our case, as land has been alienated, Roman law would concede five years: C. 5.74.3.

446. Off clerkis to be callit for barratrie befoir the temporall giudge.
Apud Linlythtqw <16 mar. 1549>: The lordis decernit thame be interlocutour competent judgis to proceid aganis Mr William Chreichtoun provest of Sanctgeillis kirk, accusit befoir thame for barratrie, becaus (as wes allegit) he impetrat the bischoprik of Dunkeld in Rome without the licence of the quene or governour, contrair the act of parliament, nochtwithstanding he allegit he aucht nocht to answer befoir thame be ressone that he wes clerk and ane kirk man and the lordis wes bot temporall jugis. The abote of Paslay wes his contrair pairtie. And the quenis advocat and utheris dissentit to the interlocutour.

447. That thair may be haldin of landis uthirwyis nor blanche, few ferme or waird.
Eodem die et mense <16 mar. 1549> (the sessione beand convenit in Linlithtqw for the pest in Edinburgh): In the actioun and caus of error movit be the quenis advocat aganes the laird of N. for retreting of his serving of the landis of N., becaus the retour buir that thai landis war haldin of the bischope of Sanctandrois for serving of his castell of Sanctandrois, albeit of the law of Scotland (as the quenis advocate allegit) thair wes na halding of landis bot other blanche, vaird or fewferme and the assyis had nocht servit nor retourit ane of thay thre haldingis of the saidis landis, nochttheles the lordis of Counsall decernit the asys quyte of the summondis and to haiff retourit weill, becaus that the said lairdis chartour (that he had of my lord of Sanctandrois) buir: "reddendo nobis et successoribus nostris custodiam castri nostri de Sanctandrea pro omni alio onere".

448. Possessor cum titulo, habens terminos cursuros, citra spoliationem amoveri non potest de possessione.
Apud Edinburgh, xx die (vel eocirca) januarii anno eodem <1549>: In causa spolii Jacobi Sinclar contra <quendam> nomine Cokburne de <...>. Idem Copburne emerat terras de N. a domino de Bass and or Witsounday warnit lawfulie, outlaid and remowit the said James fra the saidis landis, the said James than haifand certane yeiris takis thairof of the laird of Bass for termes than to rin eftir the said Witsounday. Copburne allegit he did na spuilyie, becaus he usit the law and practik of Scotland and the landis wes his and he knew than na takis. Nochttheles the lordis condamnit him in spuilyie, becaus James beand in possessioun within termes inclusit, haifand takis of termis to rin, aucht to haiff bene callit ordourlie befoir ane judge or he mycht haiff bene put out. Et quod de practica (regni huius) possessor cum titulo colorato (nisi vocatus judicialiter de possessione) non potest amoveri per quemcunque sine spolio.

449. Possessio partis rei indicat possessionem totius, ut de spolio totius agi possit.
The 21 day januarii <1548>: Dominus Merchestoune et Jacobus Carmichall contra dominum de Wrychthousis. It wes allegit that the actour mycht nocht persew the spuilyie of the haill teindis libellit, becaus his summondis buir that he wes in possessioun of ane pairt of the samyn be puttin thairof upone his steadis, and sua that he had nocht possessioun of the haill. The lordis be interlocutour decernit that be apprehensioun of ane pairt of thai teindis actores erant in possessione totarum decimarum et de spoliatione totarum possunt agere, quemadmodum per apprehensionem unius partis fundi apprehendi censetur possessio totius fundi quantuncunque magni.

450. De possessore cum titulo non amovendo de possessione ad manum domini terre.
Primo februarii anno eodem <1549>: The laird of Durie callit Stewin Dudistoun for spuilyeing him of the landis of N., he than haifand takkis for termes to run. Dudistoun allegit that he did na spuilyie becaus that he had gottin new infeftment of the landis recognist be the bischop of Sanctandrois, superiour thairof, and lawfulie warnit and removit at Witsounday and ejectit ordourlie the said laird Durie. Nochttheles the lordis decernit reum in spolio, quia alter erat in possessione terrarum habens assedationem earundem pro terminis adhuc cursuris. Et ideo (nisi vocatus iudicialiter) de possessione non erat amovendus, posito etiam quod titulus eius non esset de iure omnino validus, arg. c. Licet episcopus, de prebendis, in 6.443
4436. 3.4.28 [to the point].

451. Off advocatioun of causses concerning the quenis gift or rycht.
Eodem die <1 feb. 1549>: In causa Henrici Kemp contra N., the lordis advocat the mater to thame selffis, becaus eorum defensio iniuriebatur juri eis facto per regem be reasone of foirfaltour led aganes the lord Glammis, and the lordis of Counsall are judgis allanerlie to all personis concerning the king or quenis privilege concerning thair rychtis or giftis.

452. Off suspensioun of letters or preceptis throw wrangus executiounis thairof.
Eodem die <1 feb. 1549>: In causa Joannis Tennent contra Petrum Colquhone, the lordis suspendit the schireffis precept and thair letters, becaus the schireff of Lanerk (within quhair jurisdictioun the landis lay, for spoliatioun of the quhilkis Petir callit the said Johne befoir him virtute literarum dominorum Consilii) had summond the said Johne without his jurisdictioun within the quhilk the said Johne duelt nocht. Et licet (ratione rei de qua agebatur) dictus Joannes sortiretur ibi forum444, tamen vicecomes extra suam jurisdictionem citare eum alibi morantem (et infra suam jurisdictionem non apprehensum) <non> poterat. And sua <thai> suspendit the letters of cognitioun, for vrangus excecutioun of the precept, direct thairupone be the schireff.
444X 2.2.20.

453. Off terme of probatioun to be gevin for non-delyvering of houssis.
The 20 februarii, anno eodem <15499: The erle of Mortoun callit George Douglas for delyvering of the dungeone of Dalkeytht, pertening to him as franctenementar thairof. McGill (procuratour for the said George) allegit that the samyn wes delyverit lang of befoir to the said George be the said erle, to be his and his sones heretablie fear thairof and duelling place. And offerit him to preve the samyn be veratie. And allegit for that caus that he aucht nocht delyver the dungeoun to him. The erlis procuratour allegit that he suld preve his allegeance instantlie. The uther askit ane terme. The lordis of Counsall be interlocutour decernit ane terme to preve the same.

454. Charge for delyvering of evidentis upone 6 dayis hes nocht place bot to the havearis or that had thame.
The 3 februarii (vel eocirca) <1549>: The laird of Maninstoun callit schir James Hammyltones air for delyvering to him of ane reversioun of Maninstoun that the schir James tuik wranguslie out of the Blakfreris of Striviling and grantit the samyn the tyme of his deid and justefeing, and that his air had the samyn - that pertenit to the said laird. The air allegit that he aucht nocht answer to the summondis upone 6 dayis warning for delyvering of thai evidentis (as the summondis wer libellit), for sic chargis for delyvering of evidentis on 6 dayis varning hes nocht place bot aganes thame that hes or had the same446, quhilk he denyit. And be vertew of his fatheris grant of that evident he aucht to be callit be ane peremptour summondis ordourlie and be way of actioun, and nocht be sic charge. And sua he aucht nocht to answer to that summondis as it wes libellit, nor be this ordour. The lordis decernit him nocht to answer be this ordour, becaus the laird refusit to preve the airis haveing of the reversioun, bot vald haiff provin his fatheris having and grant - be vertew of the quhilkis the air aucht nocht to be callit as said is.
445D. 10.4, C. 3.42 ( = actio ad exhibendum).

455. Off delyvering of dettis and continence of evidentis to the ovirlord.
Quinto februarii anno eodem <1549>: David Weymes callit the laird of Balmutow for delyvering of certane evidentis. The laird of Weymes (comperand for his entres) allegit certane thairof to pertane to him. Ane chartour wes of certane landis of the Weymes, gevin be the said lairdis father to the said David, haldin of his airis. Of this chartour the laird askit the dait, the halding and gif it wes seillit and subscryvit be the laird, his father. David allegit it wes his <Davidis> evident, and the copie thairof aucht nocht to be gevin to him <the laird>. The lordis of Counsall decernit to him the dait and halding and instrumentis that it wes nocht subscryvit, becaus it concernit the laird quha wes and is air to his father, nochtwithstanding that David allegit the samyn nocht to be done, becaus it wes his propir evident445.
446Doctrine on C. 2.1.1.

456. Off spuilyie to be impute to thame that tuik geir away or ejectit ony man out of his possessione be vertew of ane decreit new reducit.
Eodem die (vel eocirca) <5 feb. 1549>: N. callit ane William Millar for spuilyie. Quha allegit he did na spuilyie, becaus he wes bot witnes onlie to the schireff of Fyfe, the erle of Rothes officiar, quha be vertew of the schireffis precept pat the said N. out of the landis, and removit his guidis of the said landis be vertew of the said schireffis precept direct to his said officiar upone his decreit. And offerit him to preiff the samyn per scripta, viz. be the said precept dewlie execute and indorsate. And albeit the said decrete wes reducit be decrete of the lordis yit, thair culd na spuilyie be impute nather to the officiar nor his witness, becaus thai removit the said N. ordourlie and be vertew of the decrete than standand unreducit. Nochttheles the maist pairt of the lordis decernit and decretit the said N. exceptioun nocht relevant in respect of the summondis, and that it followit nocht that he wes indorsat witnes, ergo he spuilyeit nocht. And sua his exceptioun wes repellit, bot in veratie I traist unjustlie: for it that the officiar or uther dois in executioun of thair office be vertew of ane sentence of ane lawfull judge ordourlie led, albeit the said sentence wer eftirward reducit, aucht nocht to be impute as wrang nor spuilyie to the executouris of the said sentence, qui nihil fecerunt fide mala sed optima, albeit (the proces and sentence beand reducit) it that wes takin thairthrow at instance of the pairtie may be impute as spuilyie to the principall pairtie, quhen ane unjust sentence obtenit be him aucht nocht to be said fra wrang and spuilyie, it beand reducit mair nor he had done the samyn with his awin hand.

457. Quod summonitio valeat and instantiam soli minoris facta, si authoritas legitimi administratoris (viz. patris vel tutoris) interveniat initio litis et cause.
Eodem die (vel eocirca) <5 feb. 1549>: Johne Fleming callit quendam Diksoun for the non-entres of certane landis. It wes exceptit be the uthir pairtie that Johne impubes non habebat legitimam personam standi in iudicio447et quod summonitio per eum sine consensu suorum tutorum facta non valebat de iure, et ideo pars non tenebatur respondere. Comperit than instantlie Malcome lord Fleming, his father, and assistit to his said sone Johne and ratefeit his summondis and consentit to the persewing thairof as his lawfull administratour and guydar in the law. Diksoun said that his auctoritie suld haiff intervenit in the summondis and the samyn bene made at the minoris instance and his said fatheris, as tutour to him for his entres. The lordis decernit sufficient that the father comperit now and assistit to the minor and interponit his assent and auctoritie thairto, albeit the samyn wes nocht libellit448.
447C. 5.34.11.
448See parallel decision in nr. 483.

458. Off reductioun of letters of cognitioun, direct be the lordis of Counsall to the schireff upon testat geir or legacie or utheris caussis pertening to the spirituall jurisdictioun.
The tent day of februar <1549>: The lordis decernit thair letters of cognitioun, rasit at the instance of the ladie Quhittinghame and barnes and husband for his entres aganes the laird of Bass and Swintoun upone vc li. (quhilk letters wer direct to the schiref of Lothiane within the constabularie of Hadingtoun), quhilk sowme foirsaid wes allegit gevin to thame be the auld laird of Bas the tyme of his deceis, quhilk the tua lairdis as intromettouris with the said laird of Bassis geir refusit to delyver to thame, inordourlie proceidit and vranguslie gevin, aucht nocht <to be followit bot> to be reducit, becaus the said sowme wes left as legacie to the said ladie and hir barnis be the deid in his lettir will, and the saidis tua lairdis intromettouris with the said auld lairdis guidis and geir as executouris confirmit. And of the law and practik of this realme all questioun of testament legacie, quhilk is ane pairt of the testament, aucht and sould be decydit coram iudice ecclesiastico et ad eius forum spectat. And executouris aucht nocht to ansuer befoir the secular judge bot befoir the spirituall. And sua the letters of cognitioun wes purchest suppressa veritate449, calland the tua lairdis simpliciter "intromittouris", nocht makand mentioun that thai war executouris. Quhilk, gif it had bene expremit, the lordis had nocht delyverit letters of cognitioun aganes thame for the caussis foirsaidis. And sua the lordis reducit thair letters as inordourlie procedit and gevin super causam ad forum ecclesie spectantem, in the quhilk thai mycht nocht gif jurisdictioun to the schiref, nor yit in na uther actioun or causs pertenand to the spirituall court and jurisdictioun.
449Reference to legal rules about nullity of "gratia subreptitia". See note to nr. 55.

459. Off reductioun of infeftment maid per patrem suo filio, dolose in fraudem creditorum.
The 12 of februarii anno eodem <1549>: The lady Seatoun callit Alexander Copburne of Harperdene and James Copburne, his sone of 5 or 6 yeir auld or thairby, to heir the heretabill seasing of the landis of Harperden gevin be the said Alexander to his said sone reducit and retreittit, becaus the said Alexander immediatlie befoir the geving thairof had annalit 26 merk annuell out of the landis to the said lady and to the preistis and college kirk of Seatoun and had gevin thame chartour and seasing and or thai tuik sasing, great sowmes of money beand payit to him be the said lady for the said annuell, the said laird in manifest defraud of the said lady and preistis dolose infeodavit suum filium in suis terris, and sua, said scho, that that alienatioun in dolo et fraude (ut predicitur) facta de iure erat retractanda.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 513. Ane infeftment maid be the father to the sone being pupill in defraud of utheris will be reducit non obstante minori etate et pupillaritate.
<1543> The lady Seatoun persewit Alexander Cocburne of Harpardin <and> James Cokburne his sone (being pupill within the age of fyve yeiris) to heir and sie ane infeftment and seasing past thairupone to the said pupill his sone to be reducit and retritit, becaus the said Alexander had immediatlie befoir the geving thairof annaliet xx markes furth of the samyn landis, quhairoff he had gevin seasing to his sone, to the said lady and preistis and colledge kirk of Seatoun titulo oneroso and had tane gryt soumes of money fra thame for the same. Et sic desiderabat et petiit hanc infeodationem factam filio tamquam dolose et cum manifesta fraude factam cassari et retractari. It was ansuerit that agitur hic de hereditate450. To this was ansuerit that agitur hic cum minore ob delictum paternum et quod minor in hoc casu non debuit locupletari cum alterius jactura451. The quhilk alledgance the lordis fand relevant and sua admittit the ressone of the summondis.
450"Regiam maiestatem" ch. ...

451See quotations in notes to nrs. 101 and 407.

460. Minor aliquando de hereditate placitare tenetur ultra casus in "Reg. Ma." positos.
Procurator Jacobi minoris dixit eum non compellendum respondere in hac causa, eo quod erat super hereditate sua, super qua ipse utpote minor annis placitare non tenetur de iure regni nisi in quatuor casibus in <"Regia majestate"> expressis452, de quibus casibus presens non erat unus, et quod in similibus casibus sic sepe practicatum extitit. Et ideo petiit se absolvi ab instantia iudicii usque ad perfectam etatem. The lordis of Counsall decernit the said James to ansuer nochtwithstanding his allegeance, becaus agebatur hic de retractatione dolose infeodationis hereditarie sibi per patrem suum facte retente <in> manifestam fraudem dicte domine, et quod minor non debet locupletari cum iactura aliena453 et ex dolo patris sui, et quod iniquum valde foret si pretextu minoritatis liceret patribus sic defraudare alios, et quod suadente hac iniquitate in hoc casu licite possit iudex a stricta illius iuris municipalis regni Scotie (de quo supra) severitate recidere, attento etiam quod ius regni deberet maxime intelligi in minoribus parentes suos legitimes gubernatores non habentibus, qui orbi parentibus possint forsan gravissime ledi si de sua hereditate placitare cogerentur. Sed hic minor habebat patrem suum superstitem adhuc fraudulentem et dolosum.
452"Regiam maiestatem" ch. ...
4536. 5.(13).48. See note to nrs. 101 and 407.

461. Suadente equitate potest iudex a rigore juris scripti recedere in judicando.
<CONTINUED> Et similiter suadente equitate ad exonerandum conscientiam regis Jacobi quinti domini Consilii decreverunt (statim post mortem suam) reginam nostram respondere debere super reductione resignationis domini de Dalkeith facte per dominum eiusdem in manibus regis predicti ad perpetuam remanentiam454.
454Quoted in nr. 417.

462. That witnes aucht nocht to be admittit to preve transactioun, exoneratioun or discharge, contract or obligatioun maid in writ, et quod instrumentum perditum per testes probatur.
The 14 of februar <1549>: The maister of Haillis allegit that Andro abbote of Newbottill456for the tyme had exonerat and dischargit him for the sowmes contenit in ane decrete of the lordis obtenit be the said abbot, and offerit him to preve the samyn be witnes. The abbote of Newbottill (that now is) said: he suld preve be writ and nocht be witness. The lordis decernit that this exoneratioun of the sowmes contenit in the decrete aucht to be provin be writ. And quhairevir obligatioun or contract is in writ, of the practik of Scotland transactioun thairupone, exoneratioun and discharge thairof may be provin be writ and nocht be witnes. And als in the said caus in termino dato dicto magistro Haillis ad probandum exonerationem decreti predicti, quiquidem terminus erat peremptorius utpote super probatione exceptionis, the maister allegit that he had the auld abbotis discharge in writ under his subscriptioun manuall and that it wes burnt in his place of Bowtoun, quhilk wes burnt and all his geir thairin as wes notourlie kend, and offerit him to preve tenorem, amissionem et casum fortuitum per testes qui legerunt et noverunt dictam acquitantiam et subscriptionem dicti abbatis, et ad hoc petiit novum terminum. The lordis admittit him to preve his allegeance455, bot alanerlie be the witnes summond at this terme.
455This case is quoted at the end of nr. 422.
456Decision correctly based X 4.2.1, and in this case also on doctrine to C. 2.1.1: privileged treatment of persons who happened to lose their evidential documents by fire, naufragy or earthquake.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 511. Exoneratione and discharge may nocht be provin be witnes.
14 februar 1542 <= 1543> : Into the actione betuix the abbot of Newbotle and the maister of Haills quha alledgit that the abbot had exonerit and dischargit him of certane soumes of money obtenit be the said abbot aganis him into ane decreit and offerit him to prove the samyn be witnes. The quhilk was reffusit be the lordis and fand that discharge, exxoneratioun and acquittance behuiffit to be provin ather be wreit or oath of pairtie.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 512. Instrumentum aut scriptum perdita quomodo probari debeant.
<CONTINUED> Then the said maister allegit that he ones the said discharge under the abbottes seall and subscriptioun manuell, quhilk (being in his place of Bowtoun quen it was brunt) the said discharge was brunt and perished thair with many uther wreites. And sua he offerit him to prove amissionem, tenorem et casum fortuitum per testes qui noverunt et legerunt acquitanctiam. The quhilkis the lordis admittit and gave him ane terme to prove the samyn per predictos testes.

463. In contractibus reciprocis, qui debeat per verba contractus prius facere quam alter, conveniri potest per alterum ut impleat contractum, licet alter nec impleverit nec implere paratum se obtulerit.
The 17 februarii <1549>: The laird of Kers callit George Panter457to delyver him ane xix yeir tak of the personage and vicarage of Tillicowtrie, quhilk he promist and oblist him to git under the common seill and subscriptioun of the channonnes of Cambuskenneth, quairfoir the said laird promesit to him infeftment of sex chalder wictuall of Alway or Vest kers, and George to delyver the tak foirsaid and the laird the evidentis of the victual, within xx dayis nixteftir Pasche immediatlie followand the dait of the contract upone the premissis. And lang eftir the said xx dayis be the space of tua yeiris the laird desyrit him to be decernit be decrete of the lordis of Counsall to obtene and delyver to him the said tak. George exceptit he was nocht oblist to delyver the tak bot gif the laird had libellit that he fulfillit the contract for his pairt or offerit the same, and that he had na actioun to persew bot gif he first had fulfillit it for his pairt or offerit the same, quia hic contractus est hinc inde reciprocus et contractus innominatus "facio ut facias", et in contractibus innominatis neutri partium competit nec nascitur actio de iure, nisi implenti vel offerenti implere458. The laird replyit that be the wordis of the contract foirsaid the said George suld first get him the said tak and fulfill the contract for his pairt first to him. The lordis be interlocutour decernit that George Panter aucht to fulfill his pairt first to the said laird and that the said laird mycht call him for the same, albeit he had nocht fulfillit the contract for his pairt nor offerit thairto within the day contenit in the contract that thai suld ilk ane fulfill to uther the said contract for thair awin pairt. Bot the contract buir that George suld fulfill and delyver the tak, and the laird infeft him in sex chalder of victuall. And als the lordis decernit that George wes oblist to get that tak, becaus he promesit to get it to the said laird ane xix yeir tak under the commoun seill and subscriptiounis of the abote and convent, and sua he oblist him ad factum proprium et non alienum, albeit George allegit that promeis wes super facto alieno (puto abbatis et conventus) et promissio facti alieni de iure non obligat eum459.
457. Similar cases in nrs. 377a and 383-385.
458This argument was correct for ancient Roman law: D. 19.2., C. 4.64 - but not for modernized Roman law as applied under the aegis of canon law!
459Inst. 3.19.3 et 21.

Supplement from anonymous contemporary collection (see preface!), nr. 510. He that is first oblesit in ane contract, sould first fulfill or offer to fulfill.
Januarii 1542 <= 1543> : The laird of Kers Monteith persewit ane Georg Panter to delyver ane 19 yeir tak of the personage and vicarage of the kirk of Tillecultrie quhilk he band himselff be way of contract to get and obtein furth of the handis of the abbot Cambuskenneth. For the quhilk caus the laird obleist him upone the uther pairt to infeft the said George in his landis in ane annuelrent of sax chalders of victuall within the space of tuentie dayis efter the obteining and delyvering of the said tak. George ansuerit that he aucht nocht to be decernit to delyver the said tak and the leirdis summondis was nocht relevant, except he said that he had offerit the infeftment of the vi. ch. victuall and sua was reddy to fulfill the contract for his pairt, quia hic contractus fuit hinc inde reciprocus et contractus innominatus "facio ut facias". Et in huiusmodi contractibus neutri partium competit actio nisi implenti aut saltem offerenti implere. It was ansuerit that according to the wordis of the contract the said George was first obleist to obtein the tak and sua he aucht first without any offer to begin. The lordis fand be interloquitur that the said Georg aucht first to fulfill his pairt, albeit the laird had newer fulfillit nor offerit for his pairt, and that becaus the said George was first oblesit.
A contrair to the first practike betuix the laird of Gleincairne and the abbot off Kilwining.

464. Impigneratio et exoneratio contractus scripti per scripta et non per testes etiam in ipso contentos (et sic instrumentarios) debet probari. Ad hoc faciunt notata per Bar. Cum de indebito § Sed haec, ff. de proba.460
<CONTINUED> And forder in that caus George allegit that at the making of that contract betuix the laird and him and in the mentyme the laird promesit faythfullie nocht to persew him for tak nor getting thairof. Sua he did his diligence thairin, and that he had done his utter diligence and culd nocht obtene the said tak. And offerit him to preve the samyn be the notar and witnes contenit in the contract producit be the said laird. The said laird allegit it suld be provin be writ, and nocht be witnes. The lordis decernit that the discharge of the contract in writ of the practik aucht to be provin be writ, and that this allegeance wes distructive of the contract. Sed in hoc casu debet per testes instrumentarios predictam exceptionem probari461 - et solus fui in opinione mea.
460Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato on D. [to the point].
461X 2.22.10.

465. Off tua giftis of non-entres, the landis beand eftir the first gift anes beand full be intres of ane air thairto, the said airis retour and sasing thairof beand thaireftir retreitit.
The 17 (vel eocirca) februarii anno eodem <1549>: The lord Flemingis sone callit quendam Diksoun de Ormestoun to heir the v li. land Glenhome and certane utheris landis decernit in non-entres and to him the males and dewteis thairof as donatour thairto to our soverane lord that last deceissit. Jonet Ker, relict of Thomas Diksone, comperit for hir entres and said the non-entres of thai landis pertenit to hir be ressone of the gift thairof maid to hir be our said soverane lord upone tua yeir befoir the said lord Flemingis gift, and be vertew thairof scho hes bruikit the samyn mony yeiris. It wes replyit that hir gift mycht nocht seclude the said lord sonnis gift, becaus the saidis landis wes full sen Thomas Diksones deceis be ressone that ane brother to the said Thomas Diksone, sone to the said Thomas eldar, wes servit be breves as narrest and laufull air to him of thai landis and interit thairto, and brukit the samyn aucht or nyne yeiris. And thairthrow the said Jonet' gift had tane full effect and wes expyrit be that intres of the air. It wes duplyit be Jonettis pairt that that service and retour wes thaireftir reducit and decernit be decrete of the lordis to haiff bene of na availl, becaus thair wes na sasing of the said Thomas youngar of thai landis schawin to the assyss, as the lordis decrete of reductioun (producit be the said Jonet) proportit. And sua that retour and seasing followand thairupone wes of nane availl and that it wes na lawfull intres of the rychteous air of the saidis landis. It wes answerit be the other pairtie that be the act of parliament462thair may na persone eftir thre yeiris call for reductioun of brevis or retouris. And this retour stud unreducit aucht yeiris, scho beand present in the countrie and nocht calland for reductioun be ressone of hir intres, and sua scho mycht nocht now call clene to that reductioun et tanto silentio preiudicavit sibi. It wes answerit for Jonettis pairt that, albeit lapsu trium annorum seclusa erat a reductione dictorum briveum et inde secutorum per dictum actum parliamenti, tamen reductione facta ad instantiam alterius poterat ipsa redire ad ius suum, ratione donationis predicte quae interea dormiebat. Tamen quidem (habito respecto ad decretum dominorum predictum) pro parte altera responsum erat quod ita practicatum fuit per dominos Consilii in causa archiepiscopi Sancteandree contra N. Et in hac causa Mr Hugo Rig procurator erat filii domini Fleming.
462Statute ...

466. Ane retour or sasing being reducit secludis nocht the gift of non-intres preceding be ane uther possessouris deceis.
<CONTINUED> The lordis of Counsall decretit (nochtwithstanding all the said Mr Hew Rigis allegeance) the said Jonet Keiris gift to prevaill the other gift, and that becaus thair wes na laufull intres of the rychteous air to the saidis landis libellit sen the deceis of the man foirsaid be quhais deceis scho had gift of non-entres of the said landis. And the brevis, retouris and sasingis foirsaidis (now reducit) previs nocht ony lawfull interes(?)of the lawfull rychteous air. And that it wes ewin alyk as and that retour and sasing allegit had nevir bene, and that it takis nocht away the gift of non-entres precedand, becaus it wes nocht lawfull nor rychteous - as now apperis cleirlie be the decreit of reductioun.

467. Quod spolio (tenente eiecto fundo) censetur dominus de possessione spoliatus, et ad restitutionem possessionis agere potest.
The xix februarii or thairby <1549>: In ane caus of spuilyie intentit be the laird of Durie contra Stevin Dudistoun, the lordis decretit Stewin to haiff spuilyeit him of his possessioun of the landis of N. becaus Stevin violentlie put A. <off the landis>, qua wes takisman and tenent to the said laird of the saidis landis, and that the said laird wes in possessioun thairof be the saidis tenentis and he aucht to be restorit to the said possessioun in the persoun of his tenent.

468. Actio spolii bonorum datorum alteri, viz. tenenti in steilbow, pertinet accipienti in steilbow et non ei qui dedit tenenti in steilbow.
<CONTINUED> Bot becaus the guidis and geir that wes upone the ground foirsaid and spuilyeit thairof be the said Stewin wes delyverit be the said laird of Durie to his said tenent in steilbow and sua wes the tenentis awin be nature of the contract of steilbow, the lordis decernit Stewin quyt, becaus thai guidis pertenit to the tenentis and wes his awin and in his possessioun and nocht in his maisteris the lairdis. And sua actio spolii bonorum pertinent tenenti et non domino.

469. That strangearis may persew be ordour of dyet or tabill.
The last of februar <1549> or thairby anno predicto: Ane francheman callit the provest of Dundie for wrangus withhalding fra him of certane geir be ane simple charge. The provestis procuratour allegit that he aucht nocht to be callit be ane peremptour summondis and ordour of the tabill. The lordis be interlocutour decernit proces be the said charge, and that in favouris of the strangear, the franchman.

470. Quod restitutio facta ob bonum publicum extenditur etiam ad alienata in alium.
The day foirsaid <29 feb. 1549>: The lord Home persewit the lord Lyndsay for resignatioun of ane peice land, disponit be Johne duk of Albanie, governour of Scotland, to the said lord Lyndsayis predicessouris, be ressone of foirfaltour led aganes the lord Home to quhome the land than heretablie pertenit, to be maid in the superiouris handis in favouris of the said lord Home and that he mycht get heretabill infeftment, becaus the said lord Home wes restorit be the said governour and the thre estaitis of the realme be decreit of parliament to all landis that pertinit to the said lord that wes forfaltit, and this lord rehabilite to succeid to him alsweill as he had nocht bene foirfaltit. And for the commoun weill of the realme this lord wes restorit to all his landis, takis, steadingis that pertinit to his said broder that wes foirfaltit. And sua, albeit that the said lord Lyndsay <wes donatour to the deceist kingis graice of the saidis landis, he> aucht and sould resigne the samyn landis in his favouris. The lord Lyndsay allegit that he aucht nocht to do the same, quia restitutio principis etiam plenissima non extenditur ad bona alienata in alium per principem ratione eschete seu forisfacture, l. ii, C. de sen. pass.463, et quod ille terre alienate erant per regem cum consensu(?) dicti sui gubernatoris suo predicessori domino Lyndsay, et ideo restitutio istius domini Home extendi non poterat ad illas terras. Replicatum fuit pro parte domini Home quod hec restitutio facta erat ob bonum publicum regni, et ideo ad alienata quoque bona porrigi debeat, ut not. per Bar., Jas. et alios in l. Gallus, § Et quid si tantum, ff. de lib. et postumis464 et ut q...(?) (ut ibi notatur) dicit "constare de hoc deberet"466 et non "constaret de presenti". Tamen partes predicti consenserunt quod decretum ferretur pro domino Home. Et domini Consilii et sessionis antiqui dixerunt notorium esse quod ob bonum regis regnique nostra restitutio illa facta fuerat. Et ideo de consensu domini Lyndsay decreverunt contra ipsum pro domino Home.
463C. 9.51.2 et 11 [to the point].
464Commentaries by Bartolus de Saxoferrato and Iason de Mayno and others on D. [to the point].
465Words of the commentary?

471. Off instrumentis rasit in substantiall and suspect places to mak na faithe nor preve.
Eodem die vel eocirca <29 feb. 1549>: The laird of Dunnone callit Mr Henry Lawder to heir and sie ane decrete of non-entres (gevin aganes him at the said Mr Henries instance) retreit, becaus it wes gevin decernand the said lairdis instrument of sasing to mak na fayth, na preiff, becaus it wes rasum in loco substantiali, viz. in nomine et cognomine notarii in ipsius instrumenti subscriptione, et ideo erat suspectum. Et ideo non debebat fidem de iure facere465, albeit that the said laird allegit that that wes na relevant caus of the law quhy ane instrument publict suld haiff na faytht, et quod rasura illa erat notarii manu reposita, et ideo veritate instrumentum non debebat carere, ut notat Jason in lege C. de edicto domini Adri.467, ubi ita videtur tenere clare. Et obtulit dictus dominus se probaturum rasuram illam repositam esse manu eiusdem notarii, per probationem aliorum instrumentorum.

<Sed domini Consilii decretum tulerunt pro dicto magistro Henrico Lawder, quia dicebant rasuram illam vitiare instrumentum> et reddere adeo suspectum ut fides ei non debeat adhiberi, quia erat in loco suspecto et substantiali. Et ideo licet videri prout non videbatur reposita manu eiusdem notarii, ut ipsis dominis Consilii ex inspectione oculari instrumenti ipsius et rasure et aliorum instrumentorum ipsius notarii coram ipsis iudicibus productorum <videbatur>. Adhuc tamen fidem facere non deberet ipsum instrumentum, ex eo quia repositio illius rasure poterat esse conficta per alium, simulantem et fingentem manum illius notarii, ut dicit Pan. hec in cap. Cum venerabilis, Extra. de rel. domib., ubi glosa et alii doctores468. Vide in l. Si per alle. Pan.469, in l. Si unus, C. de test.470, Specii in restat de iud.471, doct. in cap. Licet, extra de cri.472, Bal. et Bar.473 in l. Contract., C. de fide instrument.474. Et sic nota quod in hoc casu decreverunt domini Consilii secundum Pan<ormitanum> et non secundum Jas<onem>.
466See X 2.22.3.
467Commentary by Jason de Mayno on words in C. 6.33.3: "testamentum ostenderit non cancellatum, neque abolitum, neque ex quacunque suae formae parte vitiatum, sed quod prima figura sine vituperatione appareat".
468Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) and gloss by Bernardus Parmensis, and other commentaries, on X 3.36.7.
469Garbled quotation.
470C. 6.23.12 [to the point].
471Garbled. Guilielmus Durantis, "Speculum iudiciale" ?
472Commentaries on X 5.20.5.
473MS: Pan.
474Commentaries by Baldus de Ubaldis and Bartolus de Saxoferrato on C. 4.21.17.

472. Off ane air apperand mareit of 17 yeir auld, he aucht nocht pay his mariage unto the tyme he be interit.
Eodem die <29 feb. 1549>: Schir William Hammyltoun of Sanquhair as donatour to the quenis graice to the mariag of the air or airis of umquhile A.B. that sould happin to <succeid to> the said A. in his landis and heretage, callit N. befoir the lordis, for the singill awaill of his mariage, becaus the said A.B. held waird of the quene and the said N. wes to succeid to him and narrest air and he mareit himself but leve of the quene or of the said donatour and wes nocht requyrit be the said donatour to mary. The said N. allegit that he sould nocht be compellit to pay the simple awaill of his mariage, howbeit he wer mareit but leve of the quene or of the said donatour, and that the quene or had na actioun yit contra him thairfoir becaus he wes as yit <nocht> air of ony landis to the said A. nor interit thairto, and it mycht chance him to die unenterit. And he mycht nocht yit inter, throw les aige of 17 yeiris, and sua the landis vardit yit. And gif he war compellit yit to pay the awaill of his mariage, in caice he diet unenterit, the quene suld haiff wranguslie the proffeit, and als suld haiff the mariag of the immediat successour to the said umquhile N. in and to the landis, and <gif> that <the successour> (allsua beand mareit) decessit and unenterit, the quene suld haiff his mariage and proffeit in lykwyis wranguslie, he nevir beand air to the said umquhile A., and sua of all uther apperand airis of the said umquhile A. (howbeit thai nevir succedit into the landis, be vertew of the quhilkis haldin waird the quene aucht to haiff <the mariage of> the said A.' air or airis that happinis to succeid to him to the saidis landis) - quhilk wer <nocht> by ressone, considderand the quene aucht to haiff the mariage of the air of waird landis. Item gif the quene vald allege the first appering mariage to pertene to hir than, and in that cace that man deceissand unmareit (or mareit but hir leve and or scho had obtenit the awaill of his mariage and he nevir being interit), it mycht be sperit gif the quene mycht nocht seik the nixt manis or vomanis mariage that happinit to succeid in thai waird landis to the said A. Na man dowtis: bot the quene (for the first apperand airis deceis uninterit) sould nocht tyne the mariage of the said umquhile N. Gif scho vald nocht tyne in this cais, ergo na yit win a contrario.

Than allegit hir advocat: the apperand air being mareit by the quenis will, he sall tak a gift of the non-intres of his landis, and sua sall ly ay out of thame and defraud the quene sua evir of the profeit of his mariage, quhilk wer inconvenient.

It wes ansuerit: gif the air wer of aige and mycht entir or wer mareit, or refusit to marie in defraude of the quene, he mycht be requyrit to entir to that effect that scho mycht get his mariage, with certificatioun to him. And <gif> he failyeit, he sould be haldin to pay the samyn siclyk and as he war mareit - as we say incace the air ly furtht of his landis in defraude of creditouris: thay may gar charge him to entir to that effect that thai may haiff actioun contra him, with certificatioun, and <gif> he entir nocht, it sal be proceidit aganis him and the landis sal be apprysit for the dettis alsueill as he wer enterit. Or ellis we may say: the superiour may nocht compell the air to entir nor mary and hes na rycht to the mariage bot gif the air be enterit and mary by his consent.

Breviter the lordis of Counsall <decernit aganis schir William Hammyltoun> in respect of that gift contenand the claus foirsaid, and that the said A. wes nocht nor mycht nocht yit entir defectu etatis and mycht die throw chance unenterit, quhairthrow it sould happin him nevir to haiff bene air to the said A. nor yit succeid him in the landis. Thairfoir howbeit he wes apperand air to the said A. of thai waird landis and had mareit him selff but consent or leve of the quene, yit the quene culd nocht crave the awaill of his mariage yit, quia ius regine ad maritagium ipsius pendebit futuro eventu, viz. si ipse forte succederet dicto A. in dictis terris - quod non iam sit. <Continued in nr. 475>

473. Off geving of letters contra succedentes in vitium alterius, et quomodo cognoscantur tales successores.
The 16 marcii 1548 <= 1549>: Andro Rynd obtenit ane decreit of spuilyie of the commoun clerkschip of Sanct Johnestoun aganes umquhile Mr Duncane Maii. Quha restorit the said Andro agane to his possessioun of the said office and sua obeyit the decreit. And thaireftir the said Andro bruikit peciablie the said office thre our four yeir. Now deis the said Mr Duncane. And Nicoll Ruthven (be his deceis) obtenit ane presentatioun of the said office as vacand fra the quenis graice (as haifand powar and rycht thairof). Quhilk nominatioun and presentatioun provest, bailleis and communitie of Perth admittis. And resavis be vertew thairof the said Nicholl to the possessioun and intres of the said office, quhairthrow the said Nicoll puttis the said Andro out of his office. Now the said Andro callis the said Nicoll befoir the lordis to heir letter gevin aganes him (as succedand in vice of the said Mr Duncane), becaus the said Nicoll is cum to the office as vacand be the said Mr Duncanis deceis and sua hes put the said Andro newlingis fra his possessioun, and sua the said Nicoll' rycht dependis and followis upone the said Mr Duncanes rycht and pretendit possessioun. Et sic videtur dictus Nicolaus succedere in vitium defuncti magistri Duncani. Et ideo de iure literas ad desistendum contra ipsum Nicolaum a possessione dicti officii dandas sibi allegat dictus Andreas, arg. nota<tur> in cap. Cum V., de iudiciis, extra476, et in ca. Sepe, de rest. spo., ibidem475.
475Commentaries on X 2.1.11 [to the point].
476Commentaries on X 2.13.18 [to the point].

474. Nota quomodo vitium spolii purgatur, ut succedens in vitium alterius dici quis non possit.
<CONTINUED> Ex adverso allegat Nicolaus quod ipse non succedit in vitium defuncti nec in vitiosam illius possessionem, eo quod dictus magister Duncanus paruit decreto et destitit longe ante mortem suam a dicti officii possessione, et ad eundem prefatum Andream restituit, et super hec autentica acta curie burgi de Perth produxit. Et sic dixit Nicolaus vitium spolii per ipsum magistrum Duncanum olim commissi fuisse purgatum. Quare dici non potest quod ipse Nicolaus succedebat in vitium dicti magistri Duncani, cum tempore decessus sui non possiderat dictum officium, et ideo literas non esse dandas contra ipsum dictum Nicolaum tanquam successorem in vitium defuncti, vitio videlicet (ut predicitur) purgato, ut not. Pan. in cap. Sepe477preallegato.

Replicavit Andreas: si viveret Duncanus et de possessione dicti officii ipsum Andream eiiceret, contra ipsum Duncanum literas super prefato decreto ad desistendum dari debere. Itaque, cum tamen dictum officium obtinuerat dictus Nicolaus tanquam vacans per mortem ipsius Duncani, <et> sic in possessionem dicti officii irrupsit et de eadem ipsum Andream eiicerit, videtur in ius et locum ipsius Duncani succedere, ac etiam in illius vitium spolii per dictum magistrum Duncanum antea commissi. Et ideo contra ipsum Nicolaum tanquam succedentem in vitium dicti Duncani literas dandas esse, argumento jurium predictorum et ca. <...> quum ibi no<tatis>, extra de alie. iudic.478. Alioquin decreta essent frustratoria, si spoliator secundus succedens in ius primi spoliatoris non possit virtute primi decreti coarceri. Et nullus successor resignaret vel dimitteret spoliatoris officia vel beneficia, et novus spoliator de possessione spoliatum contra decretum restitutionis deiiciat. Et sic spoliatus gaudere possessione numquam possit, sed semper cogeretur de novo agere ad restitutionem contra quemlibet, et sic sumptibus et expensis propria vexare contra omnem rationem.

Breviter domini Consilii decreverunt literas non esse dandas contra dictum Nicolaum tanquam succedentem in vitium dicti Duncani utpote longe ante mortem ipsius purgatum (ut predicitur), per Pan. in prealle. ca. Sepe479. Bene tamen fatebantur domini dictum Nicolaum teneri actione spolii et spoliasse ipsum Andream sua possessione. Et si dictus Duncanus in possessione dicti officii violenter per ipsum occupati (et contra decretum manutenens eum) decessisset et dictus Nicolaus (sive cum titulo sive sine titulo) possessionem officii occupasset, vitiosam Duncani possessionem continuando, censeretur ipse Nicolaus in vitium dicti defuncti succedere, et quod eo casu in ipsum Nicolaum tanquam succedentem in vitium defuncti litere ad desistendum dari deberent, et conveniretur eisdem literis quibus ipse magister Duncanus (si viveret) esset conveniendus. Et quomodo <quis> in vitium alterius succedere dicatur, <vide> Pan.480 ut supra.
477Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.13.18 [to the point].
478Commentaries on X 1.41.1 [to the point].
479Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 2.13.18 [to the point].
480Again Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) as before.

475. Quhat actioun and quhen hes the quene for the proffeit of ane air of waird landis, mariand but hir leve.
<CONTINUED FROM NR. 472> Et sic absolverunt ipsum N. (in tertia practica precedente nominatum) prout libellatur. Et sic necesse est in hoc casu petenti valorem maretagii heredis of waird landis to libell: the air mareit but leif of the superiour and als interit to the landis and thairin succedand to the man be quhais deceis the mariage and waird of the air become in the superiouris handis.

476. Off the pane of airis of waird landis mareand but consent of thair superiour.
<CONTINUED> Et nota de practica Scotie: and the landis be haldin waird and the air be requyrit be the superiour to marie ane competente pairtie, and marie ane uther contrair the superiouris requisitioun and will, the superiour sall haiff the doubill awaill of his mareage. And he marie unrequyrit, the superiour sall haiff the simpill awaill thairof.

477. Blanche landis makis na rycht of the airis mariage to the superiour.
<CONTINUED> Et nota that for blanche landis na superiour hes rycht to the mariage of his heretabill tenentis. And how the rycht of thir mariages come first up, vide <infra>481.
481Reference to the piece nr. 503, middle.

478. Quod officium executoris non transit in executorem ipsius, sed coexecutori defuncti omnino arrestatum.
Decimoquarto die mensis eiusdem <mar. 1549>: Dominus Stephanus Culros, unius executorum quondam Henrici Quhyt, vocavit quendam Joannem Balwaird pro vc libris monete Scotie, in manibus ipsius Joannis depositis per quendam magistrum Alanum Balwaird, alterum executorum dicti magistri Henrici, de pecuniis ipsius Henrici per executores suos disponendis, quodquidem depositum factum fuit de consensu ipsius actoris coexecutoris defuncti. Reus excepit quod non tenetur illi respondere: nec actori ad pecuniam illam competit actio, nisi concurrentibus etiam executoribus (saltem pro dimidia dicte summe) ipsius principalis deponentis, quia pecunia fuit per utrosque deposita, aut saltem unanimo consensu. Item quod actio hec rerum mobilium primo loco spectat executoribus (saltem pro dimidia dicte summe). Respondit actor quod ex equo summa deposita erat de bonis quondam Henrici, et per ipsos Stephanum et Alanum tanquam executores deposita. Et cum de iure (altero executorum absente, mortuo vel recusante) ex equo officium illud alter solus executor exequi possit, nec transeat de iure officium hoc in executorem executoris, ut per tex. et scrib. in cap. ul., de test. in 6.482, ideo actio ad illam pecuniam soli sibi actori competit. Et ita domini Consilii repulerunt exceptionem rei, <et> ad respondendum alterius libello eum compulerunt.
4826. 3.40.2 [to the point] and writers on it.

479. Off decreit arbitrall of mony arbitouris chosin simpliciter gevin nocht be thame all present nor yit callit to the geving thairof.
Eodem die (vel eocirca) <14 mar. 1549>: Dominus de Rosling petiit literas quatuor formarum regine super quodam decreto arbitrali inter ipsum et Joannem Sommerwell de Cambus<ken>nethane lato. Excepit reus quod dari non deberent, quia cum esset compromissum in quinque arbitros simpliciter per ipsos, de iure videtur <in> omnes esse compromissum ut omnes debeant decernere et sententiare, sic quod sententia lata uno amisso non valeat: l. Si in tres, ff. de arbitris483. Quo (cum decretum illud latum nec subscriptum fuit per magistrum Jacobum Somerwell rectorem de Libertoun unum arbitrorum) sequitur quod est nullum, utpote contra tenorem compromissi latum, et sic non mandandum executioni. Replicat actor quod ipse rector saltem intererat disputationi cause cum reliquis arbitris quatuor. Sic sententia per alios lata valere deberet saltem de iure canonico, cap. 2, de ar. in 6.484, requirens ad validitatem per arbitros plures sic electos (uno eorum absente in decreti probatione) quod ille ab aliis ad examinandum et definiendum requisitus fuerit. Quare (cum <in> examinatione rei cum aliis interfuerit) non erat ad sententiam requirendus.
483D. [to the point].
4846. 1.22.2 [to the point].

480. Decreit arbitrall gevin be four of fyve arbitouris chosen, the first beand present or (callit thairto be the rest) contumaciter absente, is of awaill.
Sed sentencia sine eo per reliquos lata deberet valere, secundum decisionem legistarum in dicta l. Si in tres486 et in l. Duo ex tribus, ff. de re iudi.485, ubi notatur quod sufficit quod omnes interfuerant disputationi cause, licet unus a sententia abfuerit. De quo vide Spec.487. Duplicavit reus: Non obstante quod ille rector requisitus vel etiam presens fuisset cum aliis in examinatione cause (vel requisitus et contumax ad illum actum), adhuc ad sententiam requirendus erat, per dictum cap. fi., in certa glo. 'libere'488, quia <sic> ibi tenent Fran. et Dom489. Et Pan. idem videtur tenere in cap. 1o, ex. de illo tit.490, post Bar. in l. Duo ex tribus491 preallegata. Tamem actor attulit se probaturum presentiam illius Jacobi rectoris tempore quo reliqui quatuor decreverunt. Quare dixit (eius contradictione non obstante) decretum per reliquos quatuor latum valere debere de iure. Et illam presentiam probationi ipsius dederunt domini Consilii. Et sit notum quod, cum electi sunt plures arbitri simpliciter (non adiecta clausula quod valeat decretum maioris partis), valebat tamen tale decretum dum omnes arbitri probationi decreti presentes fuerint, licet maior pars tantum decreverunt.
485D. [to the point].
486D. 42.1.39 [to the point].
487Guilielmus Durantis, "Speculum iudiciale".
488Iohannes Andreae, gloss "Libere" on 6. 1.22.2 (? or garbled).
489Commentaries by Franciscus (de ...) and Dominicus (de Sancto Geminiano?) on 6. 1.22.2.
490Commentary by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) on X 1.22.1.
491Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato on D. 42.1.39.

481. Off probatioun be witnes of the presens of the arbitraris.
Vigesimo maii anno 1549: In eadem causa the lordis be interlocutour decernit the 5 arbitouris presens (tempore disputationis sententie ferende) probari posse per testes, licet Jacobus McGill procurator Somerwell diceret hoc casu scripturam requiri, prout ad probationem compromissi et decreti arbitralis.

482. Minor annis non censetur legitime citatus cum solus ipse et non etiam eius tutor vel curator (si quem habet) citatur.
The 24 mensis martii anno 1548 <= 1549> : In causa regine contra quatuor aut quinque Carrutheris super retractatione carte tailyie illis concesse per ipsam, omnibus illis in carta citatis, duo eorum erant minores annis, viz. nondum viginti uno annorum, citati simpliciter et non cum tutoribus seu curatoribus (si quos habebant), ut moris est de practica Scotie. Quare Mr David Borthuik eorum procurator dixit eos non legitime citatos et ideo contra eos procedi non posse. Respondebat advocatus regine quod de iure satis erat minores, dummodo maiores in similibus essent, citari solos in prima instantia sive citatione, et quod sic citati intelligebantur citati ut legitime compareant, viz. cum suis tutoribus vel curatoribus, secundum Bart. in l. Sufficit, ff. de admi. tut.492et in § Si pupillus in l. Qui habet, ff. de tutela, ubi apostille ad ipsum493, ita quod processus bene agitari poterat per tales minores solos. Et validitas ipsius erat in pendenti: quod si sententia lata fuerit ut <prodesset> eis, valebat: Non eo minus, C. (qui legitur per totum <textum>!), C. de procuratoribus494. Ex adverso dicebatur eos non habere legitiam personam in judicio standi496.
492Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato on D.
493Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato and additions to it, on D.
494C. 2.12.14 [to the point].
495C. 5.34.11. See C. 7.43.6.

483. Quod iudex possit dare minori curatorem vel tutorem ad litem pendentem.
<CONTINUED> Allegatum fuit ex parte regine quod, si placeret dominis judicibus, dare possunt illis tutores vel curatores ad hanc litem495. Breviter domini Consilii interlocuti sunt: omnes bene esse citatos, ut per Bar. ubi supra497. Nec obstabit practica regni de qua solent semper minores cum tutoribus suis vel curatoribus (si quos habent) per publicam proclamationem citari, quia hoc quidem tantum est non-necessarium, et maxime ubi constabat minores non habere tutores nec curatores, prout erat in hoc casu.
496Inst. 1.23.2; C. 5.44.
497Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato on D.

484. That the act of Pinky Cleuch498 hes na place quhair the deidis assedatioun contenis that the landis at certane terme returne frelie agane to the sellar.
The xxix martii anno 1549 (quia 25 die huius mutatur annus): The lady Cars and hir thre dochteris on that ane parte and the auld lady Cars on that uther part wes callit for doubill poynding be certane tenentis of certane terce landis of the auld lady, set in tak to umquhile William Monteith in Cars (the <young> uther ladeis husband) for all the dayis of his lyfe, quha deceissit at Pinky the x of December anno 47. The young lady allegit that the tenentis sould answer hir and hir barnes of the males of thai landis, becaus sen hir husbandis deceis scho and thay wer in possessioun thairof be vertew of the act maid at the feild: that the wyf and barnes of thame that thair deceissit suld bruik all takkis that thair husbandis wer in than, for fyve yeiris thaireftir.

The auld lady allegit: thai landis pertenit to hir in terce, and the tak wes set be hir to the said William with that claus that thai landis at his deceis suld returne frie agane to hir, and scho to haiff thairto full frie regres and ingres siclyk any tak had nevir bene maid. And thairfoir it wes contrair the deidis mynd that scho suld now vant the land. And that speciall provisioun could nocht be tane away be the act followand.

<Replicat the young lady: The act of Pinky Cleuch wes intendit to protect the wyfis and barnes of all men> that happinnit to deceis thair, and sua suld haif effect in that cace. For that act can haiff na effect bot in prejudice of thame that aucht <to get> the landis. And that that claus culd nocht nor sould nocht stope the act, quia etiam non expressis <verbis> tacite inesset huic actui, quia in omnibus assedationibus terre libere revertantur ad dominum assedantem. Ita censetur in partes tacite agi et decursis annis assedationis (ut predicitur). Et de iure expressio eorum qui tacite insunt, nihil operatur. Quod si illa clausula haberet obstare acto, sequeretur actum semper fore frustra, et ex eo uxores et liberos occisorum nunquam consequi posse assedationem quinque annorum secundum tenorem eiusdem.

Omnes domini, me et Roberto Carnegy excepto, decreverunt hanc clausulam obstare acto in hoc casu; et hoc causante voluntate defuncti, quia per expressam illam clausulam videtur voluisse terras reverti ad veteram dominam post mortem suam. Et ideo contra voluntatem ipsius uxorem et liberos non posse pretendere virtute acti novam assedationem quinque annorum, secundum tenorem eiusdem et preceptum dicti acti et dicti Willielmi morte in dicto conflictu de Pinkycleuche.
498Parliament, act ...

485. Off reduceing of chartour tailleis, factae in etate infantuli principis, etate illa adhuc dura ob lesionem conscientie et bonorum.
The 3 aprilis anno 1548: The quenis graice of fyve yeiris of aige or thairby (with consent of James erle of Arrane, hir tutour and governour for the tyme of Scotland), tailleit be chartour the landis of Mousualles, resignit in hir handis (and hir governouris) be Symon Carrutheris laird thairof, to 4 or 5 uther men callit Carrutheris, expressit in the chartour nominibus propriis, and to thair airis male. This Symon that maid this resignatioun (upone the quhilk this chartour tailyie followit) wes ane man weill agit. And had tua dochteris than instantlie. And <had> held thai landis of the quene "vaird and releve". He beand deid within tua yeiris or thairby eftir the tailyie making, the quene beand yit within 7 yeiris of aige and being instantlie <out> of this realme in France, the governour causit (as use is) libellit summondis at hir instance (and his as tutour to hir graice) aganes all the personis nominatim expressit in the chartour tailyie, and callit thame to heir that tailyie reducit and hir to be restorit in integrum aganes the samyn, becaus it wes maid in grit hurt of hir conscience in disheresing of the rychteous eiris of the said Symon, viz. his tua dochteris just airis to him499, and als in greit hurt of hir proffeit, becaus throw making of the said taillie now scho vantis the mariage of the tua femalles airis, quhilk vald haiff gevin hir veray grit proffeit as mariage of ladeis of great heretage, viz. of the landis of Mowsuallis quhilk ar mair nor xvixx merkis land of auld extent500. And sua (this chartour standand of the air of tailyeis mariage, quha is now of perfyte aige), scho can nocht get half501 the proffeit that vald haiff bene gottin of thai laideis of heretage.

The men expremit in the tailyie exceptit contra summonitionem quod, cum regina sit infantilis etatis predicti, nullum habet iudicium adhuc boni et mali, nec scit hanc factam chartam. Et ideo (dato et non concesso quod esset illicita talyia de iure - quod tamen negatur) per hoc factum dici non potest conscientiam regine lesam. Item quod ante nunquam auditum fuerat in Scotia restitutionem in integrum datam fuisse de iure vel practica ullis contra factum quodlibet, conscientiam in hoc <ledere> dictum502. Dicunt ineptum esse libellum et non procedere utpote irrelevantem in illa parte. Item quod lesio pretensa hoc casu non parit ius petendi restitutionem in integrum, eo quod lesio casu fortuito ex post facto contingens non parit hanc actionem, l. Verum sciendum, ff. de mino.503, l. ul., C. de in <integrum> rest.504. Arg. etiam l. Ex fideicommisso, C. de trans. fac.505 ubi in pari causa damni et lucri, et sic in re indifferenti quae equaliter habet se ad lucrum et damnum (et quorum alterum accidere bene potest sicut alterum, licet primo eveniat damnum), non tamen restituitur minor, ea <ratione> quia poterat alter casus contrarius similiter contingere. Quarto: omne argumentum quoad minoritatem cessisset sic ergo in proposito, quia poterat Simon Carrutheres primus resignans et in carta tailyie primo nominatus reliquisse post se filium unius anni - quo casu regina habuisset eius maritagium, vardam et relevium terrarum de Mowsuallis usque ad perfectam eius etatem 21 annorum et sic proficua terrarum per septem annos plus quam feminea herede relicta, quae impleto xiiii anno ad terras illas intrare (utpote tunc etatis ad hoc perfecte) potuisset. Et sic, licet facto et morte prius fuerit interceptus iste Simon et ita devenit iam res ad casum damni regine (nunc per illam chartam tallie seclusae a maritagio illarum duarum feminarum ipsius Simonis), videtur quod hoc (damnum regine fato contingens et ex dubio eventu, et qui tempore date chartae non suberat) restitutionem parere non posset. Item si ex huiusmodi damno (regine superveniente) charte retractande forent et contra huiusmodi infeodationes regina restituenda sequeretur, esset grave inconveniens, viz. quod, comite aliove quocunque resignante totas terras suas in manibus regine ut in ipsis infeoderetur eius filius unius anni, si infeodatio hec fiat et statim postea moritur conitens ipse, dicendum foret chartam hanc eius pueri anniculi retractandam et reginam contra eius donationem sive dationem restituendam tanquam minorem et lesam, quia iam caret maritagio huius pueri, varda et relevio terrarum, quae omnia habuisset si (resignatione non facta) ipse comes in feodo terrarum suarum mortuus fuisset. Que res est intollerabilis in hoc regno, et omnes barones regni valde fraudulenter deciperet. Item hic non apparet ulla enormis lesio regine carentis maritagii duarum filiarum: Nam habebit quasi tantum de maritagio heredis masculi. Item quod regina revocationem tantum habet talyiarum tempore sue perfecte etatis, ut patet in revocationibus generalibus Jacobi tertii, 4 et 5 in actis parliamentarum. Et hac <ratione> nec ipsa nec tutor eius gubernator revocationem facit nec facere potest.

Responsum fuit ex parte regine: conscientiam lesam, dando hanc talliam in exheredatione duarum filiarum. Et cum ex donatione presentis carte iniuria hec fiat filiabus, sequitur conscientie lesio. Item licet ipsa hec nondum intelligat, satis est hoc per gubernatorem et tutorem suum intelligi, qui in persona eius omnia facit. Cui cum potestas sit agendi omnia quae patrimoniale commodum regine concernunt, fortius concedi ei debet facere quod conscientiam ei (<idest> regine) relevare possit. Et quod scientia et factum tutoris hic fingentur scientia et factum ipsius regine adhuc, etiam si in incunabulis jaceret. Et quod (infantili etate non obstante) concedi regine debeat hec restitutio - alioquin contingere posset quod numquam revocaretur hec tallia, ut puta si regina iam, quod deus avertat, moriatur: Quo casu ex capite lese conscientie per donationem huius charte ipsa non possit revocari per regem (forte minoris etatis) ei succedentem - ipse enim non posset <dicere> illius donatione suam conscientiam lesam, nec regine qui tempore dationis carte ignorabat <dationem> factam per suam tutorem. Ergo semper irrevocabilis staret hec carta, in grave preiudicium filiarum. Quod cum foret, inconveniens sequeretur iuris fictione: iam lesa ex hac infantula conscientia regine. Et ultra: si perfecta etas regine, viz. 25 annorum, exspectanda foret in hoc casu, sequeretur sepe illud forte inconveniens idem, si interim ipsa moreretur adhuc. Si restitutio in integrum datur minori infra minorem etatem adhuc existenti (ut passim iura canunt), ergo, cum hec revocatio regibus Scotie concessa et solita fieri ad etatem ipsorum perfectam sit loco restitutionis in integrum, debet et hec regine etiam minori adhuc permitti.

Sed pars reorum hec negabat: Id esse revocationem regiam de iure consuetudinario regni Scotie regibus permissa, et restitutionem in integrum de iure communi concessam minoribus lesis. Nam revocatio hec fit sine cause cognitione solo motu proprio principis. Restitutio autem in integrum data minoribus lesis non datur nisi causa cognita: minoritate et dura lesitatione probata, vocatis omnibus quorum interest. Et sic rei dicebant non valere argumentum a restitutione in integrum ad revocationem regibus concessam, nec hanc loco ipsius succedere, imo regem posse uti communi restitutione in integrum perinde ac alius quivis si in sua minoritate lesus fuerit. Et sic ante perfectam etatem regine dicebant revocationem fieri non posse - de qua hic nullum omnino verbum in libello. Sed revertatur ad defensiones regine de cuius conscientie lesione hactenus.

Quoad lesionem ipsius in rebus et bonis per hanc talliam dicebant advocati <regine> quod ubi damnum emergens post factum habet causam in facto precedente et eo sequitur necessarie, tunc bene ob lesionem fato contingentem competere in integrum restitutionem: Sciendum, in fine506, maxime ut ibi dicit textus "quia prospicere debuit minor hoc damnum posse evenire et quod non prospexit"507. Et sic non fecit hec regina quod bonus et providus vir fecisset, ut quod non prospexit in donatione tallie ipsum Simonem gravem annis previori posse filiabus, quo casu magnum ad ipsum commodum (ut predicitur) posse evenire. Ideo lesa iam apparet. Item quia tempore donationis tallie habebat saltem aut magnam spem, aut exspectationem eiusdem commodi predicti habere debebat ipsa de maritagio filiarum illarum (ut predictum est), et per donationem tallie est hac spe privata. Ideo pretextu illius spei poterat ipsa de iure (etiam vivente adhuc ipso Simone) petere restitutionem in integrum contra donationem huius charte: arg. l. Si quid minori, ff. de mino.508, l. Cum archin Doran., in C.509, l. Cum hii § finali, in certa glo. et dict. ibi ff. de transactio.510, ubi omnes doctores tenent quod minor, habens certam spem commodi, si <pro minori> commodo omittat eandem vel contrahat, sit ut illa <spes> iam esset - videlicet: Satis est lesus ipse ut statim restitui se petere possit, etiam priusquam spes illa deveniat ad rem. Ergo fit in proposito: Cum regina per talliam hanc spem maritagiorum filiarum omiserat et ea privetur, satis lesa videtur ut ratione minoretatis se <restitui> in integrum petere possit.

Breviter511 domini Consilii interloquendo in hac causa (contraversa inter dominos): Et decretum est voto domini presidis episcopi Cathenensis secundum reginam: Exceptiones omnes eorum repellendas fore et libellum restitutionis in integrum adversus illam cartam talyie esse satis validum. Et sic admiserunt domini senatores <libellum> probationi regine, ex eo quod regina per damnum eundem lesa apparebat in conscientia sua, utpote concussa in exheredatione illarum duarum filiarum ipsius Simonis512, et lesa etiam in bonis quia per chartam illam privata videbatur maritagio illarum feminarum ut supra.
Ego tamen fui in contraria opinione, viz. nec conscientiam regine in hoc casu lesam, cum <in> infantem ipsam (insciam boni et mali) scientia <tutoris> non cadit. Nec conscientia lesa, quod requirit iudicium et discretionem rerum quae etas illa non habet, et quum ratione conscientie lese non competat de iure communi nec municipali Scotie in integrum restitutio, sed revocatio regine in perfecta sua etate 25 annorum de consuetudine Scotie tantum, ut predicitur de regibus et revocationibus Jacobi 3, 4 et 5. Ita nec restitutio in integrum ratione lesionis et minoris etatis, eo quod hec lesio contigit fato per datam cartam et quod eventus erat dubius. Poterat ita bene evenire commodum sicut <in>commodum. Eoque magis quod tallia non est omnino iure nostro illicita, immo permissa, et pluriesquam per reges in eorum perfecta etate ratificata pro perpetuo.
499First point, supervening children: See Decretum Gratiani, Causa 17 quaestio 4 c.43 = a passage by St. Augustine, interpreted by canon law doctrine as follows: If a childless person has donated a substantial gift to someone, and unexpectedly that donor gets children, the donee is bound by divine law to restore the gift. If he does not, this is a scandalous sin. Also based on C. 8.55(56).8.
500Second point, "in integrum restitutio minorum": Legal acts done by a minor can be set back by the competent court if they prove disadvantageous for the minor - even if that minor's tutor or curator had consented: see C. 2.28.2.
501Third point, doctrine of "laesio enormis": Even a person who is not a minor can get "in integrum restitutio", according to a doctrine held by a majority of canon law writers and as well by a minority among the writers on Roman law, against any contract whose consideration's value is below half of the value of what the person gave away. Based (among other) on C. 4.44.2.
502Thus: they bluntly denied that canon law's doctrine, according to which judges are held by binding divine law to stop scandalous public sinning, is part of Scots secular law. Our collector favoured this strict division between morals and law. The majority of judges, in contrast, held that even secular courts in Scotland are bound by precepts of "ius divinum".
503D. ss. [to the point].
504C. 2.21.9 [to the point].
505C. 2.4.11 [to the point].
506D. ss. [to the point].
507Not in the text itself. From some commentary?
508D. [to the point].
509garbled: C. ...(6.43.1?)
510D. [to the point] with gloss by Franciscus Accursius and sayings by commentators.
511Garbled order of words, probably due to wrong copying of interlinear corrections.
512The Court thus sided with the canon law doctrine, quoted above.

486. Sententia retractativa carte talliate de Musuallis.
<CONTINUED> Tamen domini Consilii diffinitive sententiaverunt die 19 mensis maii anno 1549 dictam chartam tallie retractandam, cassandam et annullandam, prout per se in sententia diffinitiva eandem annullaverunt tamquam factam in lesionem conscientie regine et sui patrimonii corone, viz. maritagii illarum duarum filiarum heredum predictarum.

487. Minor citatus sine tutore vel curatore, an legitime citatus sit et placitare cogatur et an valeat processus cum eo habitus.
The 24 maii anno 1549: The provest, Counsall and communitie of Carrell callit umquhile James Leirmonth of Balcomeis wyf and tua sonis minoris annis, viz. aduluscentulos, for stopping of thame in gadering of bait within the see fluid merk forgaine the landis of Balcomie. Exceptum fuit ex parte aduluscentulorum quod respondere non tenebantur, eo quod erant minores annis (ut supra), habentes curatores A.B. iudicialiter per eos expressos et non citatos. Replicatum ex parte altera fuit quod de iure citatio solius minoris facta in primo termino valeat absque eo quod simul citetur tutor vel curator, secundum Bar. in l.i. § Sufficit, ff. de adminis. tuto.513, in l. Qui habet, § Si pupillus, ff. de tuto.514. Item quia processus habitus cum minore sine tutoris vel curatoris auctoritate non est ipso iure nullus, imo eius validitas pendet a futuro eventu, quia si sententia feretur pro minore, valet ipso iure. Si contra, non valeat, ut no. in l. Non eo minus, C. de procu.516.
513Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato on D.
51426.1.3.2 [to the point].
515C. 2.12.14 [to the point]..

488. Sententia contra minores indefensos lata ipso iure nulla.
<CONTINUED> Et sic interlocuti sunt domini: Procedendum fore et dictos aduluscentulos hoc casu respondere cogere, prout etiam tunc tulerunt diffinitivam sententiam contra eosdem. Sed ego dixi hanc sententiam fore nullam, eo quod lata sit contra minores indefensos, l. Si preses, C. quomodo et quando iudex515, maxime in hoc casu ubi expresse habebant isti minores curatores.
516C. 7.43.6 [to the point].

489. Practica incerta (et contraria sibi) de minoribus citandis.
<CONTINUED> Et in hoc casu simili allegabat Mr Jacobus McGill dudum practicatum fuisse in causa Margarete Auchmutie contra Jacobum Gib, ubi domini reiicerunt libellum ipsius Margarete et reum absolverunt ut libellatur, ex eo quod ipse minor annis, habens curatorem, sine eo erat citatus. Et in hoc practica nostra erat varia.

490. The lordis ar judges competent to clerkis incace of poinding or arreistment upone cursing.
The 23 maii <1549>: Dominus Willielmus Boswell callit the parsoun of Sanquhar to heir letter gevin to poind his guidis for 4xx libras, arreistit in his handis lang syn, than awin to him to him be predicessouris of the said parsonage, quha thairfoir wes cursit at the said schir William' instance. And upone the cursing schir William gat letter to arreist the soume in manibus rectoris moder in quhome he callis. And allegit that, as upone the said cursing of 40 dayis he mycht haiff had letters of apprysing of the auld parsones guidis, sua suld he haiff aganes this parsone, nochtwithstanding that this parsone exceptit that the lordis wer na competent judges to him, he being ane kirkman. The lordis in hoc casu decernit thaim selffis iudices competentes contra dictum rectorem, becaus this proces cumis consecutive to the lordis letters of arreistment past of befoir upon cursing, upone the quhilk elapsis 40 diebus secundum actum parliamenti517. Upone cursit folkis the lordis ar in use to gif letters to poind etiam clericorum bona. Sed ego dixi contrarium.
517Statute ...

491. Probare debens, ad hoc in primo termino probatorio cum continuatione dierum non cogitur, nec contra admittitur protestatio adversarii.
Sexto aprilis anno 1549: The lordis be interlocutour decernit the lord Setoun nocht oblist to preve novationem obligationis per eum factum Oliverio Sinclair propter518deliberationem eiusdem Angli (borrowed(?) be the said lord fra the said Oliveir sub certa pena pecunie) primo <die> acti continuationis et termini peremptorii dicto domino assignati ad probandum suam exceptionem novationis preallegate. Et ideo recusarunt admittere protestationem Oliverii in primo die dicte continuationis quod <the lord Setoun> cederet dicto domino <Oliverio> pro termino, eo quod <Setoun> tunc non probabat, sicut in simili dicimus quod primo die summonitionis cogitur actor agere et prosequi, nec reus invitus respondere. Sed ego contrarium dixi in actis continuationis. Et quod protestatio actoris contra reum presentem et non probantem in primo die termini ad probandum esset admittenda, attento quod <de> probatione habenda ipse dominus nullam diligentiam fecerat. Ita vidi sepius ante observatum in iudicio nostro. Et ideo domini super diligentia domini Setoun in hac causa receperunt eius iuramentum. Quo prestito de eadem, protestationem Oliverii primo die termini ad probandum non admiserunt, attento quod dictus terminus erat assignatus cum continuatione dierum - quia clausula alias esset frustratoria, ut ipsi dixerunt.
518MS: penes.

492. Quod pena ob non-deliberationem presonarii peti possit, nec reus prestando interesse liberetur, licet regulariter secus sit519.
The 22 martii anno 1548 <= 1549>: In causa Georgii Home de Broxmouth contra Joannem Hepburne de Kirklandhill, dominum de Weddell et alios dominos propter520 ivc libras monete Scotie sibi promissas per illos (pro portionibus virilibus), casu quo infra certum tempus non rediliberarent dicto Georgio quendam Anglicum presonarium ipsius Georgii, in qua re ipsi defecerunt. Et exceperunt quod dicta summa posita et deliberata erat nomine penae adiecta, et de practica Scotie pene non praistantur nisi quatenus interest, et ipsi offerebant interesse actoris in hoc casu, et eius liquidationem petierunt ab eo. Ipse contra in hoc casu penam simpliciter petebat. Interlocuti sunt domini in re presenti propter521 rediliberationem Anglici promissam sub pena, hanc penam precise peti posse - in odium Anglorum <et> in favorem reipublicae. Nec actorem cogendum accipere interesse, cuius in casu difficillima foret probatio ipsi actori. Et ita diffinitive condamnaverunt reos in dicta pecunia, licet regulariter extra hunc casum de practica regni pene conventionales non possunt exigi nisi quatenus interest actoris, quia sapiunt quendam usuram et inhonestum questum - quidem de iure canonico522: vide in cap. Per tuam, extra. de penis523 et in cap. Quod metus causa, extra524.
519Parallel problem in nrs. 380 (note), 413, 524.
520MS: penes.
521MS: penes.
522See note for nr. 380.
523X 5.37.9 [to the point].
524X 1.40 [not really to this point].

493. Minor annis tenetur respondere upone thair guidschiris retour retreiting.
Eodem die <22 mar. 1549>: The lordis be interlocutour decernit Jonetam Kennetie of Knokdalvy, pupillam 5 annorum aut saltem non 6 annorum, callit at the quenis instance to heir hir guidschiris retour of thai landis foirsaidis retreitit, to answer in this cace, nochtwithstanding that hir procuratour allegit scho suld nocht be compellit placitare vel respondere in judicio in hac causa, cum ipsa sit minor annis et hic agebatur super hereditate ipsius, quia retornato reducto appretiabuntur terre pro firmis et devoriis earundem domine regine quadraginta aut quinquaginta annorum ultime elapsorum ratione varde, relevii et non-introitus earundem, prout patebat dicto retornato reducto, quasquidem summas impossibile erat dicte pupille solvere, et sic super hereditate ipsius pupilli agi videtur, quia ex consueto huius judicii amittat hereditatem. Ratio tamen interlocutoria fuit quia non agitur super hereditate ipsius pupille nec de eadem illi auferendo, sed tantummodo habebit regina retornato reducto ipsam pupillam as air and successour to him debitrice to hir graice of the males, fermis and deweteis of thai landis sen the deceis of hir guidschir. And sua sall scho be oblist to the quene for hir fatheris and guidschiris dettis foirsaidis. Quhilkis beand, the quene can nocht tak the landis fra hir. And of the municipall law of Scotland ane minor aucht nocht to answer pro debitis paternis et pro debitis etiam aliorum predicessorum quibus minor succedit. Et sic non agitur super hereditate minoris. And howbeit quidam subtilis dominus teneret minorem in hoc casu non cogendum respondere, becaus (the said retour beand reducit) scho suld be secludit fra hir heretage throw non-powar of payment of the deweteis foirsaidis and als throw defailt of hir granschiris or foirbearis sasing of thai landis, quhilk it war impossibill for hir to gait.

494. Ane summondis being anis callit and pleyit at the bar and thaireftir tane and syn cassin in agane in 8 dayis thaireftir, that yit the partie aucht nocht to ansuer thairto.
Eodem die <22 mar. 1549>: The maister of Crawfurd callit the erle thairof to produce letters of inhibitioun526 (rasit be him that nane suld contract with the maister nor by fra him ony landis of the said ereldome in defraud of the said erle, quha had the said maister bound to him nocht to annalie), and to heir the saidis letters as defameris of him to be suspendit simpliciter, arg. l. Defamari, C. de ingenuis et manu.525. The erllis procuratour exceptit that he sould nocht be compellit to ansuer quhill he war new summond agane, becaus sex dayis syn the said maister callit his letters and the mater beand disputit at the bar, <the> maister tuik up his summondis agane and sua lost the pley. The maister ansuerit: and nochtwithstanding his allegeance the erlis procuratour suld ansuer but ony summondis, and that his saidis summondis ran. Et ita interlocuti sunt domini.
525Same case in nr. 349.
526C. 7.14.5 [to the point].

495. Excommunicatus agens ad suspensionem literarum contra eum levatarum ab agendo pretextu excommunicationis non repellitur.
<CONTINUED> Ulterius comes obiecit ei exceptionem excommunicationis and thairfoir said he mycht nocht persew. The maister ansuerit quod poterat in hoc casu, excommunicatione non obstante, quia agebat hic defensive tantum in annullationem illarum literarum in preiudicium suum et sui honoris per comitem levatarum, et quod de iure excommunicatus, cum venit ad sui defensionem, ab agendo non repellitur, ut in cap. Exceptionem, extra de excep. ubi Pan. et alii527. Et ita ut absolutionem(?) prosequatur, non repellitur excommunicatus. Cuius appellationis vice de practica succedit petere reductiones literarum et decretorum. Ita nec repelli debet ab huiusmodi reductione petitionis. Et ita interlocuti sunt domini pro parte ipsius magistri.
527Commentaries by Panormitanus abbas (= Nicolaus de Tudeschis) and others on X 2.25.12 [to the point]. Parallel problem in nr. 66, contrasting decision in nr. 379.

496. Spoliatus allegans in libello possessionem cum titulo, ostenso titulo super quo se fundat et suam possessionem, si constat de defectu tituli, ab agendo repellitur.
Eodem die <22 mar. 1549>: Jonet Montgunzie, relict of umquhile N. Hammyltoun sone and apperand air to umquhile A. Hammyltoun of Cammiskaytht, petit se restitui to hir possessioun of the tour and manis of Cammiskaytht, in the quhilk possessioun hir husband diett at Pinkyecleucht. And foundit hir possessioun upone the act of the feild528 and concludit to the restitutioun of hir possessioun be vertew of the said act. Reus allegit that, in respect that thai landis wer now in waird be deceis of the actrix' husband, and be the said act scho suld haiff na rycht nor pretend possessioun thairof, as mycht appeir cleirlie be inspectioun thairof, thairfoir that scho had na actioun to persew.

The lordis decretit the samyn as it wes libellit, virtute illius acti et restitutionis petite. Et absolverunt reum ut libellatur respectu possessionis, libellate virtute eiusdem <acti> predicti, quod actum nullum dabat possessionis titulum dicti actrici - nochtwithstanding quidam subtilis <dominus> contrarium censebat et exceptionem relevantem, quia spoliatus (etiam libellans titulum possessionis sue) ad probationem tituli non cogitur et de eodem non docens nihilominus restitui debet, ut notatur in c. extra de resti. spoliatorum529, quia ad restitutionem possessionis consequendam satis est spoliato libellare possessionem et violentam eiectionem et probare suam possessionem, ca. Consultationibus, extra de officio del<egat>i530, et quod superflua foret adiectio tituli in libello et ideo defectus illius non debuerit cast the actrices summondis. The rest of the lordis ansuerit that that had bene trew <if scho had genera>lie and nocht specialie concludit super restitutione possessionis sibi fiende virtute acti, et <habitae> per ipsam gaudentem per quinque annos secundum dictum actum. And sua said thai: Nisi spoliatus doceat de possessione sua qualificata, ab agendo debet repelli, quamvis qualitate possessionis non adiecta bene processisset eius libellus. Sed ille singularis dominus premissa non obstare dicebat, quia inutilis erat adiectio tituli, et ideo ad illius ostensionem et probationem actrix spoliata compelli non debuerat, et quod procedebat bene libellus. Restituendam fore illae possessionem secundum theoricam iuris: "Quatenus probaverit quis, eatenus obtinet"531. And sua, scho nocht prevand qualitatem et titulum possessionis libellate, pro ea tamen sententia stare debet super restitutione possessionis, probata prius per ipsam possessione et violentia eiectione.
528Statute ...
529Commentaries to X 2.13 [to the point].
530X 1.29.10.
531Commentaries to X 2.13 [to the point].

497. Act of Pinkycleuch532 hes na place quhair the deid promeist to leve frelie the tak and possessioun at the eschew thairof.
Decimo septimo maii anno 1549: In causa rectoris de Glasqw contra suos parochianos comperit for thair intres Johne Cwnynghame and the remanent of the barnes of umquhile William Cwnynghame of Glengarnocht and for thair intres said the tenentis and parochnaris suld ansuer of the teindis to thame becaus thair father the tyme of his deceis at Pinkycleuche wes in possessioun as takisman of the teindschevis, and (be vertew of the act maid thair) thai aucht to bruik for fyve yeiris the saidis teind schevis. The parsone allegit that thai suld nocht, becaus it wes convenit betuix him and thair father that he frelie suld leve at the ischew of his tak, the said parsonag to be thaireftir frelie disponit on be him at his plesour, as533 the said William father had nevir had takis thairof - quhais takis wes bot of thre yeiris and the ischew thairof wes at Lambes in anno 1547. And als allegit in pari causa iudicatum fuisse in causa moderne junioris domine de Kers etc., relicte quondam Willielmi Monteathe de Vest Kers qui obiit in dicto conflictu de Pinkyecleuch534. Et allegabat insuper rector quod dispositio et conventus inter ipsas partes, et sic dispositio hominis tolleret dispositionem legis. Et iam eam impedire deberet, quia liberi ipsius Willielmi Cwnynghame in hoc casu juvare se non poterunt per actum predictum, alioquin fieret expresse contra mentem et voluntatem ipsius defuncti, quod esset inconveniens. Ad hec pars liberorum respondet: imo verisimiliter defunctum hec voluisse si ante mortem fuisset interrogatus, et ita presumendus in favorem liberorum suorum.
532Statute ...
533In the sense of "siclyk".
534Reported in nr. 484.

498. Dispositio hominis facit cessare dispositionem legis.
<CONTINUED> Item quod "dispositio hominis facit cessare dispositionem legis": Hoc verum <in casu> legis precedentis, sed non sequentis et precipue continentis <dispositionem quae interest> reipublicae, ut hoc actum existet. Sed domini interloquendo respectu allegationis facte per rectorem repulerunt allegationem Joannis reliquorumque liberorum ipsius Villielmi. Et quod dictum est de hominis et legis dispositione, vide latius ut intelligatur per scribentes in lege, etc.535
535Commentaries on Corpus Iuris Civilis (in particular: D. ?)

499. Summondis, anis cassin for ineptitude, maid new hes the samyn prevelege and ordour that the first mycht haiff had.
The 25 maii anno 1549: The lordis be interlocutour decernit summondis of recent of spuilyie newlie rasit, et secunda vice lang eftir the spuilyie allegit, viz. 40 dayes or thairby eftir that the first summondis thairof (debito tempore rasit) wer cassin propter libelli ineptitudinem, to cum in by ordour and prevelege of recent spuilyie as the first summondis suld. Quia de practica it is <grantit> that summondis being cassin ob ineptitudinem or sic ane small falt, <quhair> the pairtie aucht to haiff callit new agane, <obtain> the first prevelege of the persewing.

500. Actio spolii unius executoris contra coexecutorem super rebus defuncti.
And in the said caus Margaret callit James for spuilyeing fra hir of certane guidis. He exceptit he did na spuilyie, becaus the guidis allegit spuilyeit pertenit to N. husband to the said Margaret die sui decessus apud Pinkiecleucht, die decimo septembris anno 1547, and than wer in his possessioun and he that day maid him and hir executouris to him. And on the morne, viz. the xi day of the allegit spuilyie, he as the ane executour com and intromettit with the deidis guidis, quhilk wes lesum to him continuand for his parte the deidis possessioun, quia continuatur in executores. Margaret ansuerit: he mycht nather tak nor reiff fra hir illo iure, eo magis that the half of all the geir pertenit to hir eodem iure, and said his exceptioun in respect of his summondis wes nocht relevant, et quod non continuatur possessio ut supra dicitur, nec potest executor ante testamenti confirmationem intromittere cum bonis defuncti et nullo minus ex coexecutori auferre vi, et quod ad spolii restitutionem petendam satis est spoliato probare possessionem et violentam eiectionem. Nec auditur reus de proprietate excipiens. The lordis be interlocutor repellit the exceptioun of the said James, rationibus quibus supra.

501. Executio in bonis debitoris mei debitoris non facienda nisi bonorum mobilium prius facta. Per creditorem meum non faciem <quod ipse non possum>.
Eodem die <25 maii 1549>: In causa domini Willielmi Bothuell vicarii de Stratoun contra magistrum Robert Creychtoun rectorem de Sanquhair, the said schir William had umquhill schir Mathow Creichtoun last parsone thairof actit to him and cursit 40 dayis and mair for iiixx libras, and gart arreist in the said Mr Robertis handis the said sowme quhilk the said Mr Robert wes actit siclyk for to the said Mathow and certane termes to rin. Now dictus Willielmus Bothuell callit the said Mr Robert to heir letters gevin to poynd his guidis for that sowme arreistit lang syne in his hand, allegeand the said Mathow had na uther guidis. Mr Robert allegit and exceptit that sic letters suld nocht be gevin, quia agitur hic de executione sententie, que executio debet fieri in bonis mobilibus, quibus deficientibus in immobilibus, quibus etiam deficientibus in nominibus debitoris ipsius principalis debitoris, l. Admo. pro., C. in venditione536. Igitur dominus Willielmus nunc indebite petit executionem in nomine debitoris et contra magistrum Robertum debitorem tantum ipsius Mathei, juris ordine spreto. Et ita interlocuti sunt domini, et absolverunt reum a petitione actoris prout libellatur, quia non libellaverat discussionem bonorum ipsius Mathei factam, ut supra dictum est.
536C. ... (garbled). C. 8.29.1 states this point and comes close: "Praetor provinciae, C. si vendito".

502. Off prelatis letters by the ordour of dyet or tabill upone thair dettoris be ane simpill charge ad solvendum tertio die vel ad comparendum et allegandum causam quia <non credunt se obligatos ad solvendum>, cum intimatione.
Eodem die <25 maii 1549>: In causa commendatarii de Halyrudhous contra magistrum de Haillis, magistrum Joannem Monypenny et alios suos tenentes, the lordis decernit the saidis commendataris letters, chargeand the saidis personis to mak payment of certane sowmes awand to him within 3 dayes nixt eftir the charge, or ellis to comperit <?> and allege ane ressonabil caus quhy etc., with certificatioun. And thai failyeit letters suld be direct upone simplie, to be iustlie gevin, and the ordour of thame to be guid hac vice, quia hoc nempe <?> in re de alimentis ipsius et conventus et de subita solutione magnarum taxarum Collegii Iusticie et reipublicae regni, quae res dilationem non patiebantur commode, and repellit thair procuratouris exceptioun contra ordinem dictarum literarum, viz. that the saidis letters sould haiff bene dewlie tabulat in the tabill and utherwyis suld nocht cum in ratione interlocutorii. Fuit necessitas parendi predicta, et de novo emergentia <nova> remedia indigent537.
537Words from Corpus Iuris Civilis, also taken up in papal decretals.

503. The king hes the waird and mariage of all airis of waird landis haldin of his graice, et quo iure.
The 28 maii anno 1549, in causa domini de Dunnun contra Robertum Stewart in Dunfermeling casus erat talis: Umquhile Archibald Ramsay of Dunnun, fader to Johne Ramsay now laird thairof and persewar in this caus, set in anno xxviii his land of Castelland for 19 yeiris to the said Robert vith clauss of varrandice of the said tak during the said space. Ane yeir thairof beand run, the landis fell in waird in the kingis hand. And thair waird beand disponit to the laird of Rossytht and Ovir Barntoun, the said Robert compromit new agane for tak of the samyn for tyme of the waird, and sua bruikit all the 18 yeiris restand of tak the saidis landis of the vardater foir maillis and deweteis allanerlie contenit in the said Archibaldis tak. The vaird being furth rin, the laird of Dunning sauld the landis fra him selff, the saidis 18 yeiris being bypast or at the leist run for the maist part. The said Robert callit this Johne Ramsay as air to Archibald to varrand to him the said 18 yeirs takis quhilk he mycht nocht bruik becaus of the waird, for the king, incontinent the land being cumit to him in waird be non-entres, at the nixt terme removis all tenentis and keipis na tak set of befoir, and his donatouris hes the samyn privelege, of the practik of Scotland. The caus heirof is: the generall act maid be all the barounis in king James the <.?.> dayis, as is contenit in his act of parliament538, <quhilk> grantit to the king and his successouris the mariages of all thair airis of waird landis and proffeitis thairof during the waird, becaus his predecessouris, quhilk war kingis of this realme, grantit to all the barounis and thair airis all the landis in heretage quhilkis of befoir wer the crownis. And in recompens of that gift of the king the mariages and wairdis wes grantit agane be the haill barounis to his graice support. Thairfoir thair may na barroun set nor dispone ane lang tak in his landis, the quhilk tak he may obleis thairto during the waird or non-entres of his landis, for he hes that jure corone et titulo oneroso utpote in compensationem, ut supra. Videbatur tamen aliquibus senatoribus that, becaus the king in thair caissis succeidis in locum dominorum defunctorum, he suld keip thair takis as thai suld haiff done thairselffis, ut emptor terrarum tenetur stare locationi venditoris, de practica Scotie sed non de jure scripto539, nec potest removere ipsos tenentes de terris durantibus terminis assedationis earundem, ut notatur, licet de iure scripto secus sit nisi hoc expresse conventum fuerit inter venditorem et emptorem, l. Emptorem, C. locati540. Attamen de practica et municipali iure Scotie non scripto et consuetudinario utitur rex jure predicto inconcusse.
Sed ad rem revertatur oratio. - Sua the said Robert wes put fra his tak be the donatour of the said waird.
538Statute ...
539See the series of publications by Eltjo Schrage on the topic that in customary law (in contrast to Roman law) sale did not break lease.
540C. 4.65.9 [to the point].

504. Quhat proces is neidfull to the king to put his hand to vaird land or put the tenent thairfra.
<CONTINUED> Et nota that the king dois but ony calling of tenentis or utheris to heir thai landis decernit in waird, sed ad manus proprias et de facto he puttis his handis to the landis and takkis thame and intromettis and disponis thairupone. Nochttheles first neid is to wairne, lay out and denude ordourlie the tenent and occupyer of the ground.

505. Decrete of non-entres necessar or the king ratione non-introitus put his hand to landis.
<CONTINUED> Bot or the king put his hand to landis ratione non-introitus, he man first get the land decernit be decrete of the lordis of sessioun to be in non-entres.

Sed ad rem revertatur: The donatour vald nocht suffer the said Robert to bruik the land quhill he plesit thame finallie. He did the same. And sua be the donatouris of the wairdis rycht he bruikit the landis, and nocht be vertew of his takis foirsaidis, during the said 18 yeiris. The said Robert in anno 1549 obtenit ane decrete of the lordis, decernand the said Johne Ramsay as air foirsaid to varrand to him the said 18 yeir tak, becaus his father set the samyn and tuik his (said Robertis) gressome thairfoir, als in his assedatioun oblesit him and his airis to varrand the said xix yeir tak to the said Robert. Thaireftir letters of the four formes beand rasit upone that decrete aganis the said Johne, for suspensioun thairof he callit be ane supplicatioun the said Robert to heir the saidis letters (and horning thairinto contenit) suspendit quhill the liquidatioun of the said Robertis dammage and skaytht throw non-varranding of him of his xviii yeir tak, and offerit him to pay the same, it being liquidat, for he mycht nocht set als mony takis eftir the waird becaus he had ellis annaleit the landis of Castelland, quhilkis (gif he had thame in his handis onannaleit) he had bene compellit to suffer the said Robert to bruik for the saidis xviii yeiris tak. Becaus of the practik of Scotland, quhairevir ane man be ressone of waird or non-entres is stoppit to bruik his tak (maid to him of befoir be the laird of the land), the laird is oblist to thoill him to bruik and to keip him alsmony yeiris tak of that land eftir the ischew of the waird or non-entres as wes to rin of the tak quhen the said waird or non-entres began and lestit, as thair wes this day in speciall producit befoir the lordis be Mr James Macgill procuratour for the said Robert ane decrete of the lordis of Counsall gewin in anno etc. betuix the laird and the lady Barnbugall ex una, reos, et quendam Willielmum Mowbray, <actorem>, retefeand, apprevand and confirmand ane rolment of court gevin be the schireff of N. for the said William Mowbray to bruik the 4 oxingang he clamit for alsmony yeiris eftir the outrunning of the waird of thai landis as wes to rin of the saidis Williamis tua yeiris tak, maid to him forrow the said waird be the said lady.

506. Sed ad questionem nostram: Off liquidatioun of the proffeitis of landis to be ay maid expensis et devoriis terre domino principali debitis deductis.
The lordis upone the supplicatioun foirsaid assignit ane terme to the said Robert to liquidat his damnage, skaytht and entres. Quhilk beand maid, viz. be probatioun judiciall of the maillis and deweteis of thai landis payit be the tenentis, for all males and deweteis of the ground (aucht to the laird first and now to the vardar) beand deducit, the lordis decernit be thair decrete the said Johne to pay to the said Robert the samyn of the quanteteis and pryces specialie provin. Now this day, the xxix of maii anno eodem, the said Johne callit Robert to produce the said decrete of varrandice and liquidatioun and to heir the samyn reducit, cassit and annullit diversis de causis: Primo, quia dictum decretum of varrandice wes wranguslie and ewill gevin ex causa non relevante nec sufficiente, viz. becaus the said Archibald wes obleist in his assedatioun to varrand the samyn to Robert and did nocht the samyn, nor the said Robert mycht nocht bruik the landis be that assedatioun and wes put thairfra be ressone of the waird, as the decrete of varrandice buir expres.

507. Casus fortuitus seu aliud impedimentum superveniens post locationem factam, locatori re<rum> an conductori noceat, et in quantum
Quhilk caus the said Johne allegit wes nocht relevant of the law jure Scotorum, that the said impediment of the tak come ex causa subsequenti assedationem casu fortuitu, viz. morte domini superioris terrarum assedatarum, citra moram et culpam ullam ipsius Archibaldi et Joannis. Et de iure conductori, si re conducta uti non potest (quoad remedium contra locatorem dic: si hoc contingat sine culpa locatoris), fit ei tantum remissio mercedis; si autem illius <culpa>, tenetur ei locator ad totale interesse, l. Si quis domum § Hic subiungi541 et l. Si tibi alienam, cum l. sequen., ff. locati542, <omne> periculum casu quovismodo <sustineret, et> non tantummodo ut ipse mercedem remittere teneatur conductori, arg. l. Si merces § Vis maior543 et l. Si quis domum § Hic subiungi544 et l. Ex conducto § 1o, ff. locati545. Videtur <quod> rationi consonum non erat preter remissionem quidquid a locatore petere, nec eum compelli ad varrantizandum, ut supra - prout enim dicitur quod venditor terrarum nec de iure nec de practica regni teneatur varrantizare terras venditas a vardis, releviis et non-introitibus nisi hoc specialiter contractum sit intra contrahentes. Ergo nec in contractu locationis venit in huiusmodi vardam et non-introitum varrantizatio, nisi specialiter in contractu hoc dictum sit et expresse ad hec se obligaverit locator. Quia ad paria regulantur emptio, venditio, conductio et locatio hinc inde eadem rationalitate. Ergo et eadem juris dispositio.

Secundo, dictum decretum erat iniuste latum, decernendo varantizationem ut supra, et similiter decretum liquidationis et condemnationis in interesse ipsius Roberti throw nocht-bruiking of the landis ratione assedationis, quia ipse nihilominus Robertus bruikit the samyn landis all the saidis 18 yeiris, payand to the vardatour alanerlie thairfoir the males and deweteis contenit in the assedatioun, and na mair. And sua sen he <Robert> bruikit the landis the haill space foirsaid for the saidis proffeitis, he <Johne> was wranguslie condamnit to varrand thai yeiris. And that the decrete of liquidatioun wes alsua uniust, decernand intres quhair nane wes, becaus the said Robert payit na mair yeirlie to the vardatour nor he suld haiff payit ho him. And sua he had na skaytht. And that it is wrang to mak to the said Robert for xviii yeiris tuys xviii yeiris and proffeitis alsua dowbill as said is. Et quia hoc casu ipse Robertus locupletabatur cum iactura546 ipsius Joannis, for he gat the proffeitis of 18 yeiris quhairof Johne had na pennyworth for and quhilkis the said Robert bruikit. Alsua thair wes resonis in effect for the reductioun of the decrete with utheris diversis frewell reasonis, quas superfluum foret recensere.
541D. [to the point].
542D. 19.2.7 et 8 [to the point].
543D. [to the point].
544Again D.
545D. [to the point].
546X 5.(13).48; D. 50.17.206. Notes to nrs. 101 and 407.

508. Quod locator tenetur varrantizare suam assedationem fra all waird, etiam si hoc expresse non sit conventum. Et hoc de practica regni, licet de iure contrarium sit.
To the first reasone Mr James McGill ansuerit (procuratour to the said Robert), that this impediment (quhairthrow the said Robert mycht nocht bruik the landis ratione assedationis) come ex causa de preterito et antecedente, viz. be the commoun law and practik of Scotland, be the quhilk the waird pertenis to the crowne, and fra this law na man is exemit. Thairfoir hunc casum varde (<qui> evenire potuisset), providere debuerat ipse et locator, et precavere et sibi in eventum illius providere ut non teneatur. Quod (cum non fecit) imputet sibi. Item that howbeit contra decretum militare videatur comparatio emptionis, venditionis, conductionis et locationis et comparatio inter venditas et locatas terras, attamen huius rationes hic non militant, quia iis non obstantibus de practica regni huius: quhairever the takisman is put fra his tak be waird of the landis happindand within the yeiris of the tak, than (the waird beand endit) the takisman aucht to haiff and bruik alsmony yeiris thaireftir conforme to his tak as the waird tuik fra him. Et ita obtentum fuisse in foro contradictorio dicebat, ut supra relatum. Et illud decretum dominorum Consilii (inter dictas partes de data at Edinburgh the 20 day of N. 1540547) antedictum produxit togeader with the schireffis rolment foirsaid. And becaus (throw the said laird Dunnonis deid that had annaleit the landis) he mycht nocht get xviii yeiris tak eftir the waird outrunning, thairfoir the said Robert on force behowit to call him for varrandice of thai yeiris and syn to cum to the liquidatioun of the males and deweteis et sic ad interesse suum, quia facto locatoris impediebatur uti (conforme to the law and practik of this realme) re locata, l. Si quis domum, ff. loca.548
547Probably the case whose abstract is given in nr. 27.
548D. 19.2.9 pr. [to the point].

509. Res mihi debita per Titium, si aliunde mea fiat, non ideo liberari debitorem, imo teneri adhuc mihi ad precium rei - quod intellige non quanti ego emi sed quanti res valeat communiter: Bar. in dicto § Quod si rem549.
And quhair the said Johen said he aucht nane, quia intres habebat quod petebat and cunctis integris xviii annis he bruikit as said is, the said Robert allegit that he bruikit nocht thai landis be vertew of Archibaldis assedatioun, bot be vertew of ane new rycht and titill, obtenit be him fra the vardaris. And incace he had bene put fra the landis alluterlie, he vald but dout (eftir the practik of Scotland) haiff obtenit the proffeitis foirsaidis. And gif he by his laubouris and industrie hes maid his awin conditioun bettir, he suld nocht be thairthrow of wars conditioun. And that he bruikit thai landis durante varda bot as ane strangear et nullo modo jure assedationis. Thairfoir in respect of the said assedatioun (and actioun that he for nocht-bruiking of the samyn hes of the practik contra locatorem) est perinde ac si omnino fuisset evictus a dictis terris per vardatarios, arg. optimum in l. Plane § Quod si rem, ff. de le. 1o550: Si legata mihi res aliter quam ex testamento fiat mea, non ideo liberatur heres a prestatione estimationis et precii ipsius rei, quia non sum consecutus rem legatam iure testamenti aut facto heredis, sed aliunde. Et sic commodum legatum (mihi ex testamento debitum) mihi adhuc abest. Ita in proposito: Licet Robertus gavisus sit terris assedatis toto tempore octodecim annorum ut supra in assedatione contentis, hoc tamen non contigit sibi jure locatoris et assedationis sue, sed aliunde et jure alieno, puta vardatariorum. Quare commodum assedationis adhuc sibi abest. Ideo ratione assedationis non servatae recte petit.
549Commentary by Bartolus de Saxoferrato on D. 30.(1.)34.7. In the leading manuscript, Edinburgh UL Laing MS. III 488a, the text ends with this heading.
550D. 30.(1.)34.7 [to the point].