Knolle, F., Schröger, E., & Kotz, S. A. (2013). Prediction errors in self- and externally-generated deviants. Biological Psychology, 92(2), 410-416.

Prediction errors in self- and externally-generated deviants

Sounds generated by one's own action elicit attenuated brain responses compared to brain responses to identical sounds that are externally-generated. The present study tested whether the suppression effect indexed by the N1- and P2-components of the event-related potential (ERP) is larger when self-generated sounds are correctly predicted than when they are not. Furthermore, sounds violating a prediction lead to a particular prediction error signal (i.e., N2b, P3a). Thus, we tested whether these error signals increase for self-generated sounds (i.e., enhanced N2b, P3a). We compared ERPs elicited by self- and externally-generated sounds that were of frequent standard and of infrequent deviant pitch. The results confirmed an N1- and P2-suppression effect elicited by self-generated standard sounds. The N1-suppression was smaller in response to self-initiated deviant sounds, indicating the specificity of predictions for self-generated sounds. In addition, an enhancement of N2b and P3a for self-generated deviants revealed the saliency of prediction error signals.


Cognitive and Biological Psychology

University of Leipzig
Faculty of Biosciences, Pharmacy and Psychology
Institute of Psychology
Neumarkt 9-19
D-04109 Leipzig


Dagmar Schrödl
Phone: +49 341 97-39570
Email: dagmar dot schroedl at uni-leipzig dot de

Dorit Thieme
Phone: +49 341 97-39540
Email: d dot thieme at uni-leipzig dot de

Fax: +49 341 97-39271