Human skilled behavior requires preparatory processes that selectively make sensory and motor systems more efficient for perceiving the upcoming stimulus and performing the correct action. I review the literature concerning these preparatory processes as studied by response-cuing paradigm, and propose a model that accounts for the major findings. According to the Grouping Model (Adam, Hommel, & Umilta, 2003), advance or precue information directs a dynamic process of subgroup making—that is, a process of stimulus- and response-set reconfiguration—whereby the internal representation of the task is simplified. The Grouping Model assigns a critical role to the unit of selection, with Gestalt factors and interresponse dependencies mediating the formation and strength of stimulus and response subgroups. Moreover, the Grouping Model assigns a critical role to the mode of selection by distinguishing between fast, automatic subgroup selection and slow, effortful subgroup creation. I present the results of several experiments that manipulated perceptual and motoric grouping factors. Also, I present the results of an fMRI study that investigated the neural activation patterns associated with the rapid visuomotor preparation of discrete finger responses. Our imaging results revealed a large-scale distributed network of neural areas involved in fast visuomotor preparation, including specific areas in the frontal cortex (middle frontal gyrus, premotor and supplementary motor cortex), the parietal cortex (intra-parietal sulcus, inferior and superior parietal lobe) and the basal ganglia.