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Here, we considered situations in which the source of the auditory prediction involves not only the auditory but also another sensory (i.e., the visual) modality. It turned out that auditory predictions can be set up by mere visual information but it must be beneficial for the subject to predict sound from vision. Moreover, as it is easy to construct independent experimental “worlds” from auditory-auditory and visuo-auditory links, we could investigate the interesting cases of how the auditory system handles contradictory and redundant predictions. It turned out that the auditory system maintains and tolerates independently represented predictions even if they are redundant or contradictory (Pieszek et al., 2013, PlosOne).

Another experiment was based on recent research on dyslexia suggesting dysfunctional orthographic-phonemic binding as one cause of the reading impairment. In cooperation with a Finnish team around Mari Tervaniemi and Teija Kujala (Helsinki, Finland), we tested dyslexic children in a paradigm requiring the establishment of visuo-auditory links that are not speech-related. We hypothesized that a more general visuo-auditory deficit of mapping an incoming sound to a sound predicted on the basis of the visual input may be involved (Widmann et al., 2012, Front. Psychol.). Indeed, we were able to show that dyslexic children differed from non-dyslexic children in the particular ERP components and in oscillatory brain responses. This suggests a widespread impairment in predictive visuo-auditory processing and integration in dyslexic children, which contributes to the reading impairment in dyslexia.